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Article
Prevalence of dental discoloration among 5-44 years population in Sharkhan village, Nineveh Governorate, Mosul, Iraq

Authors: Manar M AL-NE,MA --- Talal H AL-SALMAN --- Ma,an M NAYEF
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: S327-S334
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of dental discoloration in the rural area and to identify, if there is any variation between sex and age group in a sample of (114) subjects aged (5-44)years. The sample was divided into four age group (5-14),(15-24),(25-34) and (35-44) years. The results revealed high percentage of teeth discoloration in all age groups & it was particularly due to natural or acquired cause and there were no differences between the age groups or sex. Also, the result of this research showed that about (82%) of the total sample are with discoloration defect in their teeth.

Keywords

Discoloration --- rural area


Article
Occlusal criteria in two Iraqi rural communities

Authors: Tarik Y KHAMRCO --- Ali R AL-KHATIB --- Ne,am F AGHA
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 360-368
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study was carried out to assess the occlusal features in two Iraqi rural populations, to evaluate the prevalence of these criteria, to explore the difference in these features between the two communities and to provide data base for the malocclusion add to the available informations mainly in rural areas. A sample of(268) males with age range(12-18) years(139 persons from Al-Sharkhan and 129 from Al-Shamsiat rural areas. The statistical analysis revealed that the normal occlusion form(38%) for the two areas while the Class I malocclusion appeared in(54.1%) of the total sample, but Class II division 1 and 2 occurred in(8.2%),(2.2%) respectively, and lastly the Class III malocclusion noticed at(6.3%). The most commonly occurring feature was the generalized dental spacing(40.31%) followed by the generalized crowding(23.25%), and deep bite of which the total overlapping of the lower anterior teeth was occur in(7.08%). Nevertheless, open bite noticed at(1.49%) of the total sample. In this research, there was only a significant difference between the samples of two rural areas at the generalized dental crowding, spacing and in the slight and extreme increase in over jet. Also the unilateral cross bite,buccally erupted canines were more common than the bilateral one.


Article
Assessment of some atmospheric heavy metals in selected sites within Baghdad city

Authors: Abdul Hameed M.J Al-Obaidy --- Noor H. Hamza --- Eman Shakir --- Athmar A.M. Al-Mashhady
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 42-46
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Atmospheric wet depositions have distinct characteristics in terms of associated pollutant types and influential parameters. This paper discusses the concentration of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Ni) in selected urban areas for wet depositions. Wet deposition samples, which are represented as rainwater collected from October 2013 through April 2014. The results indicated that industrial area exhibits the higher mean concentrations of Cd, Ni and Pb. Overall results imply that important anthropogenic sources are likely the most sources of heavy metals in this region.


Article
A Study for the Influence of Change in Ratio of Cross Sectional Area to Constant Perimeter of Thermosyphon's Condenser

Authors: Ali D.Salman --- Israa S.Ahmed --- Waleed Y.Shehab
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 16 Pages: 3451-3467
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This experimental study investigated the change in cross-sectional area (csa) of thermosyphon's condenser to it's a constant perimeter (RAP) and effect of that at the thermal performance. Geometries shapes deform from circular to elliptical and flat to make a change in csa at a same perimeter of all geometries shapes where a different value of RAP are got. At each RAP a different rate of heat input in evaporator anddifferent filling ratio of working fluid (distill water) are applied. Threshold angle (working angle) where the condensate of distilled water vapor begin to return to evaporator, this angle are examined with the horizontal level for three geometries shapes (three RAP). The results indicated that the flat two phase closed thermosyphon( FTPCT)(low RAP value) and elliptical two phase closed thermosyphon (ETPCT) had a higher and more stable heat transfer coefficient h (condenser air side) with the high and mid filling ratio from than of the circular twophase closed thermosyphon( CTPCT). That refer to more useful length of condenser to absorb heat from evaporator and prevent it from causing a rise in temperature. The high filling ratio with low rate of heat level in evaporator lead to unuseful area in thermosyphon's condenser and lowering its pressure, while low filling ratio with highrate of heat caused a chaotic flow inside TPCT and rising the evaporator and condenser temperatures.


