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Article
EVALUATION OF HEARING IN PATIENTS WITH BETA THALASSEMIA MAJOR

Authors: Ahmed Fadhil Hasan --- Husam Haider Salman --- Jaafar Muhsen Khalaf
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-51
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

EVALUATION OF HEARING IN PATIENTS WITH BETA THALASSEMIA MAJOR Ahmed Fadhil Hasan*, Husam Haider Salman# & Jaafar Muhsen Khalaf@ *MB, ChB, FICMS, CABS ENT HNS, ENT Senior Surgeon at Al Shafaa General Hospital. #FRCS, DLO. Retired, Department Of Surgery, College Of Medicine, Basrah University. @MB,ChB, FICMS ENT, ENT Surgeon, Basrah Teaching Hospital, Basrah, IRAQ. Abstract This prospective study was conducted in Basrah Teaching Hospital to evaluate the hearing of β thalassemia major patients, and to find the association between desferoxamine (DFO) therapy and hearing loss (HL). Pure tone eudiometry (PTA) and tympanometry was done to determine hearing thresholds of (23) β thalassemia major patients and (50) non thalassemic subjects. All subjects were more than 4 year old to allow PTA to be done. The criteria of evaluation included a full otological history, drug history, otological examination, audiological evaluation using PTA and tympanometry. This study found that (6) out of (23) thalassemic patients and (6) out of (50) non thalassemic patients have hearing loss. From those thalassemic patients with HL, (5) patients have conductive hearing loss (CHL) and one have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), while the non thalassemic patients with HL all have CHL, also we found that (3) out of (5) thalassemic patients not on desferoxamine therapy have HL. In conclusion, β thalassaemia major has no significant statistical association with hearing problems, and there is no significant statistical association between desferoxamine therapy and hearing loss.


Article
Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in &#946;-Thalassemic Patients: Effect of Iron Overload

Authors: Wasan K. Ali --- Mohammad A. Al-Kataan --- Bassm N. Aziz
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2009 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 8-14
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

To study the effect of iron overload due to continuous blood transfusions on peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and peroxynitrite, with evaluation of some antioxidants like, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamine E, Ceruloplasmin, uric acid and albumin in thalassemia patients. Forty patients with thalassemia major, aged 5 to 15 years, were carried out in Abn-Alatheer Teaching Hospital in Mosul city, during the period from October 2007 to April 2008. They were on Chelation therapy with desfer¬rioxamine. They were divided into two groups, the first one without iron overload (90,97±12.92), and the second one with iron overload (157.75±7.57). All the patients were received whole blood. Blood samples were collected before and after blood transfusion. The results showed that there were significant increase in MDA and peroxynitrite in patients with iron overload five days before and after blood transfusion in compared with groups having normal iron level. On the other hand, glutathione, superoxide dismutase activity, Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, albumin and ceruloplasmin were significantly decreased whereas, uric acid was increased significantly. It is concluded that, Iron over load due to continuous blood transfusion in thalassemia causes increase in oxidative tissue damage with a changes in antioxidants status.

