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Article
12-INFLUENCE OF BODY MASS INDEX ON THE INCIDENCE OF PRETERM LABOUR

Authors: Khilud Salim Al-Salami --- Zaineb T Alyasin --- Ragad Nasir HussainSAINN
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 72-77
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Nutritional status of the women has been considered as an important prognostic indicator ofpregnancy outcome and risk of preterm birth. Few studies have evaluated the patterns of bodymass index in developing regions where malnutrition and poor weight gain as well as maternalobesity have significant influences on the pregnancy outcome. This study aims to show theeffect of pregnancy body mass index on the incidence of preterm labour.This is a prospective descriptive study of 200 women attended Basrah Maternity and ChildHospital who were diagnosed with preterm labour were recruited in the study. Patients wereclassified into categories that were based on their body mass index (BMI) according to thenational institute of health guidelines. Rate of spontaneous preterm birth were determined.Women with body mass index <19 kg/m2 had 34.5% of spontaneous preterm labour, with BMI19-24.9 kg/m2 had 28.5% of spontaneous preterm labour, while those with BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2had 21% of spontaneous preterm labour, women with BMI 30-34.9 kg/m2 had 14% ofspontaneous preterm labour and with BMI >/35kg/m2 had 2%of spontaneous preterm labour.Risk of spontaneous preterm labour tend to progressively decrease with increasing body massindex.Thinner women who have preterm delivery tend to deliver at earlier gestational age than womenwho were obese 42.3% of non obese women deliver before 30 weeks of gestation compared to25% of the obese, 44% of non obese deliver at gestational age 30-40 weeks compared to 28.25of the obese.In conclusion, high body mass index is associated with a lower rate of spontaneous pretermbirth.

Keywords

BODY MASS INDEX --- PRETERM --- LABOUR


Article
Body Mass Index Finding among a Sample of Women with Infertility in Baghdad City
مؤشر كتلة الجسم لدى عينة من النساء المصابات بالعقم في مدينة بغداد

Author: Muna Abdul Kadhum Zeidan
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 232-238
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective (s):To find the Body Mass Index of women with infertility and To find any association between infertility period and increase BMI .Methods:- A cross-sectional study conducted in Baghdad in outpatient department in Teaching Hospital,& Bab-Al Moadham primary health care centerSampling was (non probability convenient)&sample size was 600. The study started from 1stof March 2013 to 1st of October 2013. Data was collected by questionnaire to obtain socio- demographic information &weight and height measurement.Results:The result shows that about (28.8%) of women in age group (30-34) years. Obesity in the infertility period (less than 5) years was (59%). Infertility period and age group, type of infertility, were significant associated with BMI .Conclusions: Most of the study sample was obese and a highly significant association is noticed between body mass index and infertility period, age, type of infertility, mean weight and mean height.Recommendation: Health education about the healthy eating approach and relation to diet and physical exercise to prevent obesity.

الهدف: تهدف الدراسة إلىتحديد الارتباط بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم والعقم لدى النساء.المنهجية: دراسة مقطعية اجريت في بغداد في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي والمركز الصحي في باب المعظم لعينة غير عشوائية (غرضية) وحجم العينة كان 600. للفترة من الاول من اذار 2013 ولغاية الاول من تشرين الاول 2013حيث جمعت المعلومات والبيانات باستخدام استبانة معدة مسبقا للحصول على المعلومات الاجتماعية والديموغرافية,والوزن والطول لكل امراة .النتائج : اظهرت نتائج الدراسة ان حوالي (28.8%) من النساء في الفئة العمرية (30-34)سنة. السمنة في فترة العقم (اقل من 5 سنوات) كانت (59%). تبين وجود ترابط معنوي واضح بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم و فترة العقم والفئة العمرية ونوع العقم .الاستنتاج: أغلبية عينة الدراسة كن يعانين من السمنة, ووضوح ارتباط معنوي عالي بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم وفترة عدم الخصوبة, والعمر , ومتوسط الوزن ومتوسط الطول التوصيات: التثقيف الصحي حول الاكل الصحي والنظام الغذائي وممارسة الرياضة البدنية لمنع السمنة.

Keywords

body mass index --- infertility --- women


Article
Obesity and Overweight in a Sample of Women at Child Bearing Age in Baghdad City

Authors: Baqir Kareem Abed --- Muna Abdul Kadhum Zeidan --- Sulaf Ahmed Hussain
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 214 -223
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Obesity is a chronic disease defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a condition of abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, to the extent that health may be impaired . This excess fat mass is thought to lead to increased risk of ill such as metabolic and cardiovascular disease, , decreased physical function, and some cancers .The aims of this study are To determine rate of overweight among sample of women at the childbearing age, and To find the relationship between the body mass index and some variables.A cross-sectional study conducted in Al- washash & Bab-almoadham primary health centers, sampling was (convenient ) & the sample size was 506. Data was collected by questionnaire to obtain socio- demographic information & weight and height of each women was measured by the researcher.About 66.2% of the studied sample of women was in the age (20-29) years. And the 58.5% were housewife , about 54% of women in the sample were overweight while obesity rate was 1.4% only. About 63.3% of the sample with normal weight were mainly non contraceptive users. Analysis of results by chi-square test show that ( types of contraceptive, family history of obesity, socio economic status, parity, birth space interval, types of food) was significant factors associated with body mass index.