Article
Assessment of the morphology of apical area in Iraqi Arabic first molars

Author: Nazar GH JAMEEL Manar M AL-NE,MA
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 243-248
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

One hundred twenty mandibular first molars and (96) maxillary first molars of Arabic permanent dentition were studied morphologically in vitro, using visual examination to detect number of roots, and apical foraminae, a radiographic investigation was formed to detect number of canals and a clearing or (transparent) technique was performed to emphasize the results obtained, the clearing technique was performed by decalcification of teeth and injecting them with a dye, number of roots, root canals and apical foraminae were detected and calculated as follow (98.33%) of the mandibular first molars had two roots and (1.66%) had three roots (one distal & two mesial), the maxillary first molars had three roots (one palatal & two buccal) in (100%) of teeth examined,(10%) of the mandibular first molars had two canals,(86.7%)had three canals and (3.3%) had four canals. The maxillary first molars did not have two canals,(82.3%) had three canals & about (17.7%) had four canals. The number of apical foraminae in the mandibular first molar were found to be two in (15%) of the teeth, three in about (84%) and four apical foraminae in less than (1%) of the teeth, The maxillary first molars had three apical foraminae in about (85.4%) four apical foraminae in (14.6%) of the teeth examined.


Article
Isolation of some benzo(a)pyrene- degrading bacteria from contaminated area in Kirkuk city, Iraq

Authors: Awaz Bahrooz Mohammed --- Yaseen Hussein O'waied AL-Juboory --- Sami Hussein Azeez
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2017 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-96
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Benzo(a)Pyrene is one of the most important environmental contaminants belongs to high molecular PAHs and listed by USEPA as priority pollutant. It has attracted wide interest due to its carcinogenic activity. In order to isolate and diagnose bacterial species that possess the ability to utilise BaP in Mineral Basal Salt Medium (MBSM), Soil samples were collected from the oil contaminated soils from automobile workshop (washing and greasing cars) sites in Kirkuk city. Iinitial diagnosis of bacterial isolates was done rotine method in addition of Vitek 2 compact system to get quick results and prescription in bacterial isolates identification. The results showed eight bacterial species as follows: Pseudomonas mendocina, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterobacter cloacae, Cupriavidus pauculus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea spp, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Comamonas testosterone. Anew bacterial genera were recorded in the present study including Cupriavidus pauculus, Pantoea sp, Cupriavidus pauculus and Comamonas testosteroni have the ability to utilize BaP as the only source of carbon and energy. The results of experimental culture to determine CFU/ml of each bacterial isolate referred to highest CFU/ml was recorded for Enterobacter cloacae (2.96×1026 CFU/ml) indicating the highest growth followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (2.92×1024 CFU/ml). There was linear increase in number CFU of cells with increase the incubation time (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days). On the day 32 incubation about 74.67% and 67.48 % of BaP were utilize by both E. cloacae and K. pneumonia respectively.


Article
The Value of the chest X-Ray for diagnosing left ventricularDysfunction

Authors: Kasim M. AL- Doori --- Layth R. Shareef
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-26
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The use of the chest x-ray measurements which includes the cardiothoracic ratio(C-T) and frontal area (FA) of the heart by the CXR are useful measures for primary assessment of the cardiac dysfunction.
Patients and Methods: A Prospective study was done from the 1st of January 2005 to the 1st of October in the same year on a 120 consecutive patients who have been admitted for coronary and L.V angiogram at IBN-AL-BITAR hospital. The C-T ratio and the frontal area were measured.
Results: The study comprised 120 subjects who were admitted for coronary and L.V angiogram for diagnostic reasons. 89subjects (74.2%) are male and 31subjects (25.8%) are female .17(14%) subjects have left ventricular dysfunction and dilated L.V with EDV&#8805;110 cm^2 by angiogram. (76) Subjects (71%) had LAD (Left anterior descending artery disease), (40) subjects (37%) had LCX (Left circumflex artery disease), 10subjects (9%) had LMS (Left main stem artery disease) and (38) subjects (34%) RCA (disease). 13subjects (10%) had valve disease , 2subjects (1%) of them have aortic stenosis , 5 subjects (4%) had A.I (aortic inche), 4 subjects (3%) had M.S(Mitral stenosis) , 6 subjects (5%) had M.R Mitral regurgitation and combined valve disease .The abnormal chest radiogram C/T Ratio had a sensitivity of 56.6%, a specificity of 78.6%, and positive ,negative predictive values and accuracy of 95.2% ,19.3% and 59.2% respectively, in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction.while the abnormal chest radiogram FA/BSA £ had a sensitivity of 47.2%, specificity of 42.9%, and positive ,negative predictive values and accuracy of 86.2% ,9.7% and 46.7% respectively.
Conclusion: The radiological study of the thorax is not an accurate indicator of left ventricular dysfunction; its use as a screening method to initially approach the patient with ventricular dysfunction should be reevaluated.