لدراسة تأثير فرط تحميل الحديد نتيجة إعطاء الدم المستمر في نواتج البيروكسدة المتمثلة بالمالونديالديهايد ونترات البيروكسيد, مع قياس بعض من مضادات الأكسدة كالكلوتاثايون والسوبر اوكسايد دسميوتيز وكل من فيتامين A وفيتامين C وفيتامين E والسيروبلازمين وحامض اليوريك والألبومين عند مرضى الثلاسيميا. أختير ٤٠ مريضا من المصابين بالنوع الرئيسي لمرض الثلاسيميا, واللذين هم تحت علاج عقار الدسفيروكسامين. حيث تراوحت أعمارهم من ٥−١٥ سنة ومن الراقدين في مستشفى أبن الأثيرالتعليمي بالموصل, خلال الفترة من تشرين الأول ٢٠٠٧ولغاية نيسان ٢٠٠٨. تم تقسيمهم إلى مجموعتين, الأولى اتصفت بعدم وجود فرط تحميل للحديد (٩٠٫٩٧±١٢٫٩٢) والثانية بوجود فرط تحميل للحديد (١٥٧٫٧٥±٧٫٥٧). بعدها تم إعطاء الدم لكل أفراد العينة المدروسة, وأخذت عينات الدم قبل وبعد عملية نقل الدم. أظهرت نتائج هذه الدراسة وجود زيادة معنوية في مستويات المالوندايالديهايد ونترات البيروكسيد في المرضى الذين يعانون من فرط تحميل الحديد مقارنة بالآخرين الذين يكون مستوى الحديد عندهم طبيعي. من ناجية أخرى, فقد انخفضت معنويا مستويات الكلوتاثايون وفعالية أنزيم السوبر اوكسايد دسميوتيز وكل من فيتامين A وفيتامين C وفيتامين E والألبومين والسيريوبلازمين, بينما ارتفع معنويا مستوى حامض اليوريك. وقد أستنتج من الدراسة بأن فرط تحميل الحديد الناتج من نقل الدم المتواصل لمرضى الثلاسيميا قد سبب زيادة شدة الكرب التاكسدي مع اختلاف في مستويات مضادات الأكسدة .


Article
Oro-facial manifestations, oxidative stress marker and antioxidant in serum and saliva of patients with Beta thalassemia major

Authors: Muaid S. Abbas Shamsah --- Taghreed Fadhil Zaidan تغريد فاضل زيدان
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 93-97
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Beta thalassemia is a typically autosomal recessive form of severe anemia which is caused by animbalance of two types of protein (alpha and beta) subunits of hemoglobin. Oxidative stress imbalance is theequilibrium between pro-oxidantantioxidant statuses in cellular system, which results in damaging the cells.Antioxidant is a chemical that delays the start or slows the rate of lipid oxidation reaction and it play a very importantrole in the body defense system against reactive oxygen species. The aims of this study were to recorded the orofacialmanifestations in beta thalassemic patients and assess the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde in serumand salivs and their role in the pathogenesis of beta thalassemia and evaluation the antioxidant uric acid in serumand saliva of those patients.Methods: The study included fifty eight beta thalassemic major patients, twenty eight patients with periodontitis andthirty patients without periodontitis and twenty nine healthy subjects that were age matched with the patients. Orofacialmanifestations recorded clinically, serum and saliva malondialdehyde and uric acid were measured in allsubjects.Results : The main oro-facial manifestations were malocclusion ,rodent face, brown pigmentation of oral mucosaand incompetent lip.The mean serum and saliva malondialdehyde was significantly higher in thalassemic patientswith periodontitis (p<0.001). Serum and saliva uric acid was significantly higher in thalassemic patients withoutperiodontitis (p<0.001).Conclusions: Malocclusion was the most prevalent oro-facial manifestations in beta thalassemic patients, increasedserum and saliva malondialdehde refer to the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of beta thalassemia. Uricacid increased to counteract the elevation in the oxidative stress process


Article
Determination of Some Oxidative Stress Parameters and Antioxidants in Sample of Iraqi Beta Thalassemia Major Patients
تحديد بعض معايير جهد الأكسدة ومضادات الأكسدة في عينة من مرضى بيتا الثلاسيميا الكبرى العراقيين

Authors: Amna K. Ahmed أمنه كنعان احمد --- Jabbar H. Yenzeel جبار حميد ينزيل
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 1A Pages: 1-3
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Repeated blood transfusion in beta thalassemia major patients may lead to peroxidative tissue injury by secondary iron overload. In the present study, 100 patients(50 male+50 female) with beta thalassemia major patients with age (5-20) years and 60 healthy control were included during their attendance at Abin Al_Baladi hospital in Baghdad. Malondialdehyde ,Superoxide Dismutase and Vitamin E, were measured by using kits.The results showed A highly significant (p<0.01)increase in the levels of Malondialdehyde and Superoxide Dismutase, whereas, significant p(<0.01)decrease in the levels of vitamin-E, This suggest that oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant defense mechanism play an important role in pathogenesis of beta thalassemia major.

