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Article
Assessment of Nurses' Knowledge Towards Child with Bacterial Meningitis at Pediatric Teaching Hospitals in Baghdad City

Author: Khamees Bandar Al-Sa'idi
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 1,2 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

AbstractObjective: The study aims to assess nurses' knowledge toward the child having bacterial meningitis and to find the relationship between nurses' knowledge and their demographic variables. Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out at the pediatric teaching hospitals in Baghdad from the 1 st November 2005 to the 1 st August, 2006.Non probability (purposive) sample of (60) nurses were selected from pediatric teaching hospitals in Baghdad, these nurses are working at medical, pediatric emergency wards and premature units and they have at least one year of experience in pediatric hospital.The data were collected through using specially constructed questionnaire, which comprises (107) items and filled by using interview technique.The reliability of the questionnaire was determined through a pilot study and the validity through a oanel of experts.The data were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistic frequency, percentage, and the application of inferential statistical procedures, which include Pearson correlation coefficient and chi-square.Results: The results of the study indicated that nurses have inadequate knowledge about general information (35 %), diagnosis (38.3 %), and medical treatment (40 %).While they have accepted level of knowledge (38.3 %), in nursing management toward the child with bacterial meningitis.In conclusion the results indicated that one third of the sample (33. 3 %) has poor knowledge toward all aspects of bacterial meningitis.Moreover, there is no significant association between nurse's knowledge and their age, sex, and marital status. However, significant relationship is found between their knowledge and their level of education, years of experience in pediatric unite, and years of employment.Recommendation: The study recommended that education and training programs in bacterial meningitis should be presented to the nurses. Key wards : Bacterial Meningitis


Article
Meningitis In Sulaimani Pediatric Teaching Hospital: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Seenaa Muhammed Ali --- Heersh Hma Raof Saeed --- Khalid Rashid Suliman
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 13-20
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Meningitis in children is one of the life threatening condition in pediatric age group, which needs proper and early diagnosis in the emergency department. Meningitis morbidity and mortality depend on causative agent, time of diagnosis, proper and sufficient duration of therapy in the hospital. For diagnosis, many parameters can be used from history, physical examination and laboratory investigation, which needs sophisticated laboratory to perform.Objective: To analyze CSF findings in children admitted to hospital as meningitis (bacterial and non-bacterial). Also, assess frequency and percentage of the bacterial species isolated from positive CSF culture and determine the resistance patterns of the different bacterial pathogens. Method: A retrospective study carried out in Sulaimania, Iraq/pediatric teaching hospital from January to December 2014. lumber puncture done in 96 cases aged between 29 days to 15 years that have been diagnosed as meningitis CSF parameters; WBC total count, Sugar and protein level were examined, also culture done for all cases with CSF leukocytosis . Results: According to CSF findings and clinical diagnosis, 51% (49cases) considered bacterial while 49% (47 cases) considered non bacterial meningitis. Deaths recorded only among Bacterial meningitis patients with a percentage of 6.1%. Results of CSF culture determined a 24 % (22 cases) as positive for bacterial growth. Streptococcal pneumonia, was on the top of the isolated bacteria with a high resistance against penicillin and Azithromycin.Conclusion: Bacterial meningitis are still occupying large percentage of cases admitted to hospital, and if un-diagnosed promptly will have a high mortality. High index of suspicion for bacterial meningitis is recommended.


Article
Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Associated with Bladder Cancer Patients

Authors: Rassool A. Al-Dabbagh --- Sami Y. Guirges --- Avan H. Al-Bayati
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 1 Pages: 48-51
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Several biological factors such as bacterial infections and immunological status are implicated in predisposing individuals to bladder cancer. Bacterial infection of urinary tract has been related to increase the risk of bladder cancer.
Patients and Methods: Resected tumors of a total of 73 patients were obtained under sterile surgical conditions. Biopsy processing samples and culture procedures of biopsy samples were mentioned in the text.
Results: Bacterial growth was observed in 48 biopsy tissues of those patients represent (65.8%) while, 25(34.2%) yielded no growth (negative results).
It is obvious that E. coli is the most predominant organisms followed by K. pneumoniae and Ps. Aeruginosa. The other uropathogens isolated more or less of equal distribution.Conclusion: High frequency and great variety of bacteria in cystectomy specimens removed from cancer of urinary bladder. They were often Gram-negative pathogens (primarily Enterobacteriaceae).