Article
Physical Adsorption of Reforming Catalyst by Nitrogen

Authors: Tariq M.Naife --- Hussain K.Hussain --- Abdul Halim A.K. Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2006 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 345-359
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Physical adsorption by nitrogen gas was studied on seven commercial platinum reforming catalysts (RG-402, RG-412, RG-432, RG-451, RG 422,RG-482, PS-10), four prepared platinum catalysts (0.1%Pt/alumina, 0.2 %Pt/alumina, 0.45 %Pt/alumina and 0.55% Pt/alumina), and γ-alumina support.Physical adsorption was carried out by using Accelerated Surface Area and Porosimetry (ASAP 2400 device) at 77 K . The results indicate that the surface area in general decreases with increasing platinum percentage,high platinum loaded (0.45% and 0.55%) it was found that the percent increasing in surface area was lower than those obtained for low platinum loaded catalysts , and at very higher platinum loading 0.6 %Pt , some reduction in surface area was observed . The precipitation of Re and Ir metals with 0.35 % and 0.6 % platinum increases the surface area , while precipitation of 0.57% Sn with 0.375% Pt/ γ-alumina deceases the surface area catalyst .

تم دراسة الإمتزاز الفيزياوي باستخدام غازالنتروجين للعوامل المساعدة التالية: سبعة عوامل مساعدة تجارية(RG-402, RG-412, RG-432, RG-451, RG 422,RG-482, PS-10) أربع عوامل مساعدة محضرة (0.1، 0.2، 0.45 و 0.55) % وزنا بلاتين (نسبة وزنية مئوية) محمل على الألومينا, اضافة الى كاما اوكسيد الالمنيوم.تم إجراء الإمتزاز الفيزياوي في درجة حرارة النيتروجين السائل (77)كلفن باستعمال جهاز قياس المساحة السطحية والمسامية (ASAP 2400). أظهرت النتائج أن المساحة السطحية تنخفض مع زيادة نسبة البلاتين المحمل على الألومينا بشكل عام وفي نسب البلاتينيوم العالية (0.55,0.45)% وجد بأن نسبة الزيادة في المساحة السطحية هي أقل من التي تم الحصول عليها في نسب البلاتينيوم الواطئة للعوامل المساعدة ،وجد ايضا بانه عندما تكون نسبة البلاتين عالية جدا 0.6% لوحظ أنخفاض بسيط في المساحة السطحية.أن ترسيب Re و Ir للعوامل المساعدة الثنائية المعدن بنسبة 0.35 % و 0.6 % من البلاتينيوم أدى الى زيادة في المساحة السطحية مقارنة بالعوامل المساعدة الاحادية المعدن , بينما ترسيب Sn بنسبة 0.57 % للعامل المساعد 0.357%البلاتين / كاما-الومينا أدى الى أنخفاض المساحة السطحية.


Article
Diagenesis of Khurmala Formation in Dokan Area, North Eastern Iraq
العمليات التحويرية في صخور تكوين خورمالة/ منطقة دوكان، شمال شرقي العراق

Author: Safwan F. Al-Lihaibi صفوان فتحي اللهيبي
Journal: Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science المجلة العراقية الوطنية لعلوم الارض ISSN: 16823222 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 17-34
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Diagenesis were studied within Khurmala limestone Formation at Dokan area, Northeastern Iraq. The study recognized many diagenetic processes affected limestone within a successive sequence including micrite envelope, dolomitization, dissolution, neomorphism, cementation, mechanical and chemical compaction. The study determined four diagenetic zones. They are marine zone (micrite envelope), mixing zone (dolomitization), meteoric pheratic zone (dissolution, neomorphism, cementation) and burial zone (mechanical and chemical compaction). According to the history of diagenesis and their sequence, the study revealed that periodical fluctuation in sea level has influenced on diagenetic processes and their paragenetic sequence.