أن تكرار نقل الدم في المرضى بيتا ثلاسيميا الكبرى يؤدي إلى إصابة الأنسجة نتيجه الحديد الزائد الثانوي. في هذه الدراسة،كان 100 عينه من المرضى (50 ذكور + 50 إناث) مع مرضى بيتا ثلاسيميا الكبرى في فئه العمريه (5-20) سنوات و 60 عينه من الاصحاء أثناء حضورهم في مستشفى أبن البلدي في بغداد.مالينديهايد,ودسميتوز وفيتامين(اي),وقياسها باستخدام الكتات وأضهرت النتائج زيادة كبيرة جدا في مستويات ماليندهايد ودستميوز(ع<0.01)في حين انخفاض في فيتامين (اي) ذا يشير إلى أن الاكسدة وانخفاض آلية الدفاع المضادة للأكسدة تلعب دورا هاما في التسبب في بيتا ثلاسيميا الكبرى.


Article
The Variation in Levels of Some Male Pituitary and Gonadal Hormones in Beta-Thalassemia Major Patients in Iraq
التغاير في مستويات بعض هورمونات الغدة النخامية والمناسل في الذكور المصابين بفقر دم البحر المتوسط في العراق

Author: Jabaar H. Yenzeel جبار حميد ينزيل
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 1B Pages: 216-221
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study was aimed to investigate the iron overload effect on the levels of ferritin, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) in male patients with β-thalassemia. Blood levels of sex hormones and ferritin were determined in (50 males) beta-thalassemia patients, aged (16-23) years and in (30) healthy males matched for age. They were recruited from the Abin Al-Balady Hospital in Baghdad. Ichroma™ kits were used to determine the blood levels of sex hormones and ferritin. The results showed that the level of testosterone, LH and FSH were significantly (p≤ 0.05) lower in β-thalassemia male patients compared to controls. Furthermore, the level of ferritin and prolactin in male patients were significantly (p≤ 0.05) higher than the values obtained in the controls. Significant positive correlations (p≤ 0.05), (r= 0.3834) were detected between level of LH and ferritin in male patients. Non-significant positive correlations (p≥0.05) in the level of testosterone and ferritin, also non-significant negative correlation in PRL and FSH and ferritin were found in patients with β-thalassemia. From the above results it can be concluded that the iron overload may be the major cause of infertility in β-thalassemia male patients.

هدفت الدراسة الحالية الى التحري عن تاثير الزيادة في الحديد على مستوى الفرتين والهورمون المحفز للجريبات والهورمون اللوتيني وهورمون الحليب والتستوستيرون في الذكور المصابين بفقر دم البحر المتوسط.تم تحديد مستوى الفرتين والهورمونات الجنسية في خمسين من الذكور المصابين بفقر دم البحر المتوسط تراوحت اعمارهم بين 16-23 عاما وثلاثون من الذكور الاصحاء بنفس العمر خلال تواجدهم في مستشفى ابن البلدي في بغداد.استخدم جهاز Ichroma™ kits في تحديد مستوى الفرتين والهورمونات الجنسية.اظهرت النتائج ان مستويات هورمونات التيستوستيرون ومحفز الجريبات ,والهورمون اللوتيني قد انخفضت معنويا (p≤ 0.05) في الذكور المصابين مقارنة مع الاصحاء, في حين لوحظ ارتفاعا معنويا (p≤ 0.05) في مستويات الفرتين وهورمون الحليب في المرضى مقارنة مع السيطرة.لوحظ وجود ارتباطا معنويا موجبا (p≤ 0.05) بين الفرتين وهورمون اللوتيني وارتباط موجب غير معنوي(p≥0.05) مع التيستوستيرون وارتباط سالب غير معنوي(p≥0.05) بين الفرتين وهورمون الحليب ومحفز الجريبات . يمكن من النتائج التوصل الى ان الزيادة في الحديد قد تكون السبب الرئيس في عدم الخصوبة في الذكور المصابين بفقر دم البحر المتوسط.


