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Article
Evaluation of oral health status in a sample of autistic male children

Authors: Mayyadah H. Rashid ميادة رشيد --- Raja H. Al-Jubouri رجاء الجبوري
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 62-65
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, presents in early childhood, characterized by severeimpairments in socialization, communication and behavior. Autism is considered a multi-factorial disorder that isinfluenced by genetic, environmental, and immunological factors with oxidative stress as a mechanism linking thesefactors. Assessment of any oral manifestations has to be discovered, evaluated and measured in autistics to be usedas a potential diagnostic.Materials and methods: Oral health status:(DMFT) for permanent teeth, (dmft)for deciduous teeth and gingivalindices were estimated for 58 individuals aged (2-13) years, twenty nine of them were autistics and twenty nine weresex and age matched healthy controls.Results: The results of this study showed that Iraqi autistic children sample was more likely to be caries-free comparedwith healthy sample.Conclusion: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were more likely to be caries-free, had lower DMFT dmftand GI scores than did their unaffected peer and can be used in autism spectrum disorder prediction to a limitedextent.


Article
Molecular Genetics Study on Autistic Patients in Iraq
دراسة وراثية جزيئية على مرضى التوحد في العراق

Authors: Basheer K. Karmeet بشير كاظم خرميط --- Abdul Kareem A. Al-Kazaz عبد الكريم القزاز --- Mahdi Saber مهدي صبر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2015 Volume: 56 Issue: 1A Pages: 119-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study reflected on the relationship between contactin associated protein-like 2 gene (CNTNAP2) and autism spectrum disorders. The study includes forty autistic patients and forty non autistic children as control groups (twenty unaffected sibling and twenty unrelated children). DNA was extracted from Blood samples for molecular detection of CNTNAP2 mutations associated with ASDs by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique and sequencing analysis. PCR reaction was performed to amplify exon 20 of CNTNAP2 gene. The PCR results revealed that identical bands related to exon 20 of CNTNAP2 gene were present in all samples. Therefore, five samples (four from autistic patients and one from control sibling) were selected for genotype analysis of CNTNAP2 (exon 20) by direct sequencing. Genotype analysis revealed that there were no any variants in CNTNAP2 (exon 20), but it shows that two different mutations were identified in non coding region (introns) of the CNTNAP2 gene (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs),ID SNP: rs3779032 A/G in 2118282 position and ID SNP: rs3779031 A/C in 2118436 position). rs3779031 A/C are located at intron 19 while SNP rs3779032 A/G are located at intron 21. These mutations were seen only in autistic patients but not present in control sample. The current study showed that two common SNPs (rs3779031 and rs3779032) in CNTNAP2 were strongly associated with ASDs, where the frequencies of these SNPs were relatively high. SNP rs3779032 were identified in two autistic patients while rs3779031 were identified in three autistic patients from four unrelated families with ASDs.

اجريت هذه الدراسة بهدف التعرف على العلاقة بين جين CNTNAP2 واضطراب طيف التوحد. شملت الدراسة اربعين طفل مصاب باضطراب التوحد و اربعون اخرون غير مصابين باضطراب التوحد كمجاميع سيطرة (عشرون طفل من اشقاء المرضى وعشرون اخرون غرباء). تراوح معدل العمر في جميع الاطفال المتوحدين وغير المتوحدين ما بين3- 10 سنة. استخلص الحامض النووي (DNA) وذلك للتحري عن الطفرات المتزامنة مع اضطراب التوحد في جين CNTNAP2 من خلال استخدام تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل ومتابعة تسلسل القواعد النتروجينية. تم اجراء تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل لتضخيم الاكسون 20 من جين CNTNAP2. اظهرت نتائج تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل ان الحزم المتماثلة التي تعود لاكسون 20 في جين CNTNAP2 كانت موجودة في كل العينات. لذلك تم اختيار خمس عينات (اربع عينات تعود لاطفال مصابين باضطراب التوحد وعينة واحدة لطفل غير مصاب) لمتابعة تسلسل القواعد النتروجينية في هذا اكسون . من خلال النتائج تبين انه لا يوجد اي تغير في تسلسل القواعد النتروجينية في الاكسون 20، لكن هنالك طفرتان تقع في المنطقة غير المشفرة (Intron) توجد في مرضى التوحد فقط . (SNPs rs3779031 C>A and rs3779032 G>A) اوضحت هذه الدراسة ان SNPs هي شائعة ومتزامنة بشكل قوي مع اضطراب التوحد حيث تملك تردد عالي نسبيا. حيث (SNP rs3779031C>A) ظهرت في ثلاث مرضى بينما (SNPrs3779032C>A) ظهرت في اثنين فقط .