تمت دراسة العمليات التحويرية في تكوين خورمالة الجيري (الباليوسين _ الايوسين المبكر) في قضاء دوكان _ شمال شرقي العراق، وقد أوضحت الدراسة تأثر صخور التكوين بالعمليات التحويرية التالية وهي ضمن تسلسل زمني متعاقب بدءاً بعملية المكرتة والدلمتة والاذابة والتشكل الجديد والسمنتة لتنتهي بعمليات الانضغاط الميكانيكي والكيميائي. وأوضحت الدراسة ان هذه العمليات التحويرية حدثت في أربع انطقه تحويرية هي نطاق البيئة التحويرية البحرية (المكرتة) و نطاق البيئة التحويرية المختلطة (الدلمتة) ونطاق البيئة التحويرية الجوية الفرياتية (الاذابة والتشكل الجديد و السمنتة) وبيئة الدفن( الانضغاط بنوعيه). وأظهرت الدراسة الحالية حصول تذبذبات دورية لمستوى سطح البحر تؤثر على العمليات التحويرية وتسلسلها في رواسب التكوين في منطقة الدراسة.


Article
Damping Inter -Area Electromechanical Oscillation In Two- Area Electrical Power System Using Power System Stabilizer.
إخماد الاهتزاز الكهروميكانيكى البين المناطقى لمنظومة قدره كهربائية مكونه من منطقتين باستعمال مثبت القدرة

Author: Adel Ridha Othman عادل رضا عثمان
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2014 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 180-201
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this paper a Delta- Omega Power system stabilizer (PSS) is used to damp the inter – area electromechanical oscillation, the simulated system consists of two fully symmetrical areas linked together by two 230 KV tie lines of 300 Km length. Each area is equipped with one identical round rotor generators rated 20 KV/900 MVA. The synchronous machines have identical parameters, in addition to a DC exciters with a gain of 200. The load is represented as constant impedances and split between the areas in such a way that area 1 is exporting 40 MW to area 2. The reference load – flow with Machine 1 (G1) is considered the slack machine and machine 2 (G2) is considered the voltage controlling (PV bus). The simulated system before the disturbance was stressed due to the loading effect of the constant impedances which are applied by the system, so this stressed steady state operating point has caused synchronous machines to undergo electromechanical oscillation (hunting). Simulation results showed that the stabilizer displayed a good performance during large perturbations. The system responses to a three-phase fault cleared in 8 cycles by opening the circuit breakers of the faulted tie line is simulated by Matlab Simulink environment.

في هذا البحث تم استخدام مثبت قدره كهربائيه لتخفيف الاهتزاز الكهروميكانيكى البين مناطقى. المنظومه التى تم محاكاتها تتكون من منطقتين متماثلتين مربوطتين مع بعضهما بواسطة خطى نقل بطول 300 كم و فرق جهد 230 الف فولت. كل منطقه مجهزه بمولد تزامنى سعة 20 الف فولت/900 مليون فولت-امبير. وهذه المولدات لها نفس الثوابت, بالاضافه الى الاثاره من نوع التيار المستمر ذات ربح مفروض مقداره 200. الحمل المربوط على هذه المنظومه تم تمثيله بواسطة ممانعتين موزعتين على هاتين المنطقتين بطريقه بحيث ان المنطقه الاولى تصدر طاقه مقدارها 40 مليون وات الى المنطقه الثانيه. فى حساب سريان الحمل لهذه المنظومه تم اعتبار الماكنه في المنطقه رقم 1 هى السائبه و الماكنه في النطقه الثانيه كمنظم جهد. المنظومه فى الحاله المستقره عليها اقصى تحميل ممكن ان تتحمله هذه المنظومه مما ادى الى وقوعها تحت تاثير الاهتزاز الكهروميكانيكى. تحت هذه الظروف التشغيليه تم تمثيل وقوع خطا ثلاثى الطور على واحد من خطى النقل لهذه المنظومه والذى تم ازالته بعد مرور 8 دورات. المحاكاة بينت ان المثبت كان ادائه جيدا اثناء الحالات الطارئه الكبيره.

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