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Article
The possible Association of HLA Class II with Bladder Cancer in Iraqi Patients

Author: Shatha M.J.Al-Khateeb
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 4 Pages: 434-437
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: - Genetic Factors have a major role in the development of bladder cancer. Objectives: - This study was carried out to shed a light on the possible association of HLA class II antigens and BC patients and to correlate this finding with the family history. Patients and Methodes :- Lymphocytotxicity assay had been used to assess HLA- typing of 65 BC patients and 50 healthy controls. Results:- comparison between BC patients and healthy controls showed several antigens deviations in their frequencies. HLA-DR1, HLA-DQ1 and HLA-DQ3 antigens were observed with increased frequencies in patients group with significant differences (P=0.000, 0.000 and 0.017 respectively). Moreover there was decrease frequency of HLA-DR7 in patients group (P=0.010). Stastical analysis showed non significant correlation of the specific HLA –Ags with family history. Conclusions: - This finding demonstrated that HLA-DR1, DR7, DQ1 and DQ3 might play a role in BC susceptibility. • Department of clinical biochemistry. Collage of Medicine Al-Mustansyriah University • Department of Microbiology. Collage of Medicine. Baghdad University • Ministry of Health.


Article
Assyrian – Almitanih relations 1500 BC -1204 BC
العلاقات الأشورية - الميتانية 1500ق م -1204ق م

Author: م.م إيمان لفتة حسين الخليفاوي
Journal: The islamic college university journal مجلة كلية الاسلامية الجامعة ISSN: 62081997 Year: 2009 Issue: 8 Pages: 241-256
Publisher: College Islamic University / Najaf كلية الاسلامية الجامعة / النجف الاشرف

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Abstract

تعد دراسة العلاقات السياسية للممالك والدول المتعاصرة في العالم القديم محطة مهمة في معرفة الوضع الدولي حينها، ومن هذا المنطلق نقدم هذا البحث الذي يتناول العلاقات السياسية الميتانيه - الآشورية ولاسيما وإن هاتين الدولتين تشكلان محوراً سياسياً وجغرافياً وتجارياً في المنطقة بعد أن تمكنت مملكة ميتاني من بلورة كيان سياسي فعال كان له الأثر الواضح على الكيانات المجاورة ومنها آشور.


Article
Evaluation Of DNA Extraction From Archieved Formalin –Fixed Paraffin Tissues (FFPT) By Β-Globin Gene PCR.
تقييم الدنا المستخلص من قوالب الأنسجة الشمعية مخزونة باستخدام تفاعل أنزيم البلمرة لجين بيتا كلوبين

Authors: Ahmed Mohammed Ali Nazar --- Asaad Aljanabi --- Hashim Raheem Tarish
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 3 Pages: 215-225
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background : the knowledge of the nucleic acid state before start to molecular detection have a great importance to make a math measurements by which the nucleic acid quantity and quality will be knows. Objective: Conventional methods have limitations for extracting amplifiable DNA from specimens containing a small number of cells. DNA quality and quantity was evaluated by β-globin amplification and NanoDrop instrument respectively. DNA extraction from FFPT has become essential for molecular research specially with advances in molecular technology. Methods: The current study tested breast cancer FFPT specimens of Iraqi women which collected from AL-Sader teaching hospital histopathology and neoplasm units , and several privet histopathology labs in AL-Najaf province, the specimens were stored for the years (2008,2009,2010 and 2011). The specimens were included of BC 54 , fibroadenoma 21, mastitis 18, and ductectesia 19 samples. Results: Specific primers were used to detect the activity of beta-globin gene by PCR technique and the results appeared that The mean of DNA quantity was (61.68 ng/ul) while the DNA extract quality which appeared positive by β-glubine PCR was 71.42% (80 of 112), BC 70.37% (38 of 54), fibroadenoma 85.71% (18 of 21), mastitis 77.77% (14 of 18) and ductectesia 52.63 % (10 of 19), there was a significant difference ( p<0.5). The beta-globin PCR appeared different results depending on the DNA stats. Conclusions: the evaluation of the extracted DNA by NanoDrop system and beta-globin gene is the easiest and definite method compared with other researchers who worked of other evaluation methods. Recommendations : This study recommends that every study performed on DNA should be started with beta-globin testing to avoid false negative results caused by degraded DNA.