Article
Acute Bacterial Meningitis Among Children under Five Years of Age in Baghdad.

Author: Huda S. Al-Rawazq
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 3 Pages: 312-315
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: The periodic review conducted of acute bacterial meningitis in children younger than 5 years of age in Baghdad to reflect changes in the epidemiological pattern of this infection. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of meningitis who were admitted to Central Teaching Hospital in Baghdad City were included in a prospective study started from the 1st October till the 30th of December 2009. By bacteriological study, biochemical and cytological study in the laboratory, WBCs in the blood with differential count was done to support the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.
Results: Present study revealed that from (60) patients (6) cases (10.0 %) showed positive and (54) cases (90.0 %) negative cultures to CSF patients.
Conclusions: The administration of antibiotic before lumber puncture associated with false negative CSF culture. Most cases of meningitis were under one year of age occurred in male more than female with bottle feeding. Fever was the most common presenting symptom followed by vomiting and convulsion.


Article
Determination of bacterial contamination of milk using fluorometry
تحديد التلوث البكتيري للحليب باستخدام الفلورة

Authors: Ayad G.Anwer أياد غازي أنور --- Yasemin Z. Rassam ياسمين زهيرابراهيم رسّام
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2011 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 745-750
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to determine the feasibility of using fluorometric methods as an indicator for quality and contamination of milk with E.coli bacteria, and selection the suitable wavelength to be used with laser induced auto fluorescence. Three groups of milk samples were used in this study: Fresh pasteurized milk samples, milk samples containing different concentration of E.coli bacteria which were added artificially, and milk samples that were kept in refrigerator for 3-5 days. Thirteen excitation wavelengths were used to get the emission spectra for all milk samples using spectroflourometer .The results showed that the emission spectra at 275nm excitation wavelength gave a good differentiation between these three groups. The data analysis demonstrated that the proposed method can bring progress in identification of milk quality and contamination with rapidness, high sensitivity and low cost diagnostic tool. Laser light at this wavelength that transmitted by optical fiber can be used for milk samples examination in situe and for more precise results.

الهدف من هذا البحث هو لتحديد امكانية استخدام طرق التفلور كمؤشر لنوعية الحليب وتلوثه ببكتيريا الاشريشيا القولونية وامكانية تحديد الطول الموجي المناسب لاستخدامه في التفلور المحتث بالليزر.أستخدمت في هذه الدراسة ثلاث مجاميع من الحليب ، حليب مبستر وحليب تمت اضافة البكتريا اليه بتراكيز مختلفة ونماذج حليب تم حفضها بالثلاجة لمدة ثلاثة الى خمسة ايام.تم استخدام ثلاثة عشر طول موجي كأطياف تحفيز للحصول على اطياف الانبعاث.اظهرت النتائج بأن اطياف الانبعاث عند الطول الموجي 275 نانومتر ممكن ان تعطي تمييز واضح بين المجاميع الثلاثة . اظهر تحليل البيانات بأن هذه الطريقة يمكن أن تعطي فعالية في التمييز بين عينات الحليب بدقة وسرعة وكلفة قليلة.كما يمكن استخدام الليزر المنقول عن طريق الليف البصري لفحص نماذج الحليب في الموقع بدقة عالية.


Article
Quantitative Detection of the Partially Purified Endotoxin Extracted from the Locally Isolated Salmonella typhimurium A3

Authors: Ali Z. Al-Saffar --- Salman A. Ahmed --- Shalal M. Hussein
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2011 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 152-159
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

AbstractA total of 95 stool samples were collected from pediatric patients suffering from diarrhea in order to isolate bacteria belonging to Salmonella typhimurium species. After performing microscopic examination, cultural characterization, biochemical and Api 20E identifications, only 9 isolates showed positive Salmonella typhimurium. Following the separation of endotoxin from each isolate the biological activity of endotoxin was estimated by using E-TOXATE kit (Limulus amebocyte lysate test) and the isolate Salmonella typhimurium A3 showed the lowest concentration that gave positive result (0.5 µg/ml). Partial purification of endotoxin using sepharose Cl-6B gel chromatography for A3 endotoxin was applied and after purification two peaks were obtained. Chemical characterization involving the estimation of carbohydrate and protein contents showed that the first peak contained the higher carbohydrate contents (38.6%) and lower protein contents (1.15%) as compared with the second peak which showed carbohydrate and protein contents 13.2 and 5.75% respectively. In addition, the first peak showed maximum activity of (≥0.1µg/ml), the second peak and the crude endotoxin showed 2.5 and 0.5µg/ml respectively.

