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Article
Frequency of Congenital Anatomical Uterine Abnormalities in a Group of Infertile Women in Mosul city
دراسة التشوهات التشريحية الخلقية للقناة الرحمية لمجموعة من النساء العقيمات فى مدينة الموصل

Author: Luma Ibrahim Khalel Al-Allaf لمى ابراهيم خليل العلاف
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 4 Pages: 238-246
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Congenital Müllerian defects are a fascinating clinical problem encountered by obstetricians and from a therapeutic point of view, it is interesting to know the prevalence of the different types of uterine anomalies. The incidence of the anatomical uterine anomalies in the infertile women population was found to range between 1-26.2 %; however the exact incidence of congenital uterine anomalies in women with reproductive failure remains unclear, largely due to methodological bias. Objectives: The aims of this study are to estimate the incidence of congenital uterine anomalies in women with infertility, to determine the frequencies of different subtypes of these anomalies in infertile women and to compare the contribution of these anomalies with acquired one.Setting: Infertility unit in Al-Batool Maternity Teaching Hospital/ in Mosul city in Northern Iraq.Methods: This was a retrospective study that was conducted over a period of 4 months started from 1st January 2008 to April 30th 2008.The data were collected from the medical reports of women referred to the infertility unit over the period of 1998-2008 for infertility problems. All of them had undergone laparoscopic assessment beside hysterosalpingography. They were classified into 3 groups: Group 1: included women who were presented with primary infertility (n=1070), group 2: included 512 women presented with secondary infertility, and. group 3: which included 10 women, presented with primary infertility and primary amenorrhea. The uterine malformations were grouped in accordance with the American Fertility Society classification (AFS). Results: Ninety one (5.68%) out of 1601 infertile women had got congenital anatomical uterine anomalies. According to AFS classification uterine agenesis /dysgenesis was reported in 54(3.37%) out of 1601 infertile women, while septate uterus identified in 13 (0.81%) out of 1601 infertile women .On the other hand the laparoscopic reports of 12 (0.74%) out of 1601 infertile women revealed the presence of bicornuate uterus, while unicornuate type was identified in 3 (0.18%) out of 1601 infertile women. Four (0.24%) out of 1601 infertile women had got didelphic uterus, while more than one class was revealed in the reports of 5(0.31%) out of 1601 infertile women. Agenesis /dysgenesis represent highest frequency among Müllerian anomalies in infertile women in 54 out of 91(57.95%), while septate class was being the second to the Agenesis /dysgenesis and was shown in 13out of 91(14.77%) women. The ratio of septate /bicornuate uterus in this study was 1:1.On the other hand, 176(10.99%) out of 1601 infertile women had got acquired anatomical uterine anomalies. Conclusion: The overall incidence of congenital anatomical uterine anomalies in infertile women attending the infertility unit in Mosul city was 5.68%. Highest frequency among Müllerian anomalies in infertile women was in Agenesis /dysgenesis; while septate class was the second frequent one. The frequencies of acquired anatomical (uterine and tubal) anomalies were significantly higher than that of congenital anomalies (P<0.05%).Further studies will be recommended to define the actual incidence of uterine anomalies in fertile and infertile women beside the determination of reproductive performance of these anomalies.Keywords: Infertility, congenital uterine anomalies, Müllerian anomalies.