Article
Salivary Physicochemical Characteristics in Relation to Oral Health Status Among Institutionalized Autistic Adolescents in Baghdad/Iraq

Authors: Ali Hadi F. Al-Fatlawi --- Nada Jafer MH. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 68-74
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, restricted patterns of behavior, and unusual sensory sensitivities. Saliva may provide an easily accessible sample for analysis. Some salivary constituents levels altered in adolescents with ASD including antioxidants . This study aimed to investigate salivary physicochemical characteristic in relation to oral health status among adolescents with ASD.Materials and methods: Two groups were included in this study: 40 institutionalized autistic adolescents and 40 apparently healthy school adolescents control group with age range (12-15 years old, only males) selected randomly from Baghdad. Each group subdivided into two groups according to the severity of dental caries: caries free group (20 child, DMFT=0) and high caries group (20 child, DMFT≥6). Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS), plaque (PlI), Gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices were used to measure oral health status for both groups. Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and thiocyanate (SCN) in saliva measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and glutathione (GSH) assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Salivary pH and flow rate were measured directly. The data of current study was analyzed using SPSS version 21.Results: A higher value of salivary pH, flow rate, sAA, SCN, Cu and Zn were found among study group than control group with significant difference, also higher in caries free subgroup than high caries subgroup. While GSH was significantly higher in control group than study group. Moderate negative correlations between sAA, Cu, Zn and PlI, CI, GI with highly significant and salivary pH correlate moderately with PlI and CI with highly significant.Conclusion: There was alteration in salivary constituents levels which related to oral health status in adolescents with ASD and can act as adjunctive diagnostic aid for diagnosing autism.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder --- sAA --- SCN --- GSH


Article
Profile of Some Cytokines in Sera of Children with Autism Syndrome
نسق بعض الحركيات الخلوية في مصول أطفال متلازمة التوحد

Authors: Kamil M. Halboot كامل مهدي حلبوت --- Alice K.Melconian أليس كريكور اغوب --- Jenan AL- Saffar جنان محمد جواد الصفار
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2015 Volume: 56 Issue: 1A Pages: 125-131
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a spectrum of behavioral anomalies characterized by impairment in social interactions and communication deficits. A potential role for immune dysfunction has been suggested in ASD. To test this hypothesis, certain cytokines: IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A and IFN-γ were investigated in serum of all participants. The study includes: 39 child (male and female) aged < 5 to10 years with confirmed diagnosis of autism using standard assessment, age and gender matched 24 confirmed healthy children and 19 non autistic siblings used as controls. Serum was isolated and cytokines were detected using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The observations indicate a significant increase (P < 0.05) in autistic patients serum levels of IL-10 compared with healthy control, but with lack of significant difference with their related non autistic siblings. Whereas detection of IL-12 and IFN-γ in the autistic patients serum showed significantly decrease level (P < 0.05) compared with healthy control, but with lack of significant difference with their related non autistic siblings. On the other hand, detection of IL-2 and IL-17A results showed no significant (P > 0.05) differences compared with healthy control and non autistic siblings.