Article
Effect of transfusion interval rate on clinical manifestations of patients with beta- thalassemia major and their correlation with some biochemical parameters

Author: Wafaa Fawzi. AL-Mosawy
Journal: karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences مجلة كربلاء للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 70272221 Year: 2017 Issue: 13 Pages: 249-257
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Background: Regular blood transfusions is the commonest form of life-long treatment for patients with beta-thalassemia major but multiple transfusions of blood causes iron overload and resulting in multiple progressive organ damage that later involved endocrine system, heart, and liver. Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical manifestations in the adult patients with beta thalassemia major based on interval rate of the blood transfusion and also investigate correlation between clinical status of patients with some biochemical parameters including the level of ferritin, Hb, prolactin, and cortisol.Methodology: Forty one Iraqi β -thalassemia major (TM) patients (19male and 22 female) are recruited from thalassemia center in Karbala at age of 14-24 years. The frequency of blood transfusion rate, blood groups, spleen status, and HCV infection are recorded from the profile of all patients. The weight and height of patients were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI), while the concentration of Hb, ferritin, cortisol, and prolactin are tested at morning just before blood transfusion session. Patients are grouped according to their transfusion interval rate (TIR) into two groups; short TIR group (˂ 3 weeks), and long TIR group (≥ 3 weeks). Results: The results were non-significant in the distribution of gender and blood groups, spleen status, frequency of HCV infection, Hb, cortisol, and prolactin between the two groups, but age average, ferritin level and BMI of long TIR group are significantly lower than those of short TIR patients. On the other hand, long TIR patients revealed non-significant correlation between all parameters and clinical manifestations except for Hb content which is significantly decreased (r = - 0.451, P = 0.039) in splenectomized patients. However, short TIR group showed that Hb content is significantly decreased in both splenectomized (r = - 0.560, P = 0.01) and underweighted (r = - 0.477, P = 0.033) TM patients. Conclusion: We can concluded that the levels of cortisol and prolactin hormones are neither disturbed in TM patients nor correlated with interval rate of transfusion, but Hb level is the key factor that determine TIR and ferritin level leading to retardation in BMI which may be due to another endocrinopathy particularly those that are closely related with metabolic pathways such as growth hormone and thyroxin.


Article
Evaluation The Immune Status Of Blood Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia In Thi-Qar Province/Iraq

Authors: Hayder F. Okab --- Manal B. Saleh
Journal: Journal of Education for Pure Science مجلة التربية للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 20736592 Year: 2019 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 279-288
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract: The present study was conducted at the Center of an inherited blood disorder in Dhi-Qar Province, during the period from October 2018 to January 2019. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune status of patients with beta-thalassemia by measuring )IgM, IgG, IgA, C3 and C4( complement by used single radial immune diffusion (SRID. The study included a total of 150 patients with beta-thalassemia and included (66 males) and (84 females) and their age from (2 to 33 years). The patients divided into three age groups. The second age group( 11-20 ) years the most dominant. All patients over 20 years have been exposed to spleen removal operations. When compared with similar age groups of control groups consisting of 50 healthy persons, there was a significant increase of serum IgM, IgG, and IgA in all age groups of beta-thalassemia patients. The levels of serum IgG, IgM and IgA increased significantly with increased age in patients with beta thalassemia. The levels of C3 and C4 were significantly reduced in serum in all age groups of patients with beta-thalassemia except the first age group for C4 compared to similar age groups of healthy individuals.