الخلفية:ان التشوهات الخلقية التشريحية للقناة الرحمية بما فيها الانبوب الرحمى من المشاكل السريرية التى طالما اثارت اهتمام الاطباء المولدين ولقد اصبح مهما من وجهة النظر العلاجية للموضوع معرفة مدى انتشار الانواع المختلفة لتلك التشوهات .ان مدى انتشار تلك التشوهات لدى النسوة اللواتى يعانين من الفشل التوالدى بقى غير واضحا الى حد ما والسبب ربما يعود الى الزيادة فى حدوث الاخطاءفى الطرق التشخيصية لتلك التشوهات .هدف الدراسة : تهدف الدراسة الى تحديد مدى انتشار او حدوث العيوب الخلقية للقناة الرحميةفى النسوة العقيمات اللواتى خضعن الى تنظير البطن بجانب خضوعهن الى تصوير الرحم والبوقين شعاعيا فى وحدة العقم ولفترة محددة.كما تهدف الدراسة ايضا الى مقارنة مساهمة تلك التشوهات الخلقية مع نظيرتها التشوهات المكتسبة لدى تلك النسوة.مكان الدراسة :وحدة العقم فى مستشفى البتول التعليمى للولادة فى مدينة الموصل شماال العراق.طرق الدراسة :اجريت الدراسة على مدى اربعة اشهر ابتداءا من الاول من شهر كانون الثانى عام 2008ولغاية الثلاثين من شهر نيسان من نفس العام .تم جمع البينات من التقارير الطبية بالرجوع الى الحالات السابقة من النسوة اللواتى قدمن الى وحدة العقم بهدف العلاج خلال المدة المحصورة مابين 1998-2008 ,ولقد اجرى لجميع النسوة عملية تنظير البطن بجانب تصوير الرحم والبوقين شعاعيا.لقد تم تصنيف تلك النسوة الى ثلاثة مجاميع:المجموعة الاولى وتشمل النسوة اللواتى يعانين من العقم الابتدائ(1070 ).المجموعة الثانية وتشمل النسوة اللواتى يعانين من العقم الثانوى ( 521),اما المجموعة الثالثة اللواتى يعانين من انقطاع الطمث الابتدائى و العقم الابتدائى(10).تم تقسيم التشوهات التشريحية للقناة الرحمية حسب التصنيف المعتمد من قبل مجمع العقم الاميركى.النتائج:كان هناك احدى وتسعون(5.68%) مريضة عقيمة من اللواتى لديهن العيوب الخلقية التشريحية للقناة الرحمية ولقد تم تسجيل اربع وخمسون (3.37%) حالة تعانى من قصور او خلل فى تكون القناة الرحمية بينما تم التعرف على ثلاث عشر(0.81%) حالة تعانى من وجود الفاصل الرحمى ,كما اظهرت الدراسة توارد وجود رحم ثنائى القرن فى12 (0.74%)حالة والرحم احادى القرن فى 3(0.18%)حالة.من حهة اخرى كان هناك اربع مريضات عقيمات لديهن رحمين وكان هناك خمس مريضات عقيمات اظهرت تقاريرهن وجود اكثر من صنف من التشوهات الخلقية التشريحية .اثبتت الدراسة ان اعلى نسبة سجلت من التشوهات كانت لحالات قصور او خلل فى تكون القناة الرحمية تليها حالات تعانى من وجود الفاصل الرحمى .كانت نسبة توارد وجود الفاصل الرحمى الى وجود الرحم ثنائى القرن هى 1:1 ,من جهة اخرى لوحظ تكرار وجود التشوهات الرحمية المكتسبة فى 176(10.99%) من كل النساء العقيمات القادمات الى وحدة العقم الاستنتاجات:كان تكرار حدوث التشوهات الخلقية الرحمية فى كل النساء العقيمات القادمات الى وحدة العقم فى مدينة الموصل وللفترة المحصورة مابين 1998-2008 يساوى%5.68 وكانت اعلى نسبة تواجد قد سجلت لحالات قصور او خلل فى تكون القناة الرحمية ثم تلك التى لديها الحاجز الرحمى . كما كان تكرار وجود التشوهات الرحمية المكتسبة . اعلى وبفارق معنوى من تلك التشوهات الخلقية P<0.05%)). دراسات اخرى مطلوبة لمعرفة نسبة توارد وجود التشوهات الخلقية الرحمية فى كلا النساء العقيمات والغير العقيمات بجانب تحديدالاداء التوالدى لتلك التشوهات وذلك بهدف ايجاد الطريقة المثلى لعلاجها.