خلفية البحث : إن معرفة الحالة التي يكون عليها الحامض النووي قبل الشروع في الكشف الجزيئي له أهمية كبيرة في إجراء الحسابات الرياضية والتي من خلالها يتم معرفة كمية ونوعية الحامض النووي المستخدم.الهدف: إن الطرق التقليدية لاستخلاص الدنا فيها من المحددات مايمنع معرفة كفاءة ونوعية الدنا وخصوصا من العينات الحاوية على خلايا قليلة لهذا فان نوعية وكفاءة الدنا يمكن تحديدها من خلال فحص البيتا كلوبين وجهاز النانودروب على التوالي سيما إن استخلاص الدنا من الأنسجة المثبتة بالفورمالين ضروريا للأبحاث الجزيئية وخصوصا مع تقدم العلوم التقنية الجزيئية.المنهجية: الدراسةُ الحاليةُ اختبرت نماذج الأنسجة المثبتة بالفورمالين لسرطان الثدي لنِساءِ عراقياتِ، والتي جَمعتْ مِنْ مستشفى الصدر التعليمي في وحدة النسيج المرضي ووحدة الأورام، وعِدّة مختبرات خاصة في محافظةِ النجف، النماذج كانت مخزونة للسَنَواتِ (2008,2009,2010 و2011). النماذج تُضمّنتْ, 54 نموذج لسرطان الثدي, 21نموذج التليف ألغدي، 18 نموذج لالتهاب ثدي ، 19نموذج لحالات توسع القنوات الثديية. النتائج: كان متوسط كميةِ DNA ( ng/ul61.68 ) بينما نوعيةً DNA التي ظهرت إيجابيةً في تفاعل أنزيم البلمرة للبيتا كلوبين كَانَت 71.42 % (80 من 112)، فكانت نماذج سرطان الثدي 70.37 % (38 من 54), ونماذج التليف ألغدي %85.71(18 من 21) ,ونماذج التهاب الثدي 77.77 % (14من 18) و نموذج التهاب خلية البلاستولية الخارجية %52.63 ( 10 من 19)، حيث كان هناك اختلاف معنوي (p <0.5).كما اظهر تفاعل إنزيم البلمرة لجين البيتا كلوبين نتائج مختلفة من الحزم تبعا لحالة الدنا المستخلص.الاستنتاجات: يعتبر تقييم الدنا المستخلص بالنانودروب والبيتا كلوبين من أسهل وأدق الطرق بالمقارنة مع نتائج باحثين آخرين عملوا على طرق تقييم أخرى .التوصيات: توصي الدراسة باعتماد تقييم البيتا كلوبين تجنبا لحصول نتائج سلبية كاذبة بسبب تكسر الدنا.


Article
Increasing Cellulose Production from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

Authors: Suaad Ali Ahmed --- Alaa Raheem Kazim --- Hussam Mahmood Hassan
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2017 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 120-125
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a type of biopolymer produced as primary metabolism product by many genera of bacteria such as Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Psuedomonas and Sarcina. This article aimed to study the effect of some factors on cellulose production from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which isolated from root nodules of Vicia faba plant collected from Abu-Ghraib in Baghdad. Some environmental and nutritional factors were examined including : carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature and incubation period. Results showed that maximum production of cellulose was gained by Hestrin-Schram medium (HS medium) containing 2% fructose as carbon source, 1% yeast extract as nitrogen source, as well as optimum pH, temperature, and incubation period were (5, 30°C for 7 days) respectively .Cellulose dry weight was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique and the results showed the presence of the functional groups of bacterial cellulose. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.17]


Article
Humoral immune factor changes in group of patients with Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with intravesical therapy
التغيرات في بعض العوامل المناعية في مجموعة من المرضى الذين يعانون من سرطان المثانة غير العضلي الذي يعالج بالعلاج داخل المثانة

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Background: Bladder cancer (BC) one of the most common urologic cancer characterized by the highest recurrence rate, many types belong to BC, but most common of them worldwide are transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) which constitute about 90-95% cases, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinomasObjective: This study was designed to evaluate parameters of humoral immunity in Non-muscle invasive (superficial or early) bladder cancer patients in Iraq that may provide a new insight into the future of immunotherapies development and BC management.Materials and methods: Fifty-nine volunteer's patients ranged from 24 to 83years old, and 30 control individuals ranged from 51-80 years old, who attended and admitted to Hospital of Gazi AL-Harery in medical city of Baghdad, and Al-Emamain Al-Khadhemain Teaching hospital was recruited in this investigation. The sera of study groups were subjected to serological test to estimate the levels of (IgA, IgG, IgM and C3) by Single radial immunodiffusion (sRID) assay and Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to estimate the serum levels of IL-10.Results: The ages ranged from 24 to 83years (females: 26 to 72years, males: 38 to 83years) with male to female ratio 4.9:1 and ages of controls ranged from 51 to 80years (females: 54 to 70years, males: 51 to 80years) with male to female ratio 2.75:1, the mean ages of cases and controls groups were (61.65±11.04) , current study showed significance dropping in C3 levels in patients control and Mitomycin C groups compared with apparently healthy, levels of IgM showed significant elevation in BCG group compared with apparently healthy group while patients control and mitomycin C groups showed insignificant elevation of IgM. Levels of IgG showed significant elevation in patients control and mitomycin C groups compared with apparently healthy group while in BCG group showed no differences. Serum levels of IL-10 showed no differences between apparently healthy group and each of patient's groups, also showed no differences within patient's groupsConclusions: Bladder cancer is a common urologic malignancy in male than female patients enrolled in this study. Intravesical BCG or Mitomycin C leading to effective anti-bladder cancer immunity in the majority of PatientsKeywords: Keywords: humoral immunity, BC, MMC, BCG, IL-10, C3, IgA, IgM, IgG.

