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Article
ATROPINE IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY: IS IT SIGNIFICANT?

Authors: Mazin H AL-Hawaz --- Mohammed H AL-Hijaji --- Anna W Krikor
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2014 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 75-80
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Bradycardia is a known problem in laparoscopic cholecystectomy especially during pneumoperitoneum and gall bladder dissection which might necessitate the use of intravenous atropine. The clinical significance of the latter as prophylactic issue in laparoscopic cholecystectomy has not been studied much to clarify its importance and to know how and when it could be used. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the significance of preoperative intravenous atropine sulphate to reduce bradycardia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One hundred and forty patients were analyzed in a prospective study; seventy of them were atropine group and another seventy were non atropine group. Heart rate changes were studied in both groups in respect to preoperative, pneumoperitoneum and postoperative period. As well as the heart rate changes were evaluated separately in each group in concern of preoperative and pneumoperitoneum period. The results showed that age, sex, body mass index, duration of surgery and previous operations were comparable in both groups. Significant bradycardia was seen in non-atropine group during pneumoperitoneum as compared to atropine group (p<0.05), while insignificant heart rate changes were observed in both groups across preoperative and postoperative period (p>0.05). In conclusion, this work shows that a preoperative intravenous dose of atropine sulphate might be of value in preventing bradycardia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Article
A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ATROPINE AND TROPICAMIDE AS CYCLOPLEGIC AGENTS FOR A SAMPLE OF IRAQI CHILDREN

Author: Bahir A.R.Mshimesh بشار عبد الرزاق مشيمش
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 243-251
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: A perfect cycloplegic medication which is viable, nontoxic, and helpful permitting precise estimation of the refractive errors by objective and/ or subjective tests isn't yet accessibleObjective: This trial was designed to evaluate the cycloplegic activity and adverse effects of two cycloplegic agents (atropine vs. tropicamide) for children with hyperopia. The response to cycloplegia in different age groups, with or without strabismus, was also compared.Methods: Tropicamide 1% eye drops (Regimen 1) and Atropine 1% eye drops (Regimen 2) was evaluated in thirty children with different ages. Cycloplegic refractions and adverse effects were assessed. The results expressed refractions and presented as mean ± SD. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Tropicamide refraction mean value (+3.60 ± 2.25 D) didn’t differ significantly in comparison with that of atropine (+3.92 ± 2.50 D); (P >0.05). Children during regimen 2 (atropine drops) suffered from more frequent and statistically significant side effects (p<0.05), represented by blurred vision, fever; flushing and tachycardia, compared with regimen 1 (tropicamide drops).Conclusion: Tropicamide indicated to children with different ages is adequate to deliver great cycloplegia, with activity approximate to and less toxic than atropine, even in kids with a high level of hyperopia, with or without eye squint.Keywords: Cycloplegia; Hyperopia; Atropine; Tropicamide.


Article
3.THE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF TWO HOURS ATROPINIZATION VERSUS THREE DAYS ATROPINIZATION ON THE CYCLOPLEGIC OUTCOME IN CHILDREN

Authors: Abeer A. Mohamad عبير عبد الامير محمد --- Hind A. Mahdi هند احمد مهدي --- Majid S. Younis ماجد سليمان يونس
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 372-377
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Cycloplegia abolishes the accommodative power by causing paralysis of ciliary muscle by anticholinergic drugs, which will inhibit stimulation of both ciliary muscle and sphincter pupillae causing cycloplegia and mydriasis. Atropine is widely used in cycloplegic refraction despite its potential toxicity.Objective:To evaluate the possible role of two hours atropinization versus three days atropinization on the cycloplegic outcome in children.Methods:This is a clinical interventional study that included fifty children aged two to seven years' old who attended Ibn Alhaitham Teaching Hospital from October 2012 to March 2013; manual refraction was done for each child after 120 minutes of two drops atropine 1% five minutes apart and refraction was repeated after three days of twice daily atropine 1% administration by the parents. T-test was used for means comparison.Results: Fifty patients (26 males, mean age 3.89 ± 1.3) were included in the study. Spherical equivalent results obtained after three days atropinization (M = 4.2, SD = 1.85) were significantly higher than those obtained after two hours atropinization (M = 3.84, SD = 1.64) (t(49) = - 6.60, p < 0.05).Conclusion: Two hour atropinization was inferior to the standard three days atropinization as it has less cycloplegic effect and so it cannot be recommended based on the current evidence.Keywords: Atropine, cycloplegia, atropinization, refraction Citation: Mohamad AA, Mahdi HA, Younis MS. The comparison between the effect of two hours atropinization versus three days atropinization on the cycloplegic outcome in children. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(4): 372-377. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.4.3