Article
Congenital coronary anomalies in Iraqi adult population

Authors: Amjad Rahman Bairam --- Hasan Yousif Al-Najjar --- Hamid Abdul Wahab Al-Amiry
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 2 Pages: 132-138
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:
Background: Geographic variations in the incidence of different congenital coronary
anomalies are well known, but infrequently studied in the Iraqi population.
Recognition of coronary anomalies is important in patients undergoing coronary
arteriogrphy; coronary interventions and cardiac surgery .Variation in the frequency
of primary congenital coronary anomalies may possibly have a genetic background.
Patients and methods: Three thousands adult patients underwent diagnostic
coronary angiography at two cardiac centers in Baghdad between January 2003 to
March 2006. Their angiographic films were reviewed by at least two experts in
coronary angiographic study.
Results: Among 3000 adult patients who underwent diagnostic coronary
angiography, 28(0.93%) patients (16 males, 12 females) had anomalous coronary
artery. The mean age was 46±8 years (range from 28-73 years).Twenty four patients
(85%) had anomalies of origin and distribution, while the remaining four (15%) had
coronary artery fistulae. Abnormal origin of the left circumflex was the most common
anomaly, seen in 17(60%) patients. Coronary artery fistula was seen in four patients;
from the left anterior coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk in two cases and from
the right coronary to the pulmonary trunk in the other cases. Left main stem was
absent in four cases (15%).While abnormal origin of the right coronary artery from
the left circumflex was seen in two cases. Abnormal origin of the right coronary
artery from the pulmonary artery was seen in just one case (3.5%). Atherosclerotic
plaques in the anomalous artery were seen in four cases (15%) much less than overall
case of coronary artery disease in those who underwent coronary angiography (60%).
Conclusion: Isolated congenital coronary anomalies in adult is rare and there does
not appear to be an increased risk for development of atherosclerosis in anomalous
coronary arteries.


Article
Utilization of Orthopantomograms in Dental Radiology Assit prof.

Author: Dr. Ahlam A.Fattah B.D.S MSC. د. احلام فتاح
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 30-32
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Orthopantomogram is a radiographic technique that improves the possibility of early detection of dental anomalies.This study was representing a base line diagnostic information which obtained from each patient utilizes orthopantomogram in x-ray clinic at hospital of Surgeries Specialization (ALshaheed Addnan previously).Data was collected from randomly chosen 696 dentate patients who were radiographed for different reasons. The age range was between 5-45years.Results revealed that, the main reason for taking orthopantomograms was to investigate different orthodontic problems (41.4%), then impacted teeth (25%), facial fractures due to trauma (13.7%), mixed dentition development (11.5%), and finally periodontal diseases (8.3%). High percentage of patients was in range of age group between (5-15) (51.1%).This study focuses on the importance of using orthopantomograms as a most indispensable method on achieving complete diagnostic information..


Article
DIGITAL DERMATOGLYPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PATIENTS WITH SEX HORMONES ANOMALIES

Authors: Rakad M. Kh. Al-Jumaily --- Fadhel M. Lafta --- Lamees Kh.I. Al-Dahiri --- Laith Z.Fadhil
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2010 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 164-169
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background : Dermatoglyphics are the dermal ridge configurations on digits ,palms and soles.Dermatoglyphic polymorphism results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors.The dermatoglyphic analysis is a valuable completion of initial diagnosis of some syndromes anddiseases that are genetically determined. Our objective was to assess the relationship betweendigital dermatoglyphic patterns and sex hormones anomalies.Methods : Dermatoglyphic pattern type frequencies (qualitative analysis ), total and absolute ridgecounts (quantitative analysis )and left /right asymmetry were assessed for 54 males with sexhormones anomalies and 55 controls .Results : Dermatoglyphics pattern type frequencies were altered in patients with sexhormones anomalies versus controls . In particular, there was an increase and decrease of whorls(38.2% vs. 33.5%) and ulnar loops (51.7% vs. 58.5%) respectively. The differences weresignificant ( χ2 = 10.335 ; D.F. = 3 ; P ≤0.05 ) .In quantitative analysis , patients showeda higher mean ridges count than controls in both; the TRC (159.81 } 5.46 vs. 144.61 } 5.84 ) andARC (213.72 } 11.19 vs. 187.96 } 11.07 ) respectively ,and a significant difference was observedin TRC analysis (t = 1.899 ; d.f. = 107 ; p = 0.06 ). Among patients with sex hormones anomalies44.44% of them had a higher ridge counts on the left hand than on right hand versus 38% incontrols .Conclusion: Our results supported the hypothesis that prenatal sex hormones levels may have asignificant effect on the development of dermatoglyphics.