الخلاصةتم جمع 95 عينة خروج من اطفال مصابين بالاسهال لغرض عزل بكتريا المنتمية الى جنس السالمونيلا. بعد اجراء الفحص الفحص المجهري و التشخيص الزرعي و الفحوصات الكيموحيوية و استخدام العدة التشخيصية AP 20E, شخصت 9 عزلات على انها Salmonella typhimurium. تم تقدير الفعالية الحيوية للذيفان بعد استخلاصه من العزلات المشخصة و باستخدام العدة E-TOXATE و بعد استخدام هذا الفحص اظهر اقل تركيز من الذيفان المستخلص من العزلة Salmonella typhimurium A3 الذي اعطى نتيجة موجبة (0.5 µg/ml) و على هذا الاساس تم اختيار الذيفان المستخلص من Salmonella typhimurium A3 في التنقية و الفحوصات الكيميائية. اظهرت التنقية الجزئية للذيفان المعزول من Salmonella typhimurium A3 باستخدام كروماتوغرافيا الترشيح الهلامي باستخدام هلام (sepharose Cl-6B) انفصال قمتين رئيستين. تم تشخيص القمتين تشخيصا كيميائيا و ذلك بتقدير محتوى البروتينات و الكاربوهايدرات و تبين ان القمة الاولى تكون ذات محتوى كاربوهايدراتي عالي (38.6%) و محتوى بروتيني واطئ (1.15%) مقارنة بالقمة الثانية التي اظهرت محتوى كاربوهايدرتي و بروتيني كالاتي (13.2% و 5.75%) على التوالي. بالاضافة الى ذلك اظهرت القمة الاولى فعالية حيوية عالية (0.1 µg/ml ( بالمقارنة مع القمة الثانية و السم الداخلي الخام و التي كانت كالاتي 2.5 و 0.5 مايكروغرام/مل.


Article
Cerebrospinal fluid cholinesterase activity in children with meningitis

Authors: Aldeen Alnoori --- Mohammed Khalid Jamal محمد خالد جمال
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy المجلة العراقية للصيدلة ISSN: 16802594 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 70-76
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objective: To assess the changes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acetyl cholinesterase(AChE) activity in children with acute bacterial meningitis in comparison to healthyage and sex matched controls.Patients and methods: Out of 41 cases admitted to Alkhansaa pediatric and diliveryhospital (Mosul city) between January 2010 and July 2010, 28 cases proved to be acase of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis, 13 child proved lack from any type ofmeningitis with age and sex matched subjects taken as a control group. Initially fromall of the studied children (patients and controls) about 5 ml CSF samples were takenand assayed for appearance, leucocytes, red blood cells, sugar, protein and AChEactivities by spectrophotometric method.Results: There were a significant increase in CSF WBCs count, RBCs count, proteinlevels, AChE activity with a decrease in CSF glucose level for children with acutebacterial meningitis in comparison to the control group.Conclusion: There is an important value for measurement of CSF AChE activity forconfidential diagnosis of children with acute bacterial meningitis specially for thosewith equivocal decision by using the traditional parameters.