Article
Hemotological and Coagulatory Alteration in Splenectomized Versus Non-Splenectomized Transfusion Dependant Β-Thalassemic Major Patients

Authors: Haider AL-Shamari --- Liqaa M. Majeed Al sharifi --- Farah A. Hussain
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 551-560
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

β-Thalassemia is an inherited hemolytic disorder caused by a partial or complete deficiency of β- globin chain synthesis. Profound hemostatic changes have been observed in patients with β-thalassemia major with history of thromboembolic or haemorrahgic manifestation. The aim of this study was to assess the coagulation parameters; PT, PTT, factor V, factor VIII level in β-thalassemia major and to compare the effect of splenectomy on each and to evaluate the patients for increased risk of thrombosis and/ or bleeding. Sixty patients with transfusion dependent β-thalassemia major ;thirty of them splenectomized (16 females and 14 males), and thirty non-splenectomized (13 females and 17 males) aged between (3-38) years at different stages of the disease were included in this study from Babil hospital for maternity and pediatrics from the first of April 2012 to the 15th of July 2012. Seven milliliters of venous blood were collected from each patients and control persons included in this study by clear venipuncture under aseptic conditions from antecubital fossa with easy withdrawal of blood , subdivided as follows:1*1.8ml in o.2 ml trisodium citrate with gentle mixing for coagulation testing include PT,PTT, factors V and VIII.2*2ml in EDTA tube for routine haematological screening tests include: PCV,WBC, platelet count. Normal pooled plasma for factor assay obtained from 20 normal healthy persons ,plasma was mixed and divided into aliquot each containing about 1ml stored at -40C0 for 3-4 weeks as a control for factor assay study. The mean age was 18.2 years in splenectomized patients and 8.9years in non splenectomized patients. The PCV level was low in both groups 26.8,24.6 in splenectomized and non splenectomized patients respectively with statistical significant difference between them (p value <0.05). WBC and platelets count were both within normal limit ,however there was a statistical difference in platelets count between splenectomized and non splenectomized groups with mean value were 259.6 and 218.7 x109 /L respectively, p value <0.05. WBC count mean were 8.2 and 7.0x109 /L in splenectomized and non splenectomized patients respectively with no statistical significant difference between them p value >0.05. These patients (splenectomized and non splenectomized) have normal mean PT,PTT, which were 14.4 sec, 33 sec for splenectomized and 14.1 sec,33.2 sec for non splenectomized patients respectively with no statistical significant difference between them p value >0.05. Factors V,VIII level were 103%,127.8% for splenectomized patients and 100.3, 128.9% for non splenectomized patients respectively with no statistical significant difference between them p value>0.05 ,but there was statistical significant difference between the control group and the total thalassemic patients (P value <0.05),however splenectomized patients had more episodes of bleeding and thrombotic manifestations than non splenectomized patients which might be due to causes unrelated to coagulation factors V and VIII level. Splenectomy could affect PCV but had no effect on coagulation factors V and VIII.-Bleeding manifestations were more frequent in splenectomized patients with normal factor V,VIII and platelets count.-Thalassemics in Babylon thalassemic center were under transfused.


Article
Iron Chelation Therapy in Sickle Cell/Beta Thalassemia Syndrome, a 2 years’ Extension Study
دلائل الحديد لدى مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني في محافظة الديوانية

Author: Hayder Al-Momen *
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 76-81
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Sickle cell-beta thalassemia (HbS/β-thal) is a good example of a mixture of two types of common hereditary anemias in the Middle East and Mediterranean area, and lately throughout the world (because of continuous people movement to different parts of the globe especially western countries).Since iron Overload is blamed for most of complications encountered in these patients, it is very important tochelate them effectively and safely, and deferasirox is one of the best approved options up to date.Objective:To find out the effects of (deferasirox) within these patients on serum ferritn, functions of liver and kidney, platelet count, and major side events.Type of the study: Retrospective.Methods:This is aretrospective extension study for 24 months of 23 (out of a total 52) patients suffering from sickle cell-beta thalassemia (HbS/β-thal) whom regularly attending Baghdad Hereditary Anemia Center at Ibn Al-baladi Hospital for their usual medical care. Medical records of those patients were evaluated regarding five major arms including serum ferritin levels (measured every 3 months), liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum creatinine, platelets count, and major adverse events (all were evaluated on monthly intervals). At the baseline, all the involved patients were ≥ 2 years old, their serum ferritin levels more than one thousand