الخلفية العلمية : يعنى علم الخطوط الجلدية بدراسة أشكالالخطوط الجلدية في البنان ، راحة الكف وباطن القدم .و إنتعدد أشكال الخطوط الجلدية هو نتاج لتظافر عوامل الوراثةوالبيئة . كما أن تحليل صفات الخطوط الجلدية قد أصبح ذوقيمة في التشخيص الأولي لبعض المتلازمات والأمراضالوراثية .وقد هدف بحثنا إلى تقييم العلاقة بين أنماطالخطوط الجلدية للبنان واضطراب الهورمونات الجنسية .العمل: تم حساب تكرار أنماط الخطوط الجلدية ( التحليلالوصفي ) ، وعدد الخطوط الجلدية الكلي والمطلق( التحليل الكمي ) وعدم التناظر لعدد الخطوط ل 54 ذكراًيعانون من اضطراب الهورمونات الجنسية و 55 فرداًيمثلون مجموعة السيطرة .النتائج : اظهر مرضى اضطراب الهورمونات الجنسيةاختلافا في تكرار انماط الخطوط الجلدية مقارنة بمجموعةالسيطرة ، وخاصة زيادة المستديرات ( 38.2 % مقابل%33.5 ) ونقصان العرويات الزندية ( 51.7 % مقابل%58.5 ) ، وقد وصل الاختلاف الى المتسوى المعنوي: (قيمة مربع كاي = 10.335 : درجة الحرية = 3. ( الاحتمالية 0.05أما بالنسبة للتحليل الكمي فقد اظهر المرضى زيادة فيمعدل عدد الخطوط الجلدية مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة ،5.46 مقابل ± بالنسبة لمعدل عدد الخطوط الكلي ( 159.815.84 ± 144.61 ) وكذلك لمعدل عدد الخطوط المطلق11.07 ). وكان ± 11.19 ± 213.72 مقابل 187.96 )الاختلاف معنوياً بالنسبة لمعدل العدد الكلي للخطوطكما ظهر بأن . (t = 1.899 ; d.f. = 107 ;p = 0.06)%44.44 من المرضى يحملون عدداً اكبر من الخطوط فياليد اليسرى مقابل 38 % من مجموعة السيطرة .الاستنتاج : نتائج بحثنا تدعم الافتراض العلمي بأنمستويات الهورمونات قبل الولادة تمتلك تأثيراً معنوياً علىتكوين الخطوط الجلدية .


Article
Sirenomelia in an Iraqi twin: a case report
سيرينوميليا ( خيلانية ) في توأم عراقي : تسجيل حالة

