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Article
ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF GRAM NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN COMMUNITY

Authors: Iman Y Rasheed ايمان يوسف رشيد --- Iman J Kareem ايمان جبار كريم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 295-300
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by bacteria that can also live in the digestive tract, in vagina, or around the urethra most often these bacteria, enter the urethra and travel to the bladder and kidneys and prostate (in men).Objective: To determine the most common gram negative aerobic bacteria caused UTI in both sex and different ages, and to study the antibiotic susceptibility in order to determine the most effective antibiotics that can cure UTI.MethodsProspective study of 311 samples of urine has been collected from out patients complaining signs and symptoms of UTI. Isolation and Identification of causative bacteria was concluded, antibiotic susceptibility test has been done, and statistical analysis chi square had done. Results125 urine samples obtained from 25 male and 100 female show growths of Gram negative aerobic bacilli. No bacterial growth was defined in the rest of urine samples. Single bacterium was identified in 120 samples, while 5 samples identified as a mixed infection with two kinds of bacteria. In 55 (44%) of cases, Echerishia Coli was isolated; in 41 (32.8%) Klebsiella Pneumoniae; in 17 (13.6%) Proteus mirabilis plus P. Vulgaris; and 12 (9.6%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The percentage of resistance for E. Coli varies from 73% to 86%, to Ceftzidime, Ceftriaxone, and Trimethoprim Sulfamethaxozol; for K. pneumoniae it ranges from 71% to 100% for Amoxicillin, Pipracillin, Trimethoprim Sulfamethaxozole, and Colistin; for P. mirabilis plus P. vulgaris ranging from 66% to 100% for Cetazidime, Trimethoprim Sulfamethaxozol, and Cefotaxime; and for P. aeruginose ranges from 66% to 100% for Cefazidime, Colistin, Nafcillin, Gentamycin, Trimethoprim Sulfamethaxozol.Conclusion: E. Coli caused UTI in female higher than men in the community, and the gram negative rods had multi antibiotic resistant.KeywordUTI, Enterobacteriacae, Antibiotic susceptibility


Article
Prevalence of gonorrhea among adult male with urethritis in Erbil City
انتشار السيلان بين الذكور البالغين المصابين بالتهاب الإحليل في مدينة أربيل

Author: Isam Yousif Mansoor
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2014 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 692 -696
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The bacteria can be passed from one person to another through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. It can also be passed from mother to her baby during birth. The symptoms in adult male include a burning sensation when they urinate and a yellowish-white discharge may ooze out of the urethra. Gonorrhea can spread to epididymis causing pain and swelling in the testicular area. This can create scar tissue that can lead to infertility. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gonorrhea in adult male in Erbil Governorate and the susceptibility of isolated Neisseria to antibiotics.Methods: Urethral discharge obtained from adult male aged between 19-49 years were examined for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae using direct smear gram staining and cultural technique. The susceptibility of isolated bacteria to antibiotics was tested using disc diffusion method.Results: This study showed that the incidence of gonorrhea among 312 adult male with urethritis in Erbil city was (8.97%) while (91.03%) of patients examined had nongonococcal urethritis. The higher percentage of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (14%) occurred among age group (19-29) years and the lower (3.48%) in the age group (39-49) years. Among the 210 unmarried patients, 26 (12.38%) had gonorrhea and 184 (87.62%) had nongonococcal urethrits. All Neisseria gonorrhoeae were sensitive to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin and azithromycin. The isolates showed low sensitivity (21.42%) to penicillin.Conclusion: It seems that gonorrhea is common among symptomatic adult male. The emergence of resistance to some antibiotics is worrying. Appropriate prevention strategies should be of highest priority of the policy makers.