Article
Extraction of atropine from Datura Innoxia using liquid membrane Technique

Authors: Wasan O. Noori --- Adel al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2009 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-27
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Selective recovery of atropine from Datura innoxia seeds was studied. Applying pertraction in a rotating film contactor (RFC) the alkaloid was successfully recovered from native aqueous extracts obtained from the plant seeds. Decane as a liquid membrane and sulfuric acid as a stripping agent were used. Pertraction from native liquid extracts provided also a good atropine refinement, since the most of co-extracted from the plant species remained in the feed or membrane solution. Solid–liquid extraction of atropine from Datura innoxia seeds was coupled with RF-pertraction in order to purify simultaneously the extract obtained from the plant. Applying the integrated process, proposed in this study, a product containing 92.6% atropine was obtained.


Article
The effect of atropine on heart rate with rapid sequence induction in neonates

Author: Ahmed Haki Ismael Al-Rawee
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 53-57
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: neonates experience physiological responses toendotracheal intubation, including bradycardia and oxygen desaturation.The bradycardia may be associated with severe hemodynamicdisturbances like significant hypotension which may threaten patient'ssafety.Aims: To determine the effectiveness of single dose IV atropine, 5minutes before induction of anesthesia on reflex bradycardia tolaryngoscopy in sick neonate baby.Patients and Methods: In a randomized double blinded, placebocontrolled clinical trial, thirty neonates aged 1-10 days, term, 2.5-3.5kgand from both sexes, were enrolled to receive 0.02mg/kg IV atropine(n=15), as study group and placebo group had received equivalentvolume of normal saline five minutes before induction of anaesthesia(n=15), as control group. The induction technique was the same in allpatients. The incidence of bradycardia just after intubation wasrecorded.Results: data analyses showed that the overall incidence of bradycardiajust after intubation in the study group was significantly lower than thecontrol group.Conclusions: A single dose IV atropine five minutes before induction ofanaesthesia in neonate baby significantly decreases the incidence ofbradycardia after intubation.


Article
KINETIC OF ATROPINE PERTRACTION FROM THE SEEDS OF DATURA METEL LINN PLANT USING LIQUIDLIQUID MEMBRANE TECHNIQUE
Metel Linn حركیة فصل الاتروبین من بذور نبتة الداتورة نوع باستعمال تقنیة غشاء السائل- سائل

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:- The kinetic of atropine pertraction from seeds of Datura Metel Linn plantwas studied. Diisopropyl ether, n-hexane and n-heptane were used as membranes for atropinerecovery. The effect of speed of agitation and time in the range of 200-300 rpm and 0-3.5h,respectively were studied using the proposed membranes. The pertraction experiments werecarried outs in a batch laboratory unit. The liquid-liquid pertraction was found to be verysuitable for atropine recovery from its liquid extracts of Datura Metel seeds. A high purity(94-96%) can be obtained in the receiver phase. The pertraction process was found to be veryselective for atropine recovery with diisopropyl ether membrane. As the speed of agitationincreases the efficiency of pertraction increases within the studied range.

الخلاصةDiisopropyl ether, n- استعمل .Metel Linn درست حركیة فصل الاتروبین من بذور نبتة الداتورة نوعكأغشیة سائلة لفصل الاتروبین. تمت دراسة تاثیر سرعة الخلط على عملیة الفصل ضمن hexane n-heptane200 دورة/دقیقة، وباستعمال الاغشیة المشار الیها. اجریت تجارب فصل الاتروبین في منظومة مختبریة - المدى 300تعمل بنظام الدفعات. وجد ان تقنیة الفصل بنظام غشاء السائل-سائل هي تقنیة مناسبة جدا لاسترجاع الاتروبین من94 من الاتروبین في طور - المستخلص السائل من بذور نبتة الداتورة. تم الحصول على نقاوة عالیة وصلت الى % 96الاسترجاع. كذلك وجد بان عملیة فصل الاتروبین باستعمال هذه التقنیة هي عملیة ذات انتقائیة عالیة لفصل الاتروبینكغشاء للفصل. لوحظ بزیادة سرعة الخلط تزداد كفاءة الفصل ضمن المدى المحدد بهذه diisopropyl ether وباستعمالالدراسة.


