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Article
Antifungal Activities of Actinomycetes Isolated from a Sample of Iraqi Soils
الفعالية ضد فطرية لعزلات الاكتينومايسيتات من نماذج تربة عراقية.

Author: Aroba Khalid Abbas د.عروبة خالد عباس
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 179-183
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background & objective: This work aimed to isolate and identify naturally actinomycetes from different samples of Iraqi soils producing antifungal activity on different culture media.Materials & Methods: Twelve soil samples were collected from different sites of Baghdad (Jadria, Yarmouk, and Kadisa) in Iraq at summer season 2007. The actinomycetes were isolated on Starch – Casein – nitrate at different incubation temperatures and screened for antifungal activity on modified Bennett agar , Yeast extract - malt extract agar and Gaza agar against fungi including yeast (Candida albicans) and molds (Fusarium, Penicillum). All isolates of actinomycetes were tested for sensitivity to commonly used antibacterial drugs employing Kirby – Bauer method. Morphological characterization of these isolates were studied according to ISP (International streptomyces project) media which included color of aerial, substrate mycelium, soluble pigments and their PH sensitivity, form of sporophroe. Cell wall analysis was carried out for these isolates. Results: During a search for antifungal activity, either two actinomycetes strain were isolated from different samples of Iraqi soils. Twenty – Two isolates showed strong activity against yeast, & molds. All isolates were found to be belonging to genus streptomyces. Modified Bennett agar is good medium for antibiotic production at 30Co. These isolate were sensitive to all antibacterial drugs in this study. Their cell wall consists of Pepptidoglycan.Conclusion: The metabolite from Iraqi actinomycetes was active against yeast & molds. However, this needs further investigation using purified form of the active component of antibiotics from local isolates. Key words: Actinomycetes, antifungal activity Antibiotic.

الهدف : يهدف العمل الى عزل وتشخيص الاكيتوماستينات المتواجدة طبيعيا من تربة من مناطق مختلفة في العراق ذو قدرة على انتاج فعالية ضد فطرية على اوساط زرعية مختلفة. طرق العمل :تم جمع 12 نموذج لتربة من مواقع مختلفة من بغداد ( الجادرية , اليرموك , القادسية ) في العراق في صيف عام 2007 وتم عزل الاكتينوستيات على الوسط الزرعي ( نشا – كازائين – نترات ) وفي درجات حضن مختلفة وتم غربلتها على اساس فعاليتها الضد فطرية على ( وسط اكار بنيت المحور) ضد الخميرةalbicans ) Candida ) والاعفان ( Fusarium , Penicillum ) . اختبرت حساسية عزلات الاكتنتومايسيتات للمضادات ضد بكتيريا الشائعة الاستخدام باستخدام طريقة Kirby – Bauer method .تم دراسة التوصيف المظهري لتلك العزلات طبقا لاوساط الـــ( International streptomyces project ) تضمن دراسة لون المايسسليا الهوائية , المايسليا الارضية الصبغات الذائبة وحساسيتها للاس الهيدروجيني بشكل ابواغ حوامل السبورات وتم اجراء تحليل جدار الحلية لجميع العزلاتز النتائج : خلال البحث عن الفعالية ضد فطرية , تم عزل 82 سلالة من الاكتيومايستيات من نماذج مختلفة لتربة عراقية , لقد اظهرت 22 عزلة فعالية قوية ضد الخميرة والاعفان , وجد ان جميع العزلات تعود الى جنس الستربتومايس ووجد ان وسط اكاربينت المحور هو وسط زرعي جيد لانتاج المضاد الحيوي في درجة 30° درجة مئوية . ان تلك العزلات كانت حساسة للمضادات الضد بكترية في هذه الدراسة ز وكان جدار الخلية لتلك العزلات مولف من البيتدكلايكان . الاستنتاج :ان ايض العزلات العراقية من الاكتينوماينسيات كان فعالا تجاه الخميرة والاعفان لذلك تحتاج هذه العزلات الى بحث متقدم باستخدام الشكل المنقى للمركب الفعال من المضادات لتلك العزلات المحلية.