Article
An Insight Into Bacterial Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Burn Wound Infections in Kerbala, Iraq

Authors: Zuhair Hameed Abboud --- Noor Hameed Al-Ghanimi --- Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2014 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 2023-2032
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: There is paucity of data on bacterial profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in burns care units in Kerbala, Iraq we sought to undertake this study.Aim of the study: is to have an insight into the bacteriological profile of buns wound infections and evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the organisms isolated to antibiotics and disinfectants.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted prospectively at the Burns Care Unit (BCU) in Al-Hussein Medical City, Holy Kerbala Province, Iraq. Wound swabs were obtained from consecutive 57 burns patients treated in BCU for the period from November 2012 to March 2013. Microbial isolates were identified based on standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method, whereas efficacy of 5 most commonly used disinfectant was evaluated by agar-diffusion method.Results and Discussion: A total of 76 isolates were recovered. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most common isolate (53.94%), followed by E.cloacae (25%), E.coli (11.84%), K.Pneumoniae (3.94%), S.aureus (3.94%), A. baumannii (1.31%). Majority of the bacterial isolates were multiple-drug resistant. Generally, Imipenem was the most effective antimicrobial agents. The best disinfectant was Sekusept Forte® whereas the least effective disinfectants were Povidone-Iodine and Chloroxylenol®.Conclusions: Pseudomonas was the predominant cause of burns infections and majority of isolates were multiple-drug resistant. These indicate the need for strict hygienic measurement to protect the burns patients from opportunistic pathogens.


Article
Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Typhi Isolated from Typhoidial Humans

Authors: Adil Abead Hassuny --- Iman Jawad Kadhim --- Akbal Harby Kadhim
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 646-652
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Present research work was carried out for detection and molecular characterization of Salmonella Typhi isolated from Blood plasma of person severing from Typhoid fever using biochemical test, and detection of virulence gene by using of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 12 clinical samples were collected from patients. The isolated strains were also investigated for antibiotic susceptibility patterns as a control measure. Microbiological and biochemical investigations revealed the presence of Salmonella typhi from 12 samples. PCR analysis confirmed these presence of fliC (Phage-1 flagellin gene), viaB (Vi antigen gene) and SipA genes. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out among the isolates against 12 antimicrobial agents. Results showed that 100 % resistance to only ampicillin and 100 % sensitivity to carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline.


Article
Incidence and Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Enterobacteriacae Bacteria in the Cervico-Vaginal Epithelium of Women in Holy Kerbala Province

Authors: Mousa Mohsin Ali --- Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 2258-2264
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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background: Although vaginal colonization by bacterial species of theenterobcacteriacae family, the significance of their antibiograms and potential role intransmitting of drug resistance is neglected.Aim of the study: to determine the frequency of occurrence of Enterobacteriacae species and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in cervico-vaginal epithelium of women from kerbala.Methods: women with vaginal discharges attending Kerbala Teaching Hospital for Gynocology and Obstetric for the period from January to March 2014 were enrolled in this study. High vaginal swabs were processed for the isolation and identification of Enterobacteriacae using standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobials susceptibility testing was conducted for all of the isolated bacterial species.Results and discussion: swabs from 100 women were cultured. A total of 101 Enterobacteriacae isolates were recovered; 65 E coli, 23 P.mirabilis and 13 K.pneumoniae isolates. All K.pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefotaxime, whereas high resistance rates were detected to those antibiotics among E. coli (96.9%, 92.3% and 87.7%, respectively) and P. mirabilis (100%, 78.3% and 52.2, respectively). However, all isolates were susceptible to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) and low resistance rates detected to quinolones, aminoglycosides, lincosmaide and chloramphenicole. Resistance rates to aztreonam (ATM) were variable, high rates detected among E coli (69.2%) and K pneumoniae (61.5%) isolates, however, very low rates seen among P. mirabilis isolates (4.3%). Furthermore, high resistance rates were reported to tetracyclines and nitrofurantoin among E. coli (61.5% and 41.5% respectively), K. pneumoniae (69.2% and 100% respectively) and P. mirabilis (78.3% and 60.9% respectively). In addition, statistically significant differences were detected in the antibiotics susceptibility testing among the types of isolates to cefotaxime (p= 0.001), aztreonam (p= 0.000), cholramphenicole (p= 0.000), ciprofloxacin (p= 0.046), nitrofurantoin (p= 0.002) and amikacin (p= 0.007).Conclusions: Enterobacteriacae colonizing the cervico-vaginal epithelium are resistant to several important anitbiotics (multiple drug resistant) and thus may pose significant threat in transmission of drug resistant bacteria.


