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Article
HLA Antigens Among Iraqi Muslims Arabs And Kurds

Authors: Batool M. Mahdi --- Khalida M. Al-Moussawy --- Abdul Wahab A.R. Al-Shaikhly --- Ali H. Ad’hiah
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 94-97
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The HLA system is a relevant tool in population genetics analysis. From the genetic point of view, the HLA system is of general interest because of the extreme polymorphism of all known HLA loci. The allele and haplotype frequencies have a wide diversity among human population and differ in geographically and racially among populations. Iraq had a high percentage of Muslims people that distributed in two groups (Arab and Kurd). These groups are ancient populations and affected by many settlement in many centuries ago. These ancient settlements had left marks on the genetic structure of the modern Iraqi populations. The later immigrations to other countries were high in later years. The aim of study is to estimate the gene frequency of HLA class I (A, B, Cw) alleles in Iraqi Arab Muslims and Kurd Muslims and determine the genetic differences between them. METHODS: A total of unrelated 1400 Iraqi Arab Muslims (AM) and 705 Kurd Muslims (KM) healthy volunteers and individuals referred to Immunology and Tissue Typing Center in Al-Karamah Teaching Hospital for organ transplantation and Forensic medicine, were examined for HLA polymorphism using complement dependent cytotoxicity test from June-2003 to April-2004. RESULTS: The phenotypes of HLA typing of Iraqi Arab Muslims (AM) and Kurd Muslims (KM) were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Regarding HLA class I (A and Cw loci), there was a significant differences between these groups. Lasly, there was no significant difference between them in HLA-B. CONCLUSIONS: This may be due to their inhabitants different area in Iraq, and also due to their different origin as Arab and Kurd races with mild differences due to outbreeding and migration. The effects of invaders and settlements from out side the country and intermixing with them may play an important role in these differences


Article
The Effect of Translation as a Means of Communication Between Cultures: Arabic Islamic Culture as an Example
الترجمة وتواصل الحضارات – الحضارة العربية أنموذجاً

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Abstract

Translation plays a very important role in the process of development as it is the means that transports different fields of knowledge and thoughts among different cultures. The historical roots of translation is related to the ancient world as translation was known to the Babylonians, Assyrians, the ancient Egyptians, ancient Persians, ancient Greeks and the Romans.

للترجمة حضور فاعل في رفد عملية التطور على المستويات كافة؛ لما لها من تأثير فاعل في نقل المعارف والأفكار بين الشعوب التي تختلف في لغاتها، ومناهج تفكيرها، وأنماط حياتها. فهي حلقة الوصل بين أمّة وأخرى، وقد مرت الترجمة بمراحل عدة أدت إلى تطورها، وبروزها كعلم له قواعده، ونظرياته، فالجذور التاريخية للترجمة تعود في قدمها للحضارات القديمة، إذ نشطت الترجمة في العالم القديم وسجلت حضورها منذ أيام البابليين والآشوريين والمصريين والفرس واليونانيين والإغريق.


Article
The Influence of Arabic on Indian Language: Historically and Linguistically
أثر اللغة العربية في اللغه الهندية: تاريخياً ولغوياً

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Abstract

Having talked with many people from India when we studied there from 2007 till 2014, we were often fascinated by words that sounded Arabic in origin. When asking about the meaning, they were indeed Arabic. And I could detect more words in the few Hindi Bollywood movies that I have seen as well. Historically speaking, Arabic has been used in India almost exclusively by its Muslim population, and has been a key force in delineating and shaping Indian Muslim identity. This is not surprising, for it is generally acknowledged that the Arabic language has a predominantly sacred character outside the Arabic speaking Middle East. A thorough study of Indian history suggests that India's first substantial contact with the Arabic language came when the Arab Muslims settled in the western Indian province of Sind. Subsequently, the Arabic language continued to flourish further under the patronage of the Mughal rulers in India. In the Islamic epochs, the usage of Arabic was liturgical. But after the independence of India, non-sacred Arabic gained momentum. However, the functional manifestation of the language in the subcontinent has great historical significance and has not been systematically explored. To this end, this paper presents an attempt to analyze the processes and extent of development and uses of Arabic in India since its arrival in the eighth century through the twentieth indicating career prospects in the days to come, in as much as they bring into sharper focus the scriptural face of Indian Arabic

من خلال تواصلنا المباشر مع العديد من الهنود أثناء الدراسة في الهند للفترة من 2007 حتى 2014, كنا مبهورين كثيراً بالمفردات التي بدت ذات اصل عربي، وعندما نسال عن المعنى نجدها فعلا عربية، كما استطعنا اكتشاف المزيد من الكلمات في البعض من افلام بوليوود الهندية التى شاهدناها، من الناحية التاريخية, استخدمت اللغة العربية فى الهند بصورة شبه حصرية من قبل سكانها المسلمين, وكانت العنصر الرئيسيي فى تحديد وبلورة هوية المسلمين الهنود، عموما, ليس من الغريب ان اللغة العربية هي لغة فى الغالب ذات طابع مقدس خارج الشرق الاوسط الناطق بالعربية، اقترحت دراسة شاملة لتاريخ الهند ان اول اتصال للهند باللغة العربية بدأ مع استيطان العرب المسلمين فى غرب الهند ومقاطعة السند، وفى وقت لاحق, أستمرت اللغة العربية بالازدهار تحت رعاية الحكام المغوليين فى الهند، خلال الحقب الاسلامية, استخدمت اللغة العربية بشكل معقد ولكن بعد استقلال الهند, اكتسبت اللغة العربية العادية زخما كبيرا، ومع ذلك, فان مظاهر اللغة فى شبه القارة كان له اهمية تاريخية كبيرة حيث خضعت للاستكشاف العلمي والمنهجي، وتحقيقا لهذه الغاية, تعرض هذه الورقة محاولة لتحليل مراحل ومدى تطور استخدامات اللغة العربية فى الهند منذ وصولها فى القرن الثامن ومرورا بالقرن العشرين مشيرةً الى افاق التطور التوظيفى للغة مع مرور الايام, وكذلك تسليط الضوء بشكل اساسي على الجانب الادبي للعربية الهندية.

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