Article
Inhibitory activity of Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NH22 against Rhizoctonia solani
الفعالية التثبيطية للرامنولبد المنتج من بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa NH22 ضد Rhizoctonia solani

Author: Nadhem H. Hayder Gumaa ناظم حسن حيدر جمعة
Journal: Jornal of Biotechnology Research Center مجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية ISSN: 18151140 Year: 2012 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-44
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

In the present study, isolation and identification of microorganisms from rhizospher of garden soil with biosurfactant producing ability and characterization of biosurfactants were studied. The results exhibited capability of four isolates for biosurfactant production among six isolates. The isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa NH22 showed a better emulsifier producer, therefore it selected for biosurfactant production and antifungal activity in the present study. Biochemical analysis of partially purified bioemulsifier demonstrated that the biosurfactant contains mono, and di- rhamnolipid with Rf values of 0.82 and 0.32 respectively. Rhamnolipid efficiency tested for antifungal activity by determination percentage reduction of radial growth, fresh and dry weight and laccase activity of fungus. Maximum reduction in radial growth 76%, and reduction of biomass obtained at rhamnolipid concentration of 1000 µg/ ml. Maximum laccase activity obtained 0.921 U/ml also at rhamnolipid concentration of 1000 µg/ ml, while reduction about 21% of the enzyme activity recorded at higher rhamnolipih concentration of 1500 µg/ ml. The critical micelle concentration estimated to be 200 mg/l, which led to reduce surface tension value of the culture to34 mN/m.

تم عزل وتشخيص الاحياء المجهرية المعزولة من التربة ، ودرست قدرتها على انتاج المستحلبات الحياتية وتوصيفها . اظهرت النتائج قدرة اربعة عزلات على انتاج المستحلب الحياتي من بين ستة عزلات. بينت العزلة Pseudomonas aeruginosa NH22 قدرة عالية في انتاج المستحلب الحياتي ، لذا اختيرت لانتاج المستحلب الحياتي ودراسة فعاليته التثبيطية . اظهرت نتائج التحليل الكيموحيوي للمستحلب الحياتي المنقى جزئيا ، ان المستحلب يحتوي على احادي وثنائي الرامنولبد مع قيم للحركة النسبية (Rf) بلغت 0.82 و 0.32 على الترتيب. اختبرت كفاءة الرامنولبد للفعالية التثبيطية ، وذلك بتحديد النسبة المئوية لاختزال نمو الهايفات، الوزن الطري والرطب وقياس فعالية انزيم اللاكيز للفطر . اظهرت النتائج اقصى اختزال في نمو الهايفات بلغ 76% واختزال عالي في الكتلة الحيوية عند التركيز 1000 مايكروغرام/مل . كما بينت النتائج بان اعلى فعالية انزيمية بلغت 0.921 وحدة/مل ايضا عند التركيز 1000 مايكروغرام/مل ، بينما سجل انخفاض 21% في فعالية الانزيم عند التركيز 1500 مايكروغرام/مل من الرامنولبد . قدر تركيز المايسيل الحرج (CMC) للمستحلب الحياتي وكان عند التركيز 200 ملغم / لتر ، مما ادى الى خفض قيمة الشد السطحي للوسط الى 34 ملي نيوتن / متر .