أهداف البحث: لتحديد أهمية قياس مستوى التغيير لنشاط خميرة الكولين استراز في سائل النخاع ألشوكي للمرضى المصابين بالتهاب السحايا البكتيري الحاد من الاطفال وبالمقارنة مع مجموعة ضبط من اصحاء ذوي اجناس و اعمار مقاربة لمجوعة المرضى.المرضى وطرق العمل: من أصل 41 مريضا ادخلوا الى مستشفى الخنساء للأطفال و التوليد في مدينة الموصل للفترة مابين كانون الثاني 2010 وتموز 2010 ، كان هناك 28 حالة شخصت على انها التهاب سحايا بكتيري بجرثومة Haemophilus influenzae. كذلك انتخب 13طفلا من أعمار و أجناس مقاربة من الاصحاء اتخذت كمجموعة ضبط. في البداية تم سحب 5 مل من سائل النخاع ألشوكي من المجموعتين ( مجموعة المرضى والضبط) وتم معاينة النماذج و فحص كريات الدم البيض, كريات الدم الحمر ,مستوى السكر,مستوى البروتين و قياس مستوى نشاط خميرة الكولين استراز في سائل النخاع ألشوكي باستخدام طريقة امتصاص الطيف الضوئي.النتائج: هنالك زيادة معنوية في كريات الدم البيض, كريات الدم الحمر, مستوى البروتين و مستوى نشاط خميرة الكولين استراز في سائل النخاع ألشوكي مع نقص معنوي في مستوى السكر للأطفال الذين لديهم التهاب السحايا الحاد بالمقارنة مع مجموعة الضبط.الاستنتاج: كان هنالك فائدة مهمة من قياس مستوى نشاط خميرة الكولين استراز في سائل النخاع الشوكي للتأكد من صحة تشخيص التهاب السحايا البكتيري الحاد عند الأطفال الذين لم يكتمل تشخيصهم للمرض باستخدام طرق الكشف الاعتيادية .


Article
seasonal gastroenteritis associated with bacterial species among Iraqi children

Author: Maha Abdul -Jabar مها عبد الجبار
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 2 Pages: 177-180
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Article
Subdural Effusion in Bacterial Meningitis Experience in Children Welfare Teaching Hospital

Authors: Mahjoob N. Al-Naddawi --- Hula Raoof abdul Rasool --- Nameer Mahdi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Subdural effusions occur in (10 - 33 %) of children with acute bacterial meningitis. Usually occur bilateral over frontoparietal region, although localized collections can develop over occipital region. Effusions are most common when meningitis results from H.influenzae .(45% of all effusions).OBJECTIVE:To find out the incidence , age distribution and type of bacteria involved in occurrence of subdural effusion in bacterial meningitis, to know the risk factors that might associated with subdural effusion .PATIENTS AND METHODS:from march 2010 – feb.2011 a Prospective study was done on 50 patients diagnosed and treated as meningitis, information's obtained from patients include (patient name, date of birth, sex, residency, duration of illness before admission, clinical presentation, and if antibiotics used prior to admission. Diagnostic inclusion criteria clinical and laboratory based. daily follow up of them .Brain CT was done to all of patients with meningitis after 7 days of treatment to roll out subdural effusion because some of the patients were asymptomatic.RESULTS:The study shows that incidence of subdural effusion in bacterial meningitis was (22.0%).It is most commonly occur in children below the age of (1) year, there was no significant difference between male and female . Regarding CSF analysis, there were no specific findings that indicate presence of subdural effusion. The majority of the patients show no growth of bacteria on CSF culture, blood culture and gram stain, the others show equal growth of (streptococcus pneumonia, H.influenzae and N.meningitidis). Regarding outcome the majority of the patients discharged well, only one patient had focal deficit and one patient died.CONCLUSION:There were no significant risk factors associated with development of subdural effusion. The majority of patients was discharged without any intervention and required follow up only. It's important for physician to maintain a high index of suspicion for diagnosis of subdural effusion .It is important to follow-up patients with meningitis by imaging study, because majority of patients with subdural effusion are asymptomatic.


Article
Prevalence of Bacterial mastitis in cattle from farmers, houses in Basrah marshes.

Author: G.M. Al-Maliki
Journal: Marsh Bulletin مجلة الاهوار ISSN: 18169848 Year: 2009 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 169-178
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The pathogenic bacterial isolated from (120) milk samples collected for mastitis cattle were coagulase negative Staphelococcus sp, in 50(42%), samples, Streptococcus agalactia, in 40(33.3% ) and Staphelococcus aureus , in 30(25%) animals which infected with S. aureus had a cute infection. we found the contamination of milk with goagulase negative Staphelococcs are the most frequent bacterial infection in dairy cattle in farmers houses in basrah marshes. It mostly causes subacute form of the disease. S. agalactia are the second causative agents.

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