الخلفية: سرطان المثانة واحدة من أكثر سرطان المسالك البولية شيوعا تتميز أعلى معدل تكرار، العديد من الأنواع تنتمي إلى سرطان المثانة ، ولكن الأكثر شيوعا منهم في جميع أنحاء العالم هي سرطان الخلايا الانتقالية التي تشكل حوالي 90-95٪ من الحالات. الهدف: تم تصميم هذه الدراسة لتقييم المعلمات من المناعة الخلطية في مرضى سرطان المثانة في العراق التي قد توفر نظرة جديدة في مستقبل العلاج المناعي لهذا المرض . المواد والأساليب: تراوح عدد المرضى المتطوعين الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 24 و 83 سنة، و 30 فردا من الأشخاص الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 51 و 80 عاما، والذين حضروا إلى مستشفى غازي الحريري في مدينة بغداد الطبية، و مدينة الامامين الكاظمين . تم اختبار مصل الدم من مجموعات الدراسة لاختبار المصلية لتقدير مستويات (IgA, IgG, IgM and C3 ) من خلال فحص المناعي الشعاعي واحد وبواسطة فحص (إليسا) النتائج: تراوحت الأعمار من 24 إلى 83 سنة (الإناث: 26 إلى 72 سنة، ذكور: 38 إلى 83 سنة) مع نسبة الذكور إلى الإناث 4.9: 1 وأعمار الضوابط تراوحت بين 51 إلى 80 سنة (الإناث: 54 إلى 70 سنة، ذكور: 51 إلى (61.65 ± 11.04)، وأظهرت الدراسة الحالية انخفاض معنوي في مستويات C3 في السيطرة على المرضى ومجموعات ميتوميسين C مقارنة بمستويات سليمة على ما يبدو من IgM أظهرت ارتفاع كبير في مجموعة IgGمقارنة مع مجموعة صحية بينما أظهرت الدراسة السيطرة على المرضى والمجموعات ميتوميسين C ارتفاع كبير من IgM. وأظهرت مستويات IgG ارتفاع ملحوظ في السيطرة على المرضى والمجموعات ميتوميسين C مقارنة مع مجموعة على ما يبدو صحي أظهرت مستويات مصل الدم من IL10 عدم وجود فروق بين المجموعة الصحية على ما يبدو وكل من مجموعات المريض، كما أظهرت أي اختلافات داخل مجموعات المريضالاستنتاجات: سرطان المثانة هو الأورام الخبيثة المسالك البولية شيوعا في الذكور من الإناث المرضى المسجلين في هذه الدراسة. BCG أو ميتوميسين C يؤدي إلى فعالية المناعة المضادة لسرطان المثانة في غالبية المرضى. BC, MMC, BCG, IL-10, C3, IgA, IgM, IgG كلمات الدلالة:

Keywords

humoral immunity --- BC --- MMC --- BCG --- IL-10 --- C3 --- IgA --- IgM --- IgG. --- . BC --- MMC --- BCG --- IL-10 --- C3 --- IgA --- IgM --- IgG


Article
Measurement of Adenosine Deaminase Concentration in Serum of Breast Cancer by HPLC before and after Chemotherapy in Hilla City

Authors: Ali Mohammed Jawad --- Mufeed Jalil Ewadh --- Alaa Sadiq Al awad
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 661-669
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Breast cancer (BC) is a type of malignancy appeared in breast tissue , occurs in both premenopausal and also in postmenopausal women's. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme participate in metabolism of purine. However, the level of adenosine deaminase increased in most cancers patients and it could be of value before and after chemotherapy. A total of 280 patient with (BC) divided in two groups, first group (n=40) women with breast cancer without chemotherapy, second group (n= 240 ) women with breast cancer with chemotherapy, this group was divided into six groups according to the doses used (1st – 6th doses). The control group (n= 40) apparently healthy women's matched with patient group. Women with (BC) have a significant higher serum level of ADA than those who are not diseased (p<0.001) and even than those who received chemotherapy (p<0.05 ).So, this lead to a conclusion that; breast cancer women have higher level of ADA . ADA level decreased upon administration of chemotherapy. The objective of this study is to assess ADA status in women's BC receiving chemotherapy treatment.