Article
The effect of Tamarix ramosissima and Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts on the growth of Candida spp. isolated from the saliva of type II diabetes mellitus patients

Authors: Essmaa H. Gutef اسماء قطيف --- Khail I.A. Mohammed خليل محمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 158-163
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Plants have an almost limitless ability to synthesize aromatic substances, most of which are phenols ortheir oxygen-substituted derivatives. These secondary metabolites could be utilized for benefit of mankind bystudying their medicinal properties The study was performed for isolation and identification of the oral Candidaspecies in patients with type II Diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects (control group) and testing the effect ofTamarix ramosissima (T. ramosissima)and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ci. Zeylanicum)extract on the isolated species.Materials and Methods: . Fasting stimulated saliva were collected by spitting method for each subject. Candidaspecies were isolated, purified and identified according to morphological characteristic on chromogenic agar(CHROMagar Candida) and biochemical test on API Candida. Also the study included the effect of T. ramosissimaand Ci.zeylanicum extracts on the isolated species using agar well diffusion method. Aqueous, alcoholic,ethylacetate and aqueous acetone extracts were prepared in different concentrations T. ramosissima and aqueous,alcoholic extract from Ci.zeylanicum. The activity of the extract was determined by measuring the diameter ofinhibition zone.Results: The results showed that Candida species was recovered from the oral cavity of 76% of the diabetic group, incontrast to 8.58% of the control group. Candida albicans (C. albicans) was the most frequently isolated species inboth groups it reach to 33 isolates (66%) (in diabetic group fallowed by C. krusei two isolates (4%), C. glabrata oneisolate (2%), C.tropicalis one isolate (2%) and C. lusitaniae one isolate (2%) and three isolates (8.58%) of C. albicans inthe control group. There was highly significant p<0.01 correlation between glycemic control and age, significantp<0.05 correlation between females and diabetes with oral carriage of Candida species, also results showed highlysignificant p<0.01 antifungal effect of Tamarix ramosissima aqueous acetone extract on all Candida species by usingdifferent concentrations there; were diameters of inhibition zones found to increase with increasing theconcentration of the extracts. While aqueous, alcoholic and ethylacetate extract of Tamarix ramosissima did notshow any effect on Candida species. Highly significance p<0.01 was shown in aqueous, alcoholic extracts ofCinnamomum zeylanicum on all Candida species; the diameter of inhibition increase with increasing theconcentration.Conclosion: Diabetic patients had a higher oral candidal carriage rate in comparison to non- diabetic . C. albicanswas the predominant isolate, and a variety of other Candidal species. Oral candidal colonization was highlysignificantly associated with fasting blood sugar. Tamarix. ramosissima leaves (aqueous acetone) extract haveantifungal effect against Candida while (ethylacetate, aqueous and alcoholic) extract don’t have antifungaleffectagainst Candida isolates from the oral cavity of Diabetes mellitus type II. Cinnamomum. zeylanicum bark(aqueous and alcoholic) extract have antifungal effect against Candida isolates from oral cavity of Diabetes mellitustype II.


Article
Chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Cumin seeds extracted oil against some bacterial and fungal isolates
التحليل الكيميائي و الفعالية المضادة للميكروبات لزيت بذور الكمون المستخلص

Author: Rafeef Amer Abdul Jabbar رفيف عامر عبد الجبار
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 4 Pages: 65-73
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Cuminum cyminum seeds oil was extracted by using Soxhelt extraction ,the chemical analysis is carried out by means of GC-MS ,1H-indene derivatives (59.77%) and Cuminic aldehyde(13.77%) are respectively the major compound in the extracted oil . The Cumin oil exhibits a strong antibacterial activity against four clinical bacterial isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and strong to moderate antifungal activity against three fungal isolates (Aspergillus flavus ,Candida albicans and Cryptococcus sp.). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the Cumin extracted oil was applied against the clinical isolates of bacteria and E.coli was the most sensitive isolate, with the lowest MIC value.