أضطراب طيف التوحد (ASD) هو طيف من الشذوذ السلوكي الذي يتميز بضعف في التفاعل الاجتماعي واختلال التواصل. الدور المحتمل للخلل المناعي تم اقتراحه في اضطراب طيف التوحد. ولاختبار هذه الفرضية، أجري فحص مصول جميع المشاركين لتواجد الحركيات الخلوية L-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A ,IFN-γ . شملت الدراسة: 39 طفل ( ذكر وأنثى ) تتراوح أعمارهم اقل من 5 إلى 10 سنوات بتشخيص مؤكد للأصابه بالتوحد وفق تقييم قياسي لمعهد الرحمن لرعاية التوحد، ومجاميع سيطرة بأجناس وفئات عمريه مماثله لإغراض المقارنة مكونه من ( 24 طفل سليم و 19 طفل من الأخوة غير المصابين بالتوحد ). تم قياس تركيز الحركيات الخلوية IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A,IFN-γفي مصول دم المشاركين باستعمال تقنية الأمتزاز المناعي المرتبط بالإنزيم (ELISA). أظهرت النتائج زيادة معنوية (P < 0.05) لمستوى IL-10 في مصول مرضى التوحد عند مقارنتهم مع الأطفال الأصحاء ، ولكن عدم وجود اختلاف معنوي مع أشقائهم غير المصابين بالتوحد. بينما الكشف عن مستويات IL-12 و IFN-γ في مصل أطفال التوحد أظهرت انخفاض معنوي (P < 0.05) عند مقارنتهم مع الأطفال الأصحاء، وعدم وجود اختلاف معنوي مع أشقائهم غير المصابين بالتوحد، بينما الكشف عن مستوى IL-2 و IL-17A أظهرت النتائج عدم وجود اختلاف معنوي عند المقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة والأخوة غير المصابين.


Article
Oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized autistic children and adolescents in Baghdad city, Iraq

Authors: Ali Hadi F. Al-Fatlawi --- Nada Jafer MH. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 117-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a wide range of symptoms, including difficulty with social interaction and communication skills. Controversial thinking about oral health of children with ASD, in general may have a lower hygiene level than healthy individuals, low caries rate and high body weight in comparison to healthy children. This study was conducted to assess the oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized autistic children and adolescents.Materials and methods: From 12 institutes in Baghdad, the study group contained 364 child and adolescent with ASD (Male= 294, Female=70), while control group included 441 normal child and adolescent (Male=357, Female=84) from primary and secondary schools. The age range (6-15) years old categorized to two age groups, children age group (6-10) years and adolescents age group (11-15) years. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (dmfs, DMFS), plaque (PlI), Gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices were used to measure oral health status for both groups. Assessment of nutritional status performed by using BMI for age z-score value. The data of current study was analyzed using SPSS version 21.Results: Mean rank values of (dmfs, DMFS) were lower in study group than control group with high significant differences. The mean rank values of PlI, GI, and CI in study group were found to be higher than control group with high significant differences. A moderate positive high significant correlation was found between ds, dmfs, DS, DMFS and PlI, GI, CI in both groups. The mean rank values of body mass index (BMI) for age z-score were higher in study group than control group. Very weak negative high significant correlation between BMI for age z-score and ds, dmfs, DS, DMFS in study group.Conclusion: Dental caries severity, oral hygiene and gingival health were lower in ASD group than control group. Dental caries severity was related to oral health status in both groups. Possible of overweight, overweight and obesity were most common in children and adolescents with ASD than control group. Body weight of autistic children was related to dental caries severity.


Article
Psychiatric Comorbidity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Najaf Province

Author: Arafat H. Al-Dujaily عرفات الدجيلي
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 20 Pages: 74-84
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

