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Article
THE PATTERN OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS & THEIR ANTIBIOTICS SENSITIVITY AMONG PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

Author: Abdul-Munim N Mohammed د. عبد المنعم ناجي محمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 181-186
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Knowing the bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity is an important way of establishing a suitable guideline of treatment of infection.Objectives:To isolate bacterial pathogens from patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI), and to determine the antibiotic sensitivity of isolates.Methods:Sputum specimens were collected from 145 patients with RTI admitted to Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital from March 2011 to January 2012. Out of these, 88 (60.7%) patients (age rang 17-59 years) had an established bacterial etiology, and of these, 57 (64.8%) were males and 31 (35.2%) females. All isolates were diagnosed according to bacteriological and biochemical standard methods. For identified of antimicrobial susceptibility used from Kirby Bauer method according to (NCCLS).Results:Klebsiella species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common isolates among the Gram negative pathogens (26.2% and 11.7% respectively), followed by Escherichia coli and Proteus species, while Streptococcus pneumonia was the most common isolate among the Gram positive organisms, identified in (15.2%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. High rates of resistance to Amoxicillin and Cephalothin were demonstrated by all bacteria, whereas most isolates were found to be highly sensitive to Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin and Tobramycin. In contrast, Cefotaxim, Tetracyciln, Gentamycin and Erythromicin were less effect against most of isolates.Conclusions:Klebsiella spp. was the most common pathogens, whereas Streptococcus pneumonia which ranks as second common pathogens from patients with RTI in the present study. Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin and Tobramycin were the most effect antibiotics in vitro against tested bacteria. Conversely, no or less effect of other antibiotic agents was obtained making them not to be considered the drugs of choice in treatment of patients with RTI.Keywords:Bacterial pathogens, Antibiotics resistance, Patients RTIs.


Article
Antibacterial Activity of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts of Agaricus bisporus Against Food Borne Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: Ebtehal Hamid --- Eman Mohammed Ali --- Alyaa Razooqi Hussein⃰
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 111-114
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Two extracts of 50 mg.ml-1 Agaricus bisporus alcoholic and aqueous were used in order to study their effect against two pathogenic bacteria. Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from chicken and minced meat samples respectively, then identified according to biochemical tests. Antibacterial activity of Agaricus bisporus extracts (alcoholic and aqueous) was studied by agar well diffusion method. The results exhibited that aqueous mushroom extract has no effect against the two tested bacteria, while alcoholic extract of mushroom affect against the two tested bacteria and the effect against S. aureus was more than that against Salmonella typhi and the zone of inhibition was 15 mm and 9 mm respectively. The ethanol alcohol 96% and water were used as control. From this study, mushroom extracts especially ethanolic or alcoholic could be used to control the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from food


Article
Probiotic Activity of Lactobacillus spp. from Vaginal Specimens against Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: NibrasNazarMahmood --- Aya Ali Hameed
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 5 Pages: 335-346
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Urogenital infections affect millions of people every year worldwide. The management of these diseases usually requires the use of antimicrobial agents. And more newly, the use of probiotic Lactic acid bacteria [LAB] cultures in the management of vaginal infections and other infections has been extensively studied. In this work 30 isolates of Lactobacillus spp. Were obtained from healthful Iraqwomen,s vagina. All the isolates were subjected to the cultural microscopically and biochemical examinations for the identification of species add to the identification by Vitek2 system [ANC card]. The results showed that half of isolates belongs to Lactobacillus casei and the other half belongs to Lactobacillus gasseri. agar well diffusion method and disc method are used to detect of bacteriocin production byLactobacillus.casei isolates against 4 species of Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria which included:Corynebacteriumurealyticum, Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli and Psudomonasaeuroginosa, which obtained from IMAMEIN KADHIMEN MEDICAL CITY . The results showed the Lactobacillus which isolated from vagina by well diffusion method was effective against pathogenic isolates more than the Lactobacillus isolated by blank disc method , the high inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus isolates by well give an inhibition zone reached to [26] mm , while the Lactobacillus by disc was lower with inhibition reached to [18]mm. The supernatant did not show any activity when was treated with NaOH and adjusted to pH 7. This indicates that the organic acid produced by the Lactobacillusisolates was may be actually responsible for the inhibition of the indicator bacteria .The result show that the Lactobacillusstrains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against some human vaginal pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits .

التهابات المجاري البولية تؤثر على الملايين الناس كل عام في جميع انحاء العالم, ان علاج الامراض عادة يتطلب استخدام عوامل مضادة للمكروبات, حديثا تم استخدام المعززات الحيوية لبكتريا حامض اللاكتيك لعلاج الاصابات المهبيلة و الاصابات الاخرى, تمت الدراسة (30) عزلة من بكتريا حامض اللاكتيك وتم الحصول عليها من مهبل النساء العراقيات السليمات و خضعت جميع العزلات للاختبارات المجهريهوالزرعيه و البايوكيمياىيةلغرض معرفة الانواع اضافه الى التشخيص بواسطة نظام الفايتك, النتاىج بينت ان نصف العزلات تابعه الى نوع الاول. استخدمت طريقة الانتشار بالحفر و طريقة الاقراص لغرض الكشف عن العزلات المنتجة للبكتريوسين والمستخدم لاختبار فعالية التثبيطية ضد اربعة انواع من البكتريا الموجبة والسالبة لصبغة كرام والتي تشمل[Corynebacteriumurealyticum, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Psudomonasaeuroginosa] وتم الحصول عليها من مختبرات مستشفى مدينة الامامين الكاظمين.ع. النتاىج اظهرت ان عزلات بكتريا حامض اللاكتيك بواسطة طريقة الانتشار بالحفر تاثيرها على عزلات البكتريا المرضية اكثر فعالية من طريقة الاقراص حيث يصل اعلى قطر لمنطقة التثبيط الى (26) ملم بينما اعلى قطر لمناطق التثبيط بطريقة الاقراص يصل الى (18) ملم .بينت النتاءج قابلية بكتريا حامض اللاكتيك على تثبيط البكتريا المرضية المسببه للالتهابات المهبلية و الاستفادة منها في علاج مثل تلك الحالات.


Article
The Bacterial Pathogens of Patients with Urinary Tract Infections and Antibiotics Susceptibility in Taiz Governorate–Yemen

Authors: A. S. Al-Jendy --- B. A. Al-Ofairi
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2019 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-51
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most prevalent bacterial infections that can affect any individual at any age. UTIs have become difficult to treat because the appearance of bacterial pathogens resistance to antibiotics. So, the current study aimed to detect the types of bacterial pathogens that caused UTIs and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the bacterial strains in Taiz Governorate-Yemen. This cohort study included One hundred and ten (110) patients with clinical symptoms of UTIs. A clean-catch midstream urine from all patients were cultured for isolation and identification of bacterial agents that caused UTIs. Out of 110: 64 (58.2%) of urine samples showed a positive growth culture:{[37(33.6%)] were females and [27(24.6%)] were males} and 46 (41.8%) were non-growth. The most predominant bacteria were Escherichia coli (32.7%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae were (9.1%), Staphylococcus aureus were (6.4%), Proteus mirabilis were (5.5%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were (4.5%). The prevalence rate of UTIs is high among patients with age between 16-30 years [23(20.9%)]. Also, UTIs were more prevalent among the rural population [55(50%)] than the population residence in the city center [9(8.2%)] and the bacterial pathogens were more prevalent among illiterate patients [49 (44.6%)], compared to literate patients were [15(13.6%)]. Finally, our findings showed that the susceptibility test of the bacterial pathogens to an appropriate antibiotics: All bacterial pathogens were more sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, while, all bacterial pathogens showed a very high rate of resistance against Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Penicillin G.

تعد الاصابات البكتيرية من أهم المسببات لالتهابات المسالك البولية والتي تصيب جميع أفراد المجتمع في مختلف الاعمار وتصبح هذه الالتهابات صعبة المعالجة بسبب ظهور حالات المقاومة لهذه الممرضات البكتيرية للمضادات الحيوية .لذلك صممت هذه الدراسة للتحري عن الممرضات البكتيرية المسببة لالتهابات المسالك البولية ومدى حساسيتها للمضادات الحيوية في محافظة تعز- اليمن . وحيث شملت هذه الدراسة (110) مريض يشكو من أعراض التهابات المسالك البولية وتم لأجل ذلك جمع عينات المرضى من وسط الادرار بأوعية معقمة وتمت زراعتها على الاوساط الزراعية الملائمة واجريت عليها الاختبارات البكتريولوجية القياسية للتعرف على انواع المسببات البكتيرية المرضية لهذه الالتهابات .وقد اظهرت النتائج أن عدد 64 من العينات بنسبة (%58.2) كانت موجبة للزرع البكتريولوجي، وكان منها عدد 37 مريض اناث بنسبة (%33.6) وعدد 24 من المرضى ذكور وبنسبة (%24.6)،بينما ظهر عدد العينات السالبة للزرع الميكروبي 46 وبنسبة (% 41.8). وكذلك اظهرت النتائج ان بكتيريا Escherichia coli كانت الأكثر شيوعا، اذ تم عزلها بنسبه (%32.7) يليها بكتيريا Klebsiella pneumonia بنسبه (9.1%) وبكتيريا Staphylococcus aureus بنسبه (%6.4) و بكتيريا Proteus mirabilis بنسبه (% 5.5) في حين تم عزل بكتيريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa بنسبه ((%4.5. وكانت نسبة الاصابة عالية لدي هذه الشريحة من مرضى التهابات المسالك البولية بين الفئات العمرية (30-16) سنة بعدد 23 و بنسبة (20.9%) .كما بينت الدراسة الحالية انتشار التهابات المسالك البولية للمراجعين من ريف المدينة بعدد 55 مريض وبنسبة ( (50% مقارنة بعدد 9 مرضى بنسبة (8.2%) للمراجعين من مركز المدينة ، كما ان الاصابة كانت اكثر انتشار بين المرضى الاميين بعدد 49 وبنسبة (44.5%) مقارنة بالمرضى المتعلمين كان العدد 15 وبنسبة (%13.6). واخيراً اكدت نتائج دراستنا والخاصة بحساسية الانواع المختلفة من الممرضات البكتيرية تجاه المضادات الحيوية شائعة الاستعمال والملائمة للمعالجة في مثل هذه الحالات أن كل الممرضات البكتيرية اظهرت حساسية واضحة للمضاد الحيوي Ciprofloxacin ، بينما اظهرت جميع الممرضات البكتيرية مقاومة عالية تجاه المضادات الحيوية Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Pencillin G .