تم استخلاص زيت بذور الكمون Cumin (Cuminum cyminum)بأستخدام جهاز الاستخلاص السوكسليه Soxhelt . وقد تم التحليل الكيميائي للزيت المستخلص بأستخدام كروماتوجرافيا الغاز-طيف الكتلةGC –MS ووجد ان حوالي59,77% من محتوى الزيت كان مشتق الأندين1H-Indene derivative و13.77% هو الديهايد الكمون Cumin aldehyde وهذا بالتتابع حسب اعلى النسب . وقد أظهر زيت الكمون المستخلص فعالية بيولوجية عالية في تثبيط اربع عزلات جرثومية سريرية Escherichia coli ,Staphylococcus) Klebsiella sp. , aureus و(Pseudomonas aeruginosa.كما اظهر فعالية معتدلة تجاه ثلاث عزلات فطرية(Aspergillus flavus Candida albicans , وCryptococcus sp.).التركيز المثبط الأدنى من زيت الكمون المستخلص للعزلات الجرثومية السريرية تم تحديده ولوحظ أن جرثومة E. coli هي اكثر الانواع الجرثومية تحسساً لزيت الكمون حتى مع التراكيز الواطئة منه.


Article
Evaluation of Maleamic Acid Derivatives Against Some Pathogenic Fungi

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Abstract

Five maleamic acid derivatives were prepared: Bis –maleamic acid(compound A); Ethylene –Bis–maleamic acid(compound A1); 1,4 –phenylene (2,2- diamino –Bis (1,3,4- thiadiazol- 5- yl))malaemic acid(compound A2) ; 4-N( 2,3 – dimethyl- 1- phenyl – pyrazolin-5- one- 4-yl) maleicacid (compound A3) and 5-methyl -3- sulphanilamide maleamic acid(compound B). These were examined to study their antifungal activity against six pathogenic fungi, some of them causing superficial infection like T. rubrum, T. violaceum and T. soudanese, while others are responsible for invasive infection(lower respiratory tract) like A. fumigatus, A . flavus and P. marneffei. Results showed that the first three derivatives A, A1 and A2, are active against both the dermatophytes and invasive fungi, remarkably A derivative is highly active (100% growth inhibition) against T. soudanese and in three different concentrations and have the same activity against T.violaceum and Aspergillus species but only at the highest concentration. Derivative A1 have the highest effect (100% growth inhibition) against T. rubrum and T. violaceum and P. marneffeiat the highest concentration only, while the third derivative A2 showed the same activity against T. violaceum at the highest concentration and against A. fumigatus at the three highest concentrations. On the other hand the two derivatives A3 and B found to have a considered antifungal effect against dermatophytes (100% growth inhibition ), that A3 derivative showed is active against T. rubrum in its tow highest concentrations and against T. violaceum only at the highest concentration, they were recorded also to have antifungal effect against other studied species but to less extent .Finally, derivative B is recorded to be active effect against T.rubrum (100% growth inhibition) at its highest concentration and also has a considered effect against T. violacem in its tow highest concentration. Maleamic acid derivatives appeared to be strong antifungals , and their activity increasing gradually with concentration and with a significant difference between the activities of the compounds (p≤0.05). It is concluded that those compounds may have uses as antifungals in the future.


Article
Evaluating the effect of silver nanoparticles incorporation on antifungal activity and some properties of soft denture lining material

Authors: Moamin I. Issa مؤمن ابراهيم عيسى --- Nabeel Abdul-Fattah نبيل عبد الفتاح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 17-23
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Colonization of soft denture liners by Candida albicans and other microorganisms continued to be aserious problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporating silver nanoparticles into heat curedacrylic-based soft denture liner on the antifungal activity, and on water sorption, solubility, shear bond strength andcolor change of the soft lining material. Furthermore, evaluating the amount of silver released.Materials and methods: Silver nanoparticles were incorporated into soft denture liner in different percentages (0.05%,0.1% and 0.2% by weight). Four hundred and twenty specimens were prepared and divided into five groupsaccording to the test to be performed. The antifungal activity of the soft liner/AgNPs composite was evaluated inthree different periods by using (viable count of C. albicans and disk-diffusion test). The amount of silver released inartificial saliva was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The water sorptions, solubility, shear bond strengthand color change was measured and the results were statistically analyzed.Results:All experimental groups showed a highly significant decrease in colony forming units of C. albicans incomparison to control group. There was no inhibition zone around any test specimen of any test group. There was nosilver detected to be released. The addition of AgNPs resulted in a highly significant decrease in water sorption, whileonly 0.2% group showed highly significant decrease in solubility. Non significant differences in shear bond strengthwere found. A highly significant increase in light absorption percentage was observed in all experimental groups.Conclusion: The addition of AgNPs helps to produce soft denture liner with antifungal properties. Silver was notdetected to be released. This addition resulted in decrease in water sorption, and did not affect the shear bondstrength and it increased the opacity of the material