Article
Effect of intravenous atropine on treadmill stress test results in patients with poor exercise capacity or chronotropic incompetence

Author: Abdul ammeer J.Awad عبد الامير جواد عواد
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 2 Pages: 141-143
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract


Article
Role of atropine in prevention of reflex bradycardia in response to awaked intubation in neonatal anesthesia

Author: Iyad A. Salman اياد عباس سلمان
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2013 Volume: 55 Issue: 1 Pages: 5-9
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Neonates (0–1 months) have different anesthetic requirements. Safe anesthetic management depends on full appreciation of the physiological, anatomic, and pharmacological characteristics of this age group. One of important difference in neonates is easy development of reflex bradycardia and cardiac standstill during anesthesia. These characteristics, differentiate them from adults, and necessitate modification of anesthetic equipment, medications, and techniques.Objectives: To evaluate the role of atropine in prevention of reflex bradycardia in neonatal anesthesia.Patients and methods: This is a prospective study done on 30 neonate patients in Baghdad teaching hospital/Baghdad /Iraq during the period from January - July/ 2009. Neonates that underwent major surgical operations, were randomly allocated into two groups, group (A) received atropine(0.015mg/kg) 5 minutes before awake intubation and group (B) (control group) received no atropine. Heart rate was recorded at pre-induction and during intubation then anesthesia was maintained in a similar way in both groups.Result: the results reported in this study indicate that the pre-induction with i.v. atropine was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence rate of reflex bradycardia (below 100 beat/min or reduction in HR > 20% of basal heart rate) during intubation from 96.65% in the group (B) (control group) to 26.6 % in the group (A) (atropine group) In addition the magnitude of reduction in heart rate was lower by a mean of 22% in the atropine group compared to the mean reduction 41% in group (BConclusion: Pre-induction with IV atropine decrease in the incidence of reflex bradycardia during intubation from 96.65% in the control group (B) to 26.6% in the atropine group (A). Pre-induction of atropine reduces the magnitude of heart rate reduction during intubation by a mean of 22% compared to 41% in control group.Keyword: atropine, neonate, awaked intubation, reflex bradycardia

خلفية الدراسه: من اهم النقاط التي يختلف بها الاطفال حديثي الولاده عن كبار العمر هي سهولة حدوث انخفاض ضربات القلب الانعكاسي.الهدف :تقييم فعالية مادة الاتروبين في منع حدوث انخفاض ضربات القلب الانعكاسي نتيجة ادخال الانبوب الهوائي الى القصبه الهوائيه اثناء التخدير في عمليات حديثي الولاده 0 المرضى والطريقه : هذه دراسه وصفيه اجريت في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي /قسم جراحة الاطفال ابتداء من شهر كانون الثاني 2009 ولغاية شهر تموز, 2009 اشتملت على 30 حاله من الاطفال حديثي الولاده من عمر يوم واحد الى عشرة ايام وبوزن يتراوح من 2.5 الى3.5 كيلو غرام .تم تقسيمهم عشوائيا الى مجموعتين .المجموعه الاولى تم قياس نبضات القلب قبل اعطاء الاتروبين ثم بعد اعطاء الاتروبين بخمس دقائق ,ثم ادخل الانبوب الهوائي وتم تسجيل النبضات . في المجموعه الاخرى تم تسجيل النبضات قبل وبعد ادخال الانبوب الهوائي ودون اعطاء مادة الاتروبين.سجلت الفروقات الحاصله في الحالتين وادخلت البيانات الاحصائيه على اساس تعريفين لانخفاض ضربات القلب(اما نزولها الى اقل من 100 ضربه بالدقيقه او نزولها الى اقل من 20% من التسجيل الاولي). النتائج: بالنسبه للمجموعه التي اعطيت الاتروبين قلت نسبة حدوث رد الفعل الانعكاسي المتمثل بانخفاض ضربات القلب الى 26.6% قياسا الى المجموعه الاخرى حيث كانت نسبة حدوثها % 96.65.الأستنتاج: اعطاء المريض حديث الولاده مادة الاتروبين وريديا قبل الشروع بالتخدير يقلل تسبة حدوث رد الفعل الانعكاسي المتمثل بانخفاض ضربات القلبمفتاح الكلمات: الأتروبين ,ادخال انبوب الرغامي صحويا ,انخفاض نبضات القلب الأنعكاسي