خلفية الدراسة: مقارنآ مع العديد من اضطرابات الطفولة المزمنة الأخرى، اضطراب طيف التوحد (ASD) هي مجموعة خطيرة ومعيقة من الاضطرابات العصبية النمائية. وقد أعطيت اهتماما قليلا نسبيا وخاصة فيالعالم العربي في الكشف المبكر عنها والاضطرابات النفسية المرضية المصاحبه لها .الأهداف : الهدف الرئيسي للدراسة الحالية هو تحديد الاضطرابات النفسية المشتركة لدى الأطفال الذين يعانونمن اضطرابات طيف التوحد ( ASD ) ومعرفة الخصائص الديموغرافية المرتبطة بهذا الاضطراب .المنهجية : أجريت الدراسة خلال الفترة من 1 كانون الثاني 3112 إلى 21 كانون الاول 3112 .المشاركون فيالدراسة هم الأطفال المراجعين الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 13 2 سنة )العدد الكلي = 111 ( في وحدة الطب -النفسي لمستشفى الحكيم العام في النجف الاشرف. شملت الدراسه استبيان شبه منظم لمختلف الخصائصالديموغرافية والأكاديمية بما في ذلك العمر والجنس والتحصيل الدراسي للوالدين والمهنة الخ. استخدمتتصنيفات الطبعة الرابعة للدليل التشخيصي الإحصائي (DSM –IV) كتشخيص ااولي لاضطراب طيف التوحد ،في حين تم تقييم الاضطرابات النفسية المشتركة باستخدام المقابلة التشخيصية المنظمه، المقابلة السريريةالمنظمه للدليل التشخيصي الإحصائي الطبعة الرابعة - DSM- IV) ، الخاصة بالاطفال . (KID – SCID) تمإجراء التحليل الإحصائي بواسطة الحزمة الإحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية. (SPSS)النتائج : اظهرت الدراسه الحالية ان الغالبية العظمى من المرضى تتراوح اعمارهم مابين 11 5 سنوات. كما -بينت الدراسة ان نسبة ذات دلالة إحصائية من الأطفال الذين يعانون من اضطراب طيف التوحد هم من الذكورالذين يعيشون في المدينة ، ودخل أسرهم يكفي لسد الحاجة مع حجم أسرهم صغيرة ، كما أن المستوى التعليميللابوين جيدا ولكن والدتهم ربة منزل . تسعة وخمسون طفلا من الاطفال الذين يعانون من اضطراب طيفالتوحد) 55 %( صنفوا على ان لديهم واحدة على الاقل من الاضطرابات النفسيه المصاحبة لاضراب طيفالتوحد. ومع ذلك، كان الأطفال الذين يعانون من اضطراب طيف التوحد لديهم أكثرنسبه من الاضطرابات النفسيةالاستيعابية)الداخلية( ) 25 ٪( مقارنة بالاضطرابات النفسية الخارجية )اضطراب المعارضة و/ أو اضطرابالسلوك ( .)31%( وبشكل أكثر تحديدا ، كان الأطفال الذين يعانون من اضطراب طيف التوحد لديهم ارتفاعمعدلات اضطرابات القلق ) 21 ٪ ( اكثر من اضطرابات المزاج .الاستنتاجات :أكدت الدراسة الحالية ان الكثير من مرضى اضطراب طيف التوحد يعانون من اضطرابات نفسيةأخرى ، لذلك لابد من الأطباء المعرفة والبحث عن الاضطرابات المشتركه ، والنظر في العلاج لمثل هذهالاضطرابات المرضية . بالإضافة إلى ذلك، هناك حاجة ماسه إلى المزيد من الأبحاث حول وبائيات ومألالاضطرابات الطبية والنفسية المرتبطة بالتوحد .

Background:Compared with several other chronic childhood disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious and disabling group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Relatively little attention has been given to its early identification and comorbid psychiatric disorders especially in the Arab world.Objectives: The present study was conducted with the main aim to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to find out the sociodemographic factors in relation to ASD.Methods: The study was conducted from 1st January 2013 to 30th December 2013. Participants were clinically referred children aged 3–12 years (n = 100) at psychiatric unit of AL Hakeem General Hospital in Najaf. A semi-structured questionnaire included the various demographic and academic characteristics including age, gender, parental educational and occupational status etc. DSM-IV classifications were used47for the primary diagnosis (ASD), while comorbid psychiatric disorders were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview, the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, childhood diagnoses (KID-SCID). Statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).Results: The majority of the patients were aged 5–10 years. Statistically significant proportion of children diagnosed with an ASD was male who live in an urban area and had satisfactory family income with small family size, they also had well educated parents but their mother was housewife. Fifty-nine children with ASD (59%) were classified as having at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. However, children with ASD had more comorbid internalizing disorders (39%) compared to comorbid externalizing disorders (ODD and/or CD) (20%). More specifically, children with ASD had higher rates of anxiety disorders (31%), but not mood disorders.Conclusions: This study confirms the frequent co-occurrence of ASD with other psychiatric disorders, so it is important for clinicians to always be aware of, and screen for, comorbidity, and to consider treatment for these comorbid disorders. In addition, more research is needed on the epidemiology of autism-related medical and psychiatric disorders and outcome

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