Article
Antifungal activity of agent produced by Streptomycesspp. isolated from soil samples

Author: Samer M. Al-Hulu
Journal: journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly) مجلة القادسية للعلوم الصرفة (فصلية). ISSN: 19972490 Year: 2015 Volume: 2 Issue: 20 Pages: 30-36
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Thirty soil samples were collected from Hilla City. Thirteen actinomycetes isolates wasisolated. Antifungal activity of these isolates were tested against C. albicans . Results showedthat actinomycetes. 4 was given higher inhibition zone compared with other isolates.Actinomycetes. 4 isolate was selected for extraction of antifungal agent. According tocultural and biochemical tests of Actinomyces. 4 these isolates was belong to Streptomycesspp. Streptomyces spp.4 isolate was grey aerial mycelium, and yellow-green substratemycelium , no melanin production and no diffusible pigment, able to ferment sugars, negativefor catalase and H2S and positive for citrate utilization. Crude extract of Streptomyces spp.4was active against C.albicans and A.niger with inhibition zone (22mm) against C. albicansand (16 mm) against A. niger. MIC of Streptomyces spp.4 antifungal agent showed that MICvalues against C. albicans , A. niger were 22, 38 µg/ ml respectively. UV spectrum ofabsorption for antifungal agent showed that it have a single peak with maximum absorption (λmax) 293 nm.


Article
The Effect of Addition of Zirconium Nano Particles on Antifungal Activity and Some Properties of Soft Denture Lining Material

Authors: Alaa Dakhil Yasser علاء داخل ياسر --- Nabeel Abdul Fatah نبيل عبدالفتاح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 4 Pages: 27-32
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background Microorganisms and fungal growth especially Candida albicans, on soft denture lining material are the most common problem which can lead to chronic mucosal inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zirconium nanoparticles into acrylic-based heat cured soft denture lining material against Candida albicans, and the amount of zirconium ion release of soft liner/ZrNPs composite. Furthermore, evaluate shear bond strength after ZrNPs addition to soft liner.Materials and methods: Zirconium nanoparticles were added into acrylic-based soft denture liner in various percentages (1%, and 1.5% by weight). Two hundred and fifty specimens were arranged and isolated into four groups as per the test to be done The antifungal activity of the soft liner/ZrNPs composite was assessed in three different periods by using two methods (viable count of C. albicans and disk-diffusion test). In two distinct periods, amount of zirconium released in artificial saliva was detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Instron testing machine was used to test the shear bond strength of the soft liner to the acrylic denture base material.Results: A highly significant decrease in colony forming units of C. albicans in experimental groups (1% and 1.5%ZrNPs) contrast with control group. There was no inhibition zone around any specimen of any test group. In artificial saliva there was no zirconium distinguished to be released at any incubation period. There was a highly significant increase in the mean value of shear bonding strength after incorporation of ZrNPs at 1.5% percentage into soft liner.Conclusion: The addition of ZrNPs into acrylic-based soft denture lining material helps to provide soft denture liner with antifungal properties, thus reducing the susceptibility to develop denture-induced stomatitis. There is no zirconium has been detected at any incubation period and there is increased in the shear bond strength of the soft lining material.