Article
Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella specious from raw beef and lamb meat in Baghdad by PCR.
عزل و تشخيص جراثيم المكورات العنقودية الذهبية ,اللستيريا ,الاشريشيا القولونية والسالمونيلا من لحوم الابقار والأغنام النيئة في مدينة بغداد بواسطة تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة المتعدد

Author: Zena K. Khalil زينة قاسم خليل
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 3B Pages: 1891-1897
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The study designed to determine the distribution of a major important food pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus , Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp from raw beef and lamb meat by using multiplex pcr . A total of 90 raw beef and lamb meat samples were collected from different butcher's shops in Al-Karkh side of Baghdad city and analyzed for the presence of these types of bacteria and their susceptibilities to some antibiotics was investigated ,the results showed that the prevalence of S. aureus (5.6%), L. monocytogenes (3%), E. coli O157:H7 (7.8 %) and Salmonella spp (5.6%) from the total samples .The result of the susceptibility test showed that S. aureus isolates were susceptible to Amikacin (80%) ,while L. monocytogenes isolates were susceptible to the most used antibiotics as following Amikacin, Erythromycin, Oxytetracycline, Nalidixic acid ,Cephalothin, Gentamycin, Ampicillin and Streptomycin (100%). E. coli O157:H7 isolates were susceptible to Nalidixic acid and Gentamycin (100%) and Salmonella spp isolates were susceptible to Nalidixic acid ,Cephalothin and Gentamycin (80%) .

تم تصميم الدراسة لتحديد مدى انتشار بعض الجراثيم الغذائية المهمة ومن ضمنها المكورات العنقودية الذهبية والليستيريا مونوسايتوجينز والاشريشيا القولونية والسالمونيلا من عينات لحوم الابقار والأغنام النيئة بطريقة تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة المتعدد. جمعت 90 عينة من لحوم الابقار والأغنام من محلات القصابة ضمن منطقة الكرخ من بغداد لتحديد وجود البكتيريا , كما تم اجراء فحص حساسيتها لبعض المضادات الحيوية واظهرت النتيجة تواجد بكتيريا المكورات العنقودية الذهبية بنسبة 5,6% والليستيريا مونوسايتوجينز 3% و والاشريشيا القولونية 7,8% والسالمونيلا 5,6% من مجموع العينات الكلية. نتائج فحص الحساسية سجلت حساسية المكورات العنقودية الذهبية للاميكاسين بنسبة 80% اما الليستيريا مونوسايتوجينز كانت حساسة لمعظم المضادات الحيوية والتي تضمنت (الاميكاسين,الارثرومايسين,الاوكسيتتراسايكلين, حامض الناليدكسيك, السيفالوثين, الجنتمايسين, الامبسلين والستربتومايسين) 100%, الاشريشيا القولونية كانت حساسة لحامض الناليدكسيك والجنتمايسين بنسبة 100% اما السالمونيلا فكانت حساسة لكل من حامض الناليدكسيك , السيفالوثين والجنتمايسين بنسبة 80% .


Article
Microbial Causes of Urinary Tract Infection and its Sensitivity to Antibiotics at Heevi Pediatric Teaching Hospital/Duhok City

Author: Salah Abdulkareem Ibrahim, Delshad Abdallah Mohamed1, Sherzad Khudeida Suleman
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2020 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 109-114
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) refers to the presence of microbial pathogens within the urinary tract, and it is usually classifiedby the site of infection as the bladder (cystitis), kidney (pyelonephritis), or urine (bacteriuria). Objectives: The objectives of this study wereto determine the etiological bacterial pathogens of UTIs and to identify antibiotic sensitivity patterns of pathogens isolated among age groupsof children. Materials and Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, a random sample of the local registry of Heevi pediatric hospital of thepatients who were diagnosed with UTI and were sent for antibiotic sensitivity between August 2018 and July 2019 was taken for analysis. Sevenhundred and twenty‑two patients were included in the present study whose ages ranged from birth to more than 10 years. Results: The studyshowed that 22.8% and 20.6% of the patients were in >3–5 and 7–10 years of age and majority were females (66.5%). The study revealed that56.2% of the patients had different pathogens, and Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen in the diagnosed patients with UTI. Thepathogens had different frequency in the urine samples. Most of the cultures were sensitive to gentamycin (23.4%), amikacin (27.6%), andnorfloxacin (25.4%). The most resistant cultures were toward trimethoprim (31.2%), cephalothin (32.6%), and cefixime (21.6%). The studyshowed that E. coli was prevalent pathogen in all age groups. The study did show that common antibiotics were not statistically significantlydifferent between male and female patients, including gentamycin (P = 0.145), amoxicillin (P = 0.304), and norfloxacin (P = 0.407). Thecommon antibiotics were more prevalent in >3–5 years group, including gentamycin; amoxicillin; and norfloxacin. Conclusion: This studyfinding showed that E. coli isolates were the predominant pathogens and showed increasing sensitivity pattern to antimicrobial gentamycin,amikacin, and norfloxacin.