Author: Moaied A. Hassan مؤيد عبد اللطيف حسن
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2015 Volume: 57 Issue: 4 Pages: 343-345
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Sirenomelia is a rare congenital malformation characterized by fusion of the lower limbs giving a characteristic mermaid-like appearance to the affected fetus. It is commonly associated with gastrointestinal, genitourinary, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system defects.Objective : To report the clinical manifestations of an extremely rare and complexmalformation along with the associated anomalies.Case report: A case of sirenomelia was reported in a one of a set of twin delivered at term by caesarean section to a 39 year old Iraqi mother. According to the search that has been done, it seems that this is the first reported case in this country. The following associated anomalies ( imperforate anus, absence of external genitourinary orifices, esophageal atresia with tracheo-esophageal fistula, intestinal atresia and bilateral renal agenesis ) were observed. Conclusion: Sirenomelia is a rare and fatal congenital malformation. Still there is some controversy regarding its etiology, however there is an increasing belief that this complex malformation is distinct from the caudal regression syndrome. Survival depends on the presence of normal renal functionKeywords: Sirenomelia, mermaid, associated anomalies.

المقدمة :-إن السيرينوميليا أو الخيلانية من التشوهات الخلقية النادرة وتعد حالة مسخية تمتاز بإندماج الاطراف السفلى مما يعطي الجنين المصاب شكلاً مشابهاً لعروس البحر. إن هذه الحالة غالباً ما تكون مصاحبة بعيوب خلقية أخرى تصيب الجهاز الهضمي ، الجهاز البولي التناسلي ، القلب والأوعية الدموية إضافةً إلى الجهاز العضلي الهيكلي . تسجيل حالة : لقد تم تسجيل هذه الحالة في إحدى الولادات لسيدة عراقية تبلغ من العمر 39 عاماً حيث أنجبت هذه السيدة توأماً بعملية قيصرية وكان أحد الطفلين مصاباً بهذا التشوه الخلقي النادر في حين أن الطفل الأخر كان سليماً ، وإعتماداً على البحث والتقصي الذي تم إجرائه في هذه الدراسة فإن هذه الحالة هي الأولى المسجلة في العراق. لقد تم ملاحظة شذوذات خلقية مصاحبة عند هذا الطفل وهي إنعدام فتحة الشرج ، إنعدام الفوهات الخارجية للجهاز البولي التناسلي ، ضمور المريء مع ناسور المريء – القصبة الهوائية ، ضمور الأمعاء إضافة إلى عدم تكون الكليتين . الإستنتاج :-إن السيرينوميليا أو الخيلانية هي تشوه خلقي نادر وقاتل . لا يزال هناك بعض الجدل حول الأسباب المؤدية لحدوث هذه الحالة، على أيه حال فإن هنالك إعتقاداً متزايداً بأن هذا التشوه المعقد منفصل عن متلازمة التقهقر الذنبي. إن البقاء على قيد الحياة بالنسبة لهذا التشوه الخلقي يعتمد على وجود كليتين تعملان بصورة طبيعية .


Article
Prevalence of developmental oral anomalies among school children in two areas of Baghdad district

Authors: Wajnaa F. Qassim وجناء قاسم --- Zaheda J. Muhammad زاهدة محمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 51-53
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of some developmental oral anomalies in children, from two different areas in Iraq.Materials and Method: One area selected in Baghdad city center was (urban area) and the other was (rural area) in its boundaries. A total of 3018 children aged 6-12 years were examined for 13 anomalies in lip, tongue and palate.Results: The most frequent, anomaly was ankyloglossia (8.1%), fissured tongue (6.2%), torus palatinus (3.2%), microglossia (2.4%), geographic tongue (1.8%), macroglossia (0.8%) and torus mandibularis (0.3%).Conclusion: the prevalence of these oral anomalies directed by genetic factor and environmental or acquired factor like other diseases.


Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Congenital Anomalies in Mosul City

Author: Zhraa Abd-Alkader Taboo
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 458-470
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Congenital anomalies define as abnormalities of body structure that originated before birth, about 3% of all children are born with a serious structural defect that interferes with normal body function and can lead to lifelong handicap or even early death. There is a variation in the frequency of congenital anomalies in different populations.OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of the easily identifiable congenital anomalies also to estimate the risk factors which may predispose to anomalies and pattern of distribution of congenital anomalies of newborn in Mosul city.METHODS:In a cross-sectional study, charts of forty six thousand and seven hundred seventy five deliveries including live births and stillbirths in Al-Batool Teaching Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology , during the period from January -2009 to December-2010. The anomalies were then grouped according to the organ, system involvement, gender, maternal age, consanguinity, mortality rate, and mother’s natal history.RESULT:A total of 323 cases of fetal congenital anomalies were detected, central nervous system were the most common abnormalities while complex congenital malformation was second in rank. The prevalence of anomalies was 0.69%. The majority of fetal malformation was seen in primigravida furthermore the maternal age between20-24years was the largest age group that had congenital anomalies. Mean gestational age at delivery was 36 weeks as well as the mean gestational age at diagnosis of anomaly by ultrasound was 30week. Fetal malformations had predilection to female fetuses, with male to female ratio1:1.09, in addition to 2.167% of ambigunity. Overall perinatal mortality rate was 79.25%.CONCLUSION:Congenital anomalies are one of the most important causes of fetal deaths. The present study showed a high incidence of congenital malformations in the young age group and among primi gravida woman. The commonest associated risk factors was consanguineous marriage the frequency of which may be reduced by creating awareness regarding the avoidance of consanguineous marriages . anencephaly was the most prevalent anomaly detected. So proper and timely counseling, regular antenatal care. folate supplementation especially during the most sensitive period of embryogenesis is essential to avoid major congenital malformation for future pregnancy.


Article
Dental anomalies associated with malocclusion among 13 year old Kurdish students

Author: Tara A. Rasheed تارا رشيد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 173-178
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: The aim of this national oral health survey was to determine the prevalence of malocclusions due tosome anomalies in the dentition among the 13 years old Kurdish students in sulaimani intermediate school.Materials and methods: The total sample was 950 (455 males and 495 females) which assessed by diagnostic set andspecial instrument. The clinical examination was mainly based on the definitions of Björk et al. Some variables wererecorded as present or absent sometimes denoting the tooth or the teeth involved in malocclusion and theirdistribution according to the whole sample.Results: The results showed that 1)The most common extracted tooth was the mandibular first molar (2.9%). 2) At thisage group the most common partially erupted tooth was the maxillary canine (4.2%). 3) The most commonunerupted tooth was the maxillary second molars. 4) The most common retained deciduous tooth was the maxillarycanine (6.8%), then the maxillary second molars (5.4%).5) Hypodontia as judged clinically was found in 2.1% of thesample affecting one or more permanent teeth. The most common congenitally missing tooth was the maxillarylateral incisor (0.9%), mandibular second premolars (0.4%), and then maxillary second premolar (0.2%). 6) 29.2 % ofthe sample had one or more rotated teeth. The most common rotated tooth was the mandibular second premolars(5.3%). 7). The sample showed 30.4% with one or more displaced teeth. The most common displaced tooth was themaxillary lateral incisor (8.8%), then the maxillary canine (7.2%).Conclusion: At the age of 13 both males and females show large range of dental anomalies that are better to becontrolled.


Article
Biological aspects of pollen development in six species of Brassicaceae
دراسة المظاهر الخلوية لنمو حبوب اللقاح لستة انواع من العائلة الصليبية

Authors: Naji S. Nasser ناجي سوادي ناصر --- Enas A.Manfy ايناس عدنان منفي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 4B Pages: 1770-1779
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present investigation revealed cytological variations for six species (Eruca sativa, Sisymbirium irio, Diplotaxis harra, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera Arabica and Brassica tournefortii ) belong to the Brassicaceaefamily.The flower buds were collected from Al-Habania lake that located in Al-Anbar-Iraq. Using iron-acetocarmine squash technique in anther-smear studies which revealed a chromosomal anomalies such as Lagging/brddge chromosomes, Micronuclei & initiated delay of four daughter cells.The frequency of abnormalities ranged (0.04 - 0.77%) which indicated the unstable heredity source of most wildplants. The pollen grains viability was estimated using acetocarmine stain, viable grains had stained, while sterile grains had not.The biostatic analysis revealed a high significant deference at >0.01 due to the highest numbers of viable pollen grains compared with sterility. Pollen charactersof polar and equatorial view are significantly sufficient for classified characterization of the plant species. An interesting correlationratio of P/E to estimate pollen grain shape, in Brassicaceae polar view was spheroidal three grooves of all species , wide elliptical shape or sub spheroidal in equatorial view, and grains size were medium. The study conclusion that all six species have high productivity of viable pollen grains which confer resistance to environment, therebymeiotic irregularities could be induced unstable genetic resources andsterilit