Article
Cockroach-associated food-borne bacterial pathogens from some hospitals and restaurants in hosur, Tamilnadu: distribution and antibiograms

Authors: Suresh K. --- Narayanan Mathiyazhagan --- Selvam R.
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2015 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 87-99
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The association of cockroaches with various pathogens is well documented and this study assessed the role of cockroaches as potential vectors of food-borne bacterial pathogens in Hosur, Tamilnadu, India. A total of 160 adult cockroaches, captured aseptically from four hospitals and two restaurants, were identified as Blattela germanica. Culturing external surface wash and gut homogenates by pooling cockroaches in batches of ten resulted in the isolation of 12 Salmonella spp., two Shigella flexneri, two Escherichia coli, 17 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Bacillus cereus. The analysis of isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility demonstrated that most of the isolates, belonging to the various genera, developed multiple drug resistance to up to 12 antimicrobials. To evaluate survival in and shedding of pathogens by B. germanica, Salmonella Group B, S. flexneri and S. aureus were separately fed to B. germanica at a level of 106 cfu/g of contaminated food. Cultural examination of faecal pellets from B. germanica showed that Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus could be excreted for 35 and 14 days, respectively. Shigella flexneri was not shed by cockroaches during the experiment. The results indicated that B. germanica is a possible reservoir and potential vector of some food-borne pathogens and may spread multiple drug resistance in hospitals and food catering establishments.


Article
Study of causative bacterial agents and risk factors predisposing to bacterial keratitis in Iraq

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Abstract

Background: Infective keratitis is the most common cause of blindness and preventable ocular morbidity worldwide. There are many published series of infective keratitis from both temperate and tropical parts of the world, and management strategies are well established1.Objective: The current study was aimed to detect the specific bacteria and predisposing factors that predisposed for the bacterial keratitis.Material and methods: Retrospective study of the hospital records of 40 patients who were diagnosed as bacterial keratitis and treated at the Ophthalmology in-patient department of at Ibn Al- haithum Teaching Hospital from May 2015 to December 2015.Patients who don’t have corneal scraping, or culture and sensitivity findings discarded from this study. Predisposing factors, clinical and microbiological data were reviewed. Corneal scrapings were obtained by physicians then were subjected for bacterial culture and biochemical tests.Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria isolated at higher percentage 19(47.5%) cases whereas Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated at lower percentage 2(5%). The most common risk factors was foreign body in 10 (25%) followed by contact lenses in 8 (20%) patients.Conclusion: Gram negative bacteria were the most frequent bacterial organisms especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from corneal scraping and corneal ulcer was found to be occurring principally by foreign body followed by contact lens wearing.Keywords: Bacterial keratitis, bacterial pathogens of keratitis, risk factors and keratitis.


Article
Microbiological pollution and heavy metals in two freshwater turtles from Garmat Ali- River in Basrah City/ Southern Iraq

Author: Ghazi M. Al-Maliki
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2019 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 41-48
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The microbiological pollution and some heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Aland Pb) levels in two freshwater turtles species (Mauremyscaspicacaspica(Gmelin 1774), and Rafetus(Trionyx) euphraticus(Daudin 1802)) collected from Garmat Ali- River . Samples of two freshwater Turtles were collected during summer season of the year 2017, were examined. Total- plate techniques were used for microbial pollution while heavy metal concentrations in two turtles species were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Total bacteria count had the highest number of bacteria in M. c. caspicawith 29.60 x 105cfu/ml. the total plate count had the highest bacteria number in the R. euphraticus– 19.26 x 105cfu/ml ranged. bacterial pathogens isolated include: E. coli, Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio spp., and Staphylococcus spp. Microbial species were characterized based on morphological and biochemical tests. M. c. caspicaTurtle had iron concentration of 21.52±0.031 mg/kg while R. euphraticusTurtle had iron concentration of 34.69±0.152 mg/kg. M. c. caspicaand R. euphraticushad copper concentrations of 0.87±0.034 and 0.92±0.057 mg/kg respectively. M. c. caspicahad a lead concentration of 0.06±0.041 mg/kg while R. euphraticushad a copper concentration of 0.09±0.064 mg/kg.

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