Article
Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance in Aeromonas species Isolated from Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Cultivated in Floating Cages at Al-Hilla River

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The aim of this study is describe the case of ulcer and hemorrhaging (red-sore disease) in a common carp (C. carpio) that is cultivated in floating cages at Al-Hilla river and to finding efficient antibiotic treatments. A total of 144 specimens of the common carp were examined for ulcer with hemorrhaging during the period from December 2017 till the end of November 2018. In this study, red-sore disease was found in 45 specimens. This disease is caused by the infection of Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS). Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria and A. veronii were isolated from the skin, gills and intestine of common carp. Aeromonas species were identified with a different percentage in common carp as the follows: A. hydrophila (58.76%), A. sobria (31.83%) and A. veronii (43.3%). Antibiotic susceptibility test of 12 antibiotics (Piperacillin/ Tazobactan, Amikacin, Cefazolin, Gentamicin, Cefoxitin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime, Levofloxacin, Cefepime, Tigecycline, Imipenem and Trimethoprim/ Sulfamethoxazoleby) showed variable resistances for Aeromonas species. Aeromonas species were identified and examined for antibiotic susceptibility using the VITEK 2 system.


Article
Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Odontogenic Abscesses

Authors: Dr. Haween T. Hassan.*** د. هاوين حسان --- Dr. Lukmman F. Omar.** د. لقمان عمر --- Dr. Ahmad Hayder Abdulla.* د. احمد حيدر
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 422-428
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Objective: The purpose of the study was to identify the bacterial composition of the microbiota from odontogenic abscesses and their antimicrobial susceptibilities.Study Design: An aspirate of pus from 37 patients with odontogenic abscesses was obtained by needle aspiration and processed aerobically and under anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were isolated and identified by standard Laboratory methods. Then antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria was determined by using disc diffusion method.Results: Out of 37 aspirates, 100% yielded positive culture, 34 aspirates contained a mix of microorganisms. A total of 90 strains of bacteria were isolated.Out of 90 strains, 63 strains were anaerobes and 27 strains were aerobes and facultative anaerobes. The mean number of strains per sample was 2.4, two samples were purely anaerobes, 9 samples were mixed anaerobes, 2 samples were purely facultative anaerobes, no purely aerobic, 17 had mixed growth of anaerobes and facultative anaerobes, and 7 samples had mixed growth of aerobes and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Out of 90 isolates, 42 (46.67%) were Gram-positive cocci, 25 (27.78%) were Gram-positive bacilli, 21 (23.33%) were Gram-negative bacilli, and 2 (2.22%) were Candida albicans. The genera of bacteria most frequently isolated were viridans group streptococci, Peptostreptococcus spp., Eubacterium spp., and Prevotella spp. Invitro antibiotic sensitivity of isolated microorganisms were tested for Penicillin, Amoxillin, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, Erythromycin, and Metronidazole by disc diffusion method. All isolates were sensitive to Amoxillin+ clavulanic acid: 27/27(100%), followed by Ampicillin: 24/27(88.89%), Amoxillin: 23/27(85.19%), Penicillin: 22/27(81.48%), Erythromycin: 12/27(44.44%), and metronidazole: 10/27(37.04%).Conclusions: The present results confirm the existence of mixed infection with predominance of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria in odontogenic abscesses. Penicillin still possesses antimicrobial activity against the majority of bacteria isolated from odontogenic infections. However, if penicillin therapy has failed to be effective, the combination of penicillin with ampicillin or amoxillin with clavulanic acid is recommended.