اظهرت الدراسه الحالية الأختلافات السايتولوجية لستة انواع تنتمي للعائلة الصليبيةEruca sativa,Sisymbirium irio, Dipotaxis harra, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera Arabica and Brassica tournefortii تعود للعائلة Brassicacea. جمعت البراعم الزهرية من بحيرة الحبانية, التي تقع في ألأنبار-العراق.ٍ استخدمت طريقة الهرس بصبغة الأستوكارمين الحامضيه الحاوية على آيون الحديديك لدراسة مسحاة المتوك التي اظهرت حالات الشذوذ الكروموسومي بهيأة كروموسومات متأخرة في الانسحاب، وجسور بدون قطع كروموسومية, وابواغ رباعية ذات نوى صغيرة وتأخر تكوين أربع خلايا بنيوية. قدرت تكرار حالات الشذوذ بين(%0.77 - 0.04) مما يشخص عدم استقرار المخزون الوراثي لمعظم النباتات البرية. تم حساب حيوية حبوب اللقاح بأستخدام صبغة الكارمين الحامضية, فالحبوب الخصبة تأخذ الصبغة اما العقيمة فلاتصطبغ.اظهر التحليل الإحصائي فروق معنوية عاليةبسبب الأعداد العالية جدا من حبوب اللقاح الخصبة مقارنة بالعقيمة. ان توصيف حبوب اللقاح للمشهدين القطبي والأستوائي له اهمية مؤثرة في الصفاتالتصنيفية للأنواع النباتية. تكمن اهمية النسبة بين المشهدين القطبي / الاستوائي في تحديد شكل حبوب اللقاح، ففي العائلة الصليبية يكون المنظر القطبي على شكل كروي ثلاثي الأخاديد لجميع الأنواع, أما في المنظر الاستوائي يكون الشكل اهلليجي عريض إلى شبه كروي، أما أحجام حبوب اللقاح فقد كانت متوسطة الحجم.يستنتج من هذه الدراسة انكل الأنواع الستة تمتلك الأنتاجية العالية من حبوب اللقاح الخصبة والتي تمنح المقاومة لقساوة الطبيعة,اضافة الى ان الانقسام الاختزالي غير المنتظم قد يحفز على عدم استقرار المصادر الوراثية وحدوث العقم.


Article
Prevalence of Dental Anomalies among Iraqi Dental Students

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Abstract

Background: Dental anomalies are abnormal tooth condition occurs due to certain genes or environmental factor disturb tooth development during morphodifferentiation stages, affecting group of teeth or entire dentition. The aim of the study is to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of dental anomalies among dental student.Materials and Methods: Three hundred dental students with age ranged (18-23 years) were examined clinically and radiographically searching for dental anomalies in shape, number and position.Results: Only 25 students (8.3 %) from the total sample (300) had dental anomalies, female form the higher percentage of anomalies (about 68%) compared to male (32%). The age group (22 years) which was the larger group had a higher percentage of dental anomalies (about 40%). Regarding the type of anomalies found, disturbance in number of teeth represent the higher percentage (48%); but impacted third molar represent the most common subtype of positional anomalies found in the study (20%).Conclusion: Higher percentage of dental anomalies detected in female and larger age group, study of dental anomalies was of great importance especially prior to orthodontic and surgical intervention

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