Article
An Evaluation of the Solubility of Four Endodontic Sealers in Different Solvents (An In Vitro Study)

Authors: Noor Hayder Fadhil نور حيدر فاضل --- Majida K. Al-Hashimi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 15-20
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Complete removal of filling material from the root canal is an essential requirement for endodonticretreatment. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate and compare the dissolving capabilities of varioussolvents (Xylene, Eugenate Desobturator, Eucalyptol, EDTA and Distilled water (as a control)) on four different typesof sealer (Endofill, Apexit Plus, AH Plus and EndoSequence bioceramic sealer).Materials and method: Eighty samples of each sealer were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructionsand then divided into ten groups (of 8 samples) for immersion in the respective solvents for 2 and 5 min immersionperiods. Each sealer specimen was weighed to obtain its initial mass. The specimens were immersed in the testedsolvents for 2 and 5 min, followed by rinsing with double distilled water and blotted dry with an absorbent paper,then they were reweighed to determine its final mass. The mean of weight loss was determined for each material ineach solvent during the specified immersion period, and the values were subjected to statistical analysis.Results: Clear differences were shown in the solubility profile of these root canal sealers in the tested solvents. Theresult of the present study shows that Xylene had the greatest capacity for dissolving Endofill, Apexit Plus and AH Plus.Eugenate Desobturator, Eucalyptol and EDTA showed a highly significant dissolving capability on these sealers withvariations between these subgroups; EndoSequence BC sealer is insoluble in these tested solvents. Regarding theimmersion time, higher values of solubility were obtained at 5 min than that at 2 min immersion time.Conclusion: The results showed that Xylene, Eugenate Desobturator, Eucalyptol and EDTA can be used for theremoval of Endofill, Apexit Plus and AH Plus during endodontic retreatment with variations between these subgroups;D.W (control group) showed the least capacity for dissolving these sealers. EndoSequence BC sealer is insoluble inthe tested solvents


Article
In Vitro The Effect of Canals Instrumented With Three Rotary Ni-Ti Systems on The Dislocation Resistanceo Guttafusion® Versus Single Cone Obturation Technique

Authors: Rafal S. Ameen --- Raghad A. Al Hashimi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 17-25
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Complete seal of the root canal system following its chemo-mechanical debridement plays a pivotal role for achieving successful endodontic treatment. This can be established by reducing the gaps between the core filling material and root canal wall.Aim: To assess and compare the dislocation resistance of root canals obturated with GuttaFusion® and TotalFill BC sealer versus single cone obturation technique and TotalFill BC sealer after instrumentation of the canals with WaveOne, ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal system.Material and Method: Sixty extracted human permanent mandibular premolars were conducted in the current study. The teeth were decorated and left the root with 15mm length; the roots were divided randomly into three main groups, twenty roots in each group. The roots were instrumented with different rotary systems using crown down technique according to the groups: (Group I) was instrumented with WaveOne files. (Group II) was instrumented with ProTaper Next system and (Group III) was instrumented with ProTaper Universal system. For each group the same irrigation regimen was used, 3 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 3 mL of 17% EDTA to remove the smear layer.Then, Group I was also subdivided randomly into two subgroups of ten samples each, (Group I A) obturated with single cone gutta-percha and (Group I B) filled with GuttaFusion®. Group II was divided into (Group II A) obturated with single cone gutta-percha and (Group II B) filled with GuttaFusion®. Group III was divided into (Group III A) obturated with single cone gutta-percha and (Group III B) obturated with GuttaFusion®. In the present study, TotalFill BC sealer was used for all the tested groups.Then, the roots were embedded in clear acrylic resin and each root sectioned into three sections of 2mm thick (apical, middle and coronal). The push-out bond strength values represented by (MPa) unit was calculated by dividing the load on the surface area and the last was measured in collaboration with AutoCAD system software program. Failure mode analysis was carried out to examine the type of failure in each sample by using a stereomicroscope.Results: The results showed highly significant differences among the main groups that instrumented with different rotary systems (WaveOne, ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal system). There were highly significant differences between the two obturation techniques of the subgroups (single cone gutta-percha versus GuttaFusion®). However; Gutta-Fusion® showed highest bond strength value than single cone obturation technique. The coronal third slices of all groups showed highest value of bond strength in comparison to the middle thirds and apical thirds. In the meantime, the middle third slices showed bond strength higher than that of the apical thirds for all groups. Statistical analysis was performed by using two way ANOVA and LSD tests.Conclusions: The instrumentation techniques and the obturation materials significantly affected the push-out bond strength values of obturation system. The highest value was appointed in root canals instrumented with ProTaper Universal System; obturated with GuttaFusion® and BC sealer, whereas, the lowest bond strength was appeared at canals instrumented with ProTaper Next; obturated with single cone gutta-percha and BC sealer