Article
The Bacterial Causative Agents of Aerobic Vaginitis in Sexually Active Nonpregnant Women and their Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern
المسببات البكتيرية لالتهاب المهبل الهوائي (Aerobic Vaginitis) في النساء النشطات جنسيا غير الحوامل ونمط حساسيتها للمضادات الحيوية

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Significant growth of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria was obtained from 43 specimens collected from sexually active nonpregnant women (20-40 years old) with aerobic vaginitis. Gram positive bacteria were isolated from 24 cases (55.8%), whereas Gram negative enteric rods were isolated from 14 cases (32.55%). Staphylococcus. aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) were isolated from 12 cases for each (27.90%) followed by Escherichia coli 11 (25.58%), Enterobacter spp. 2 (4.65%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (2.32%). Mixed infection was noted in 4 cases: S. aureus with Streptococcus sp. 1 (2.32%); CNS with Streptococcus sp. 1 (2.32%); and CNS with E. coli 2 (4.65%). Yeast was isolated from one case (2.32%). There were few antibiotics among the conventionally available antibacterial agents possessing good sensitivity (>80%) against any one of the common aerobic vaginal pathogens. For S. aureus and CNS, imipenem was the most effective 100% and 83.3%, respectively. Most of them were resistant to penicillis, third generation cephalosporins, methicillin, metronidazol, and vancomycin. For E. coli, 100% of the isolates were sensitive to imipenem, 84.6% to chloramphenico, and 76.9% to norfloxacin and gentamicin. On the other hand most of E. coli isolates were resistant to penicillins ,third generation cephalosporins and tetracyclines. In conclusion, aerobic vaginitis can be an origin of more serious deeper infections in these patients, for that such cases must be taken in account and routine cultures and antibiotic sensitivity tests must be done for such cases in our clinical laboratories.

تم الحصول على نمو معنوي للبكتريا الهوائية واللاهوائية الاختيارية من 43 عينة جمعت من نساء نشطات جنسيا وغير حوامل (بعمر 20-40 سنة) مصابات بالتهاب المهبل الهوائي (Aerobic vaginitis). عزلت البكتريا الموجبة لملون غرام من 24 حالة ((55.8% بينما عزلت العصيات المعوية السالبة لملون غرام من 14 حالة (%32.55). عزلت المكورات العنقودية الذهبية ((Staphylococcus aureus والمكورات العنقودية السالبة للكواكيوليز(Coagulase-negative staphylococci: CNS) من 12 حالة لكل منهما (%27.90) تلتها بكتريا الأشيرشية القولونية ( (Escherichia coli 11 ((25.58 ثم بكتريا (4.65%) 2 Enterobacter sppوبكتريا Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (2.32 %) . كانت الإصابة مختلطة في أربع حالات: S. aureus مع 1Streptococcus sp. ((%2.32 و CNSمع Streptococcus sp. 1 ((%2.32 و CNSمع (4.65%) 2 E. coli. تم عزل الخمائر من حالة واحدة (%2.32). أظهر عدد قليل من المضادات التقليدية المتوفرة فعالية جيدة (نسبة الحساسية >80%) ضد أي من البكتريا الشائعة كمسبب لالتهاب المهبل. كان مضاد اميبينيم الأكثر فعالية ضد S. aureus و CNS بنسبة %100 و%83.3 على التوالي. بينما كان اغلبها مقاومة للبنسلينات والجيل الثالث من السيفالوسبورينات والميثيسلين والمترونايدازول والفانكومايسين. اما عزلات بكتريا coli .E فكانت جميعها حساسة للمضاد اميبينيم (100%) و 84.6.% للكلورامفينيكول و 76.9% لكل من النورفلوكساسين والجينتامايسين. من ناحية أخرى كانت أغلب عزلات بكتريا coli .E مقاومة للبنسلينات والجيل الثالث من السيفالوسبورينات والتتراسايكلينات. نستنتج من هذه الدراسة أن التهاب المهبل الهوائي يمكن إن يكون مصدرا" لإصابات أعمق وأكثر خطورة في هؤلاء المريضات ولهذا يجب أخذ مثل هذه الإصابات بنظر الاعتبار وإجراء زرع روتيني لها للتحري عن المسببات وإجراء اختبار الحساسية للمضادات في مختبراتنا السريرية.

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