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Article
Association of Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms at three SNPs and their Haplotypes with Severe Oligozoospermia Risk in Iraqi Patients

Author: Mustafa F. Khadhim, Ismail A. Abdul-Hassan
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-28
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Infertility in otherwise healthy males be caused by a variety of disorders. These include acquired, as well as heritable conditions. Genetic causes of male infertility are of special interest to reproductive biology, because these disorders can be passed on to the offspring, single nucleotide polymorphisms are considered as one of reason of male infertility Androgens are critical steroid hormones that determine the expression of the male phenotype. Their actions are mediated by a single androgen receptor (AR) which, upon ligand binding, translocate to the nucleus to regulate the expression of androgen-responsive genes. Mutations in androgen receptor gene may lead to a disturbance in the function of the androgen receptor which, in turn, can lead to several forms of infertility. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of rs962458(SNP1), rs6152(SNP2) and rs2361634(SNP3)and test their associations with severe oligozoospermia risk .This study was conducted using 50 severe oligozoospermia patients and 50 apparently healthy subjects (Control). The frequency of GA genotype of SNP2 was significantly (p≤ 0.05) increased in patients versus control (10 and 0%, respectively, OR=0.561, X2=4.329),while the frequency of GG genotype of SNP2 was significantly (p≤ 0.01) decreased in patients versus control(84 and 100%, respectively, OR=0.871, X2=6.524). The results of TAA and TAG haplotypes were not significant. The frequency of TAG/TAG haplotype combination was significantly (p≤ 0.01) decreased in patients versus control(78 and 100%, respectively, OR=1.072, X2=8.35),while TAG/TAA haplotype combination frequency was significantly (p≤ 0.05)increased in patients versus control(14 and 0%,respectively, OR=0.664,X2=4.69). In conclusion, both GA genotype of rs6152A>G and TAG/TAA haplotype combination may be correlated with severe oligozoospermia risk in Iraqi patients.

Keywords

SNP --- Androgen receptor --- PCR --- Infertility.


Article
Immunohistochemical Expression of Androgen Receptor (AR) and its Relationship with Clinicpathological Parameters in Breast Cancer
تعبير المناعة النسيجية الكيميائية لمستقبلات الاندروجين وعلاقته بالمعلمات الاكلينيكية في سرطان الثدي

Author: Wafaa Fadhil Hamad وفاء فاضل حامد
Journal: Al-Nisour Journal for Medical Sciences مجلة النسور للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 26640562 26640554 Year: 2019 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 250-262
Publisher: Al-Nisour University College كلية النسور الجامعة

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Abstract

Breast carcinoma is one of the most common malignant and the leading cause of cancer related death among women all around the world. Gene expression profiling characterized 4 major groups of BC, which classified patients into Luminal A, Luminal B, HER-2/neu enriched, and Triple Negative BC (TNBC). Among the members of the steroid receptor superfamily the role of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR) and HER2 are play a role in breast cancer as both predictive and prognostic markers and management of therapy. Androgen Receptor (AR) is a steroid nuclear receptor involved in complex signaling pathways that are thought to play a role in cell proliferation. Greater than70% of human breast cancers expresses the androgen receptor (AR) and varies significantly among molecular subtypes of breast cancer and its contribution to the progression of disease may differ depending on the stage. In this study, we aimed to examine the expression pattern of AR and its association with clinicopathological parameters and IHC markers.Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on breast cancers using antibodies against androgen receptor (AR), esterogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2). The levels of expression were scored semiquantitatively.Results: AR positivity was noted in Thirty-four of the cases, whereas the other thirteen cases were negative. AR was significantly related to tumors histological type (p= 0.002), tumor grade (p= 0.002) and positive PR/HER2 status (p= 0.04). No statistical difference was demonstrated in AR expression in relation to tumor size (p= 0.12), lymph node status (p= 0.68) and expression of ER (p= 0.23). Conclusion: breast carcinomas express AR positivity more than ER, PR and HER2 status. In addition, the expression of AR correlated to lower tumor grade which could serve as a good prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target. However, this finding will need to be confirmed by large cohort studies.

يعد سرطان الثدي السرطان الاكثر شيوعا الذي يصيب النساء في مختلف انحاء العالم .وقد أجريت الدراسة على47 عينة من نساء مصابات بسرطان الثدي وكانت عبارة عن أنسجة مثبتة بالفورمالين ومطمورة بالبرافين على هيئة قوالب . استخدم طريقة كيمياء النسيج المناعية لتقييم تعبير المستقبلات لكل من HER-2 و الاستروجين و البروجيستيرون وكذلك Androgen لإيجاد العلاقة بين نتائج كيمياء المناعة النسيجية ومؤشرات التقدم لسرطان الثدي المتمثلة بعمر المريض ، حجم الورم ،النوع النسيجي وكذلك درجتة. حيث اظهرت النتائج بان 43 حالة من 47 اعطت التعبير الهرموني الموجب للمستقبل Androgen . كم أظهرت النتائج وجود فروقات معنوية مرتبطة بين مستوى التعبير للمستقبل Androgen مع نوع ودرجة الورم وكذلك كلا من البروجستيرون و HER-2 وبالمقابل فان تعبير Androgen الموجب يعد بمثابة نذير جيد وكهدف علاجي محتمل.

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