Article
Study The Chemical Kinetics Properties for Adenosine Deaminase Enzyme (Aminohydrolase EC 3.5.4.4) ADA In Breast Cancer Patients
دراسة بعض الخصائص الحركية لأنزيم الادينوسين نازع الامين Adenosine Deaminase(Aminohydrolase EC 3.5.4.4) لدى مريضات سرطان الثدي

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Abstract

This study involved(50) women with newly diagnostic breast cancer and before any treatments, their ages ranges between (26-61) years old, the patients (women) subjected to different breast cancer investigations, at this study, we concerned on one of the biochemical tools that used as indicant to breast cancer disease which is Adenosine Deaminase Enzyme (ADA),and study their chemical kinetics properties and with factors that effect on enzyme activity which includes ,The optimal activity were in pH (7.2), as well as the optimal temperatures for activity were 35ºC. and the optimal substrate and enzyme concentration were (0.034Mm) and (0.25µg/ml) respectively, and the incubation time was 30 min. The results of kinetics characterization for ADA results demonstrated Km ,Vmax, Activation energy (Ea) and Temperature coefficient Q10 values were 0.849 mM and 83mMol/l/min, 3927.17cal/mol , 2 respectively.

تضمنت الدراسة (50) امرأة مصابه بسرطان الثدي مشخصه حديثا وقبل الخضوع لأي برنامج علاجي، تتراوح اعمارهم ما بين (26- 61) سنة، النساء المريضات خضعوا لفحوصات مختلفه خاصة لتشخيص سرطان الثدي. تركزت الدراسه على واحدة من اهم المتغيرات الكيموحيوية التي تستخدم في الكشف عن وجود اصابه بمرض سرطان الثدي والاشارة اليه وهو أنزيم أدينوسين نازعة أمين( ADA )تمت دراسة بعض حركيات الإنزيم الكيميائية بالإظافة الى تحديد بعض العوامل المؤثرة في نشاط الانزيم والتي تضمنت تحديد خصوصية الانزيم باستخدام مركبات مختلفة تضمنت( الادينوسين، 2 -هيدروكسي أدينوسين ،فورماسين، أدينين، سايتيدين، وغوانوسين)وبعد اختبار نشاط الانزيم أظهرت النتائج أن الادينوسين و 2 -هيدروكسي أدينوسين هي المواد الاساس للأنزيمكما وجد ان درجة الحموضة المثلى لنشاط الانزيم هو( 7.2 )،وكذلك درجة الحرارة المثلى كانت 35°م و التركيز الأمثل للماده الاساس والانزيم هو (0.034 )ملي مول و ( 0.25 ) مايكروغم / مل على التوالي، كما وجد ان الزمن الامثل للحضن (30) دقيقه.أظهرت نتائج دراسة الخصائص الحركية لأنزيم والتي شملت ثابت ميكايلس ( Km )، السرعة القصوى ( Vmax) ,طاقة التنشيط ( Ea ) وقيمة المعامل الحراري له هي كالاتي ( 0.849 ملي مول/لتر ) و( 83 ملي مول/لتر/دقيقه ) و(3927.17 كلاري /مول) و(2) على التوالي.


Article
Messages exchanged between the kingdom of Mitanni Toeshrata King (1365-1335 BC.) And the kings of Egyp
الرسائل المتبادلة بين الملك الميتاني تواشراتا (1365-1335ق.م) وملوك مصر

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Abstract

The Amarna letters of the most important documents discovered, through which enables the detection of many of the mystery that enveloped the area of ​​the ancient Near East during the era in which the messages were exchanged, and also reveal the nature of this correspondence relations and competition between states Ancient Near East

تعد رسائل تل العمارنة من أهم الوثائق المكتشفة، والتي من خلالها تمكن من الكشف عن كثير من الغموض الذي لف منطقة الشرق الأدنى القديم خلال الحقبة التي تم تبادل الرسائل فيها، وأيضا تكشف هذه المراسلات طبيعة العلاقات والتنافس بين دول الشرق الأدنى القديم

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