Article
In vitro,study of Senna alata leaf extract against Dermatophytes
دراسة فعالية مستخلص اوراق نبات السنامكي Senna alata ضد الفطريات الجلدية، مختبريا

Author: عادل عدنان علي
Journal: journal of the college of basic education مجلة كلية التربية الاساسية ISSN: 18157467 Year: 2012 Volume: 18 Issue: 75 Pages: 743-754
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of Senna alata leaf extract on the skin fungi (dermatophytes). The studies on the in vitro investigation of antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of Senna alata L. leaf was carried out. The test was conducted on dermatophytes which included the genera of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. These fungi are the causative agents of various types of fungal skin diseases (dermatophytosis) which attack various parts of the body and tend to the following conditions, Tinea capitis, Tinea cruris, Tinea corporis and Tinea pedis. The results obtained showed that the leaf ethanol extract of Senna alata had marked antifungal effects on Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton fluccosum. The ethanolic extract showed the highest inhibition on Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton fluccosum with 20.50 and 20.00 mm zone of inhibition, respectively. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was also performed and the results showed that the MIC of Senna alata on all the tested dermatophytes was 5.0 mg/ml.

تم دراسة فعالية مستخلص اوراق نبات السنامكي Senna alata ضد الفطريات الجلدية dermatophytes مختبريا، وقد تم تقييم كفاءة المستخلص الكحولي باستخدام الكحول الاثيلي ethanolic extract للاوراق ضد الفطريات الجلدية التابعة للاجناس Trichophyton ، Microsporum و Epidermophyton والتي تسبب انواعا مختلفة من الامراض الجلدية dermatophytosis التي تصيب الاجزاء المختلفة من الجسم وتشمل قوباء الرأس Tinea capitis، القوباء الوركية Tinea cruris ، قوباء الجسم Tinea corporis وقوباء القدم Tinea pedis.لقد بينت نتائج هذه الدراسة بأن مستخلص اوراق نبات السنامكي لها تأثير قوي كمضاد فطري antifungal ضد كل من الفطريات Microsporum canis ، Trichophyton rubrum ، T. mentagrophytes و Epidermophyton fluccosum . ان المستخلص الكحولي باستخدام الايثانول قد اظهر اعلى درجة تثبيط في الفطر T. rubrum والفطر E. fluccosum بمنطقة تثبيط 20.50 و 20.00 ملم، على التوالي. تم حساب التركيز المثبط الادنى (MIC) وقد اظهرت النتائج بان التركيز المثبط الادنى لمستخلص اوراق السنامكي لجميع الفطريات الجلدية المدروسة كان 5.0 ملغم/مل.


Article
Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Salvia officinalis’s leaves in the Growth of Candida albicans from Infected Women with Vaginal Candidiasis

Authors: Israa Mohammad Abd AL-khaliq Msc اسراء محمد عبد الخالق --- Rusul Mohammad jasim MSc رسول محمد جاسم
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-49
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : Salvia officinalis is a plant belong to Labiatae family .The common name of Salvia is sage which mean save. The leaves of Salvia have special oil which is effective against filamentous fungi and yeasts such as Candida albicans which is the causative agent of vaginal candidiasis in womenMethods . Cultures from 50 swabs of Candida albicans isolated from vagina of 70 patient women who complains from vaginal problems, their ages (24-43) years from Central City Hospital during Febreoury 2009 to April 2009 were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) .Nystatin was used as positive reference standard to determine the sensitivity of this fungus . and less this concentration there was no minimum inhibition for the CandidaResults : The aqueous extract of Salvia officinalis at various concentrations inhibited the growth of C. Albicans . This inhibitions reached to a maximum of 100% for extract at 25 mg / ml and the minimum inhibition was 170 mm at 15 mg /ml for the extract . While the minimum and maximum inhibition for nystatin was at 50 µg/ml,and less concentration. There was no minimum inhibition for the CandidaConclutions : The findings provide support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine for fungal infections especially against candidiasis .

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