Article
Study of Atropine Diffusion in Liquid Membrane System Using New Kinetic Model
دراسة انتشار الاتروبين في نظام غشاء سائل باستعمال نموذج حركي جديد

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Abstract

In this study, we place a kinetic model including the diffusion process for transmission of atropine between two benzene phases separated by liquid membrane composed from aqueous solution of copper sulfate, the study included a process of the actual measurement of the kinetics of the process which include the effect of temperature. The operation showed a very good agreement of practical results with the supposed kinetic model. The equilibrium constant of the process (distribution coefficient) tends to make the concentration of atropine in the aqueous phase greater than its concentration in benzene. Kinetic measurements at different temperatures have shown that activation energy for the atropine transport from benzene to aqueous solution is less than those for reverse transmission. This result was interpreting in the light of formation a complex between atropine and copper ion in the aqueous phase and the need of this complex high energy to dissociate to free the atropine and return it to benzene solvent. Thermodynamic functions were extracted using the values of equilibrium constants, where the results showed a decrease in equilibrium constant value with the increase of temperature and the nature of exothermic reaction. The issue of changing the value of diffusion coefficients with temperature was treated according to the holes model, results indicate the rise in the value of diffusion coefficients in both water and benzene with rising temperature in addition to the activation energy required to form holes in the aqueous phase which greater than that of benzene. Also, diffusion activation energy will be much higher than the activation energy for both forward and reverse reactions.

استعمل في هذه الدراسة نموذج حركي متضمنا عملية الانتشار لانتقال الاتروبين بين طوري بنزين مفصولين بغشاء سائل مكون من المحلول المائي لكبريتات النحاس مشتق سابقا. في الدراسة العملية عند درجات الحرارة 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 0C بينت النتائج العملية المستحصلة توافقها مع النموذج الحركي المفترض. ان ثابت توازن العملية (معامل التوزيع) يميل الى جعل تركيز الاتروبين في الطور المائي اكبر من تركيزه في البنزين. كما بينت القياسات ان طاقة تنشيط انتقال الاتروبين من البنزين الى المحلول المائي اقل من تلك اللازمة للانتقال العكسي وتم تفسير النتيجة في ضوء تكون معقد بين الاتروبين و بين ايون النحاس الموجود في الطور المائي و حاجة هذا المعقد لطاقة عالية كي يتفكك و يحرر الاتروبين من جديد للانتقال الى مذيب البنزين كما بينت النتائج ان قيمة معاملات التردد وفق معادلة ارينيوس تكون واطئة بسبب صغر المساحة المتاحة للتماس بين الطورين. تم استخراج الدوال الثرموديناميكية باستعمال قيم ثوابت التوازن حيث بينت النتائج تناقص قيمة ثابت التوازن بزيادة درجة الحرارة و طبيعة التفاعل الباعثة للحرارة كما ان القوة المحركة للعملية هي الزيادة في الانتروبي. عولجت مسالة تغير قيمة معاملات الانتشار بتغير درجة الحرارة وفق نموذج الفجوات حيث تشير النتائج الى ارتفاع قيمة معاملات الانتشار للاتروبين في كل من الماء و البنزين بارتفاع درجة الحرارة فضلا عن طاقة التنشيط اللازمة لتكون الفجوات في الطور المائي اكبر من تلك التي في البنزين كما ان طاقات التنشيط المرافقة لعملية الانتشار تكون اعلى بكثير من طاقة التنشيط للتفاعلين الامامي و العكسي لمجمل العملية و هذا يدل على ان استعمال ايون النحاس كعامل ناقل عمل على تقليل طاقة تنشيط العملية و بالتالي على زيادة سرعتها

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