داء السكري من اكثر المشاكل الصحية التي تواجه العالم .عنصر الحديد من الممكن ان يكون سبب في تطور المرض وزيادة مضاعفات ذلك المرض. هذه الدراسة صممت لمعرفة العلاقة بين مستوى عنصر الحديد وتطور حدوث السكري . داء السكري من النوع الثاني حالة سريريه ينتج عنها ازدياد مستوى السكر في الدم بسبب انعدام الانسولين او نقص الانسولين النسبي . وايضا من الممكن ان يحصل بسبب حالات مرضية غير طبيعية مثل ضعف افراز الانسولين او مقاومة الانسولين المفرز من قبل الخلايا وأسباب امراض متعددة . واظهرت بعض الادلة وجود علاقة بين ايض الحديد وحدوث المرض . هذه الدراسة تضمنت 30 ( 20 انثى, 10 ذكور ) مصابين بمرض السكري من النوع الثاني بالإضافة الى 30 شخص غير مصاب بالمرض . سجلت النتائج في هذه الدراسة حيث لوحظ ارتفاع معنوي (p < 0.05) في مستوى بروتين iron , saturated transferin transferitin. Ferretin , وكذلك سجلت النتائج انخفاض معنوي(p < 0.05) في مستوى . EIBS, TIBC استنتجت هذه الدراسة وجود دور سلبي للحديد بتطور حدوث المرض وبطرق واليات متعددة .


Article
Immunological Evaluation of Patients with Β-Thalassemia Major in Kerbala City Using Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) Techniqu…………………..………….…

Authors: Zuhair Mohammed Ali Jeddoa --- Sattar jabbar Rahi --- Adel Ateia Abed Ali
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2011 Volume: 4 no 1 Issue: 9 Pages: 939-943
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Beta-thalassemia major is one of the major health problems in our country. Many studies have confirmed the fact that, these patients have an increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, assumed to be the result of immunological changes.Objective: This study aimed to evaluate some of humoral immunological parameters of thalassemic patients by measuring their serum concentration of Immunoglobulin (IgG), IgM, IgA, and serum complement components C3 and C4.Patients & Methods: A total of forty five beta-thalassemia major patients who wereattending to the thalassemia center in Kerbala teaching pediatrics hospital (24 males and 21females) from January to August of 2009 and fifty of control children with matched age andsex were randomly selected from apparently healthy individuals without any history of recentor recurrent infections, were enrolled in the study. Serum IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 and C4 levelswere measured using Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID).Results: The mean of serum IgG, IgM &IgA showed a significant increment (P<0.01) in thalassemic patients as compared with apparently healthy control group, while the serum levels of C3 and C4 were significantly decreased (P<0.01) in thalassemic patients as compared with control group.Conclusion: The elevation of serum levels of studied immunoglobulins can be due to continuous exposure to antigens, repeated infections, and chronic liver disease, while the only probable cause of humoral immune deficiency were found in these patients were due to the decline of serum complement levels (C3 and C4).Recommendations: The determination of serum levels of immunoglobulins and complement components have a beneficial value for evaluation of immunological status of thalassaemia major patients and further work need to be done to evaluate another immunological parameters for example the serum level of cytokines to manipulate the immunological aspects of thalassemic patients.Key word: Beta-Thalassemia major, Immunoglobulin G, IgM, IgA, C3 and C4, (SRID).

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