Keywords

Body mass index --- Factors --- Women


Article
Body and local factors affecting eruption of third molar tooth

Author: Dr. Warkaa.M.Ali, PhD.* د. ورقاء علي
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 98-106
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of some local and bodyfactors with third molar eruption and may cause delay eruption or impaction whichrepresents one of most important problem in dental clinic.Method: 150 dental students volunteers participated in this study from both gendersand aged between 18-27 years old. A clinical oral examination, body parametersmeasurements in addition to past dental history were used to assess certainparameters.Results and conclusions: among all the investigated body and local factors ; only ageand body height were significantly affected the eruption of third molar tooth(P<0.05).


Article
Level of Interleukin–8 in the Sera of Asthmatic Patients in Baghdad

Author: Hind J. Hassoon
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-42
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Asthma is a common, chronic inflammatory, anaphylactic hypersensitivity disease .It is a world-wide distributed with a range extends from mild to severe fatal episodes. Fifty eight asthmatic patients sera have been collected from Al-Zahra'a consultant for asthma and allergy , during the period between July / 2008 – September / 2008 and thirty two sample of healthy peoples as a control group .The patients age ranged from ( 12-45 ) years .Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) has been applied estimation of interleukin – 8(IL-8).The results showed that highly significant differences (P < 0.0001) between asthmatic patients – positive IL–8 and asthmatic patients – negative IL-8. There are no significant differences between residency (urban and rural regions) and levels of IL-8. There is a good relation between body mass index (BMI) and asthmatic patients (P < 0.005), but no relation between body mass index and levels of IL-8.


Article
The Effect of Body Weight & Smoking on the Risk of Osteoarthritis of the Knee Joint

Authors: Zina A. Rajab --- Ikhlas K. Hameed --- Zina H. Abdul-Qahar
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2011 Volume: 4 no 2 Issue: 10 Pages: 1180-1186
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Knee osteoarthritis is common in old adults. Determination of risk factors of knee osteoarthritis may help in its prevention and modification of treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the significance of some risk factors like obesity and smoking on knee osteoarthritis.Material & methods: The study included 132 outpatient attendants (102 females & 30 males) aged (53±9) years. Height and weight were measured for calculation of Body Mass Index; smoking habits were registered by questionnaire. Hemoglobin level, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate & C - reactive protein was measured for all participants.Results: The number of patients with knee osteoarthritis was 61(46%), of these; 39 patients (64%) were obese including 13 patients who were smokers.The mean & standard deviation of Hemoglobin & Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate were 12±1 & 24±16 respectively, while C - reactive protein was positive in 29 (22%) of participants.Smoking habit was significantly higher in patients with knee osteoarthritis (p<0.01) and in knee osteoarthritis obese patients (p<0.01) when compared to non- knee osteoarthritis subjects and obese non- knee osteoarthritis subjects; respectively.Conclusion In accordance with the literature, this study found a strong association between Body Mass Index and knee osteoarthritis risk. In addition, the increase in the prevalence of smoking in radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis was observed suggesting that smoking habit may be a potentially modifiable environmental risk factor for knee osteoarthritis.


Article
Estimation of serum leptin in female patients with nodal osteoarthritis

Author: Raid D. Hashim * MBChB د. رائد هاشم
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 4 Pages: 392-394
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Nodal osteoarthritis is one of the most common arthropathy worldwide, the etiology is uncertain but many biochemical markers are recognized. Many studies have shown that leptin might have a role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, but little is known about the relation between serum leptin and nodal osteoarthritis. Subjects and method: 52 women with nodal osteoarthritis and 40 apparently healthy women as a control were included in the study; serum leptin was measured in all subjects. Student t-test was applied to find out the significance of difference in the mean v Results: There was a significant difference in the mean of serum leptin between patients and control groups.Conclusion: the results of the current study suggest that leptin might have a role in the pathogenesis of nodal osteoarthritisKeywords: leptin, nodal osteoarthritis, pathogenesis, Body Mass Index.


Article
Mother's attitudes toward obesity among school children in Babylon
اتجاهات الامهات نحو السمنة لدى اطفال المدارس في بابل

Authors: Salma K. Jihad --- . Najih Hamza
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 162-169
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background Obesity has been declared by the (WHO) as a major public health problem and global epidemic, in general a body mass index of 30 kg/m² or greater is considered obese, and according to the WHO too more than 1.5 billion adults are overweight, parents and mothers play a great role in choosing and preparing food Objective: The aim of the current study is to identify the attitude of mothers toward obesity among schoolchildren. Methods and materials: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Al- Kawthar primary health center in Babylon between the 1st of April to the 1st of October to identify the attitude of mothers toward obesity among school children. A convenient random sample size of (50) mothers was selected to accomplish the study. Results: Total number of the mothers was 50 majority were aged from 25-28 years old, mothers who are not working represent (82%), to achieve the aim of the study and for the identification of the attitude of the mothers the researchers determine the sample scores within the positive and the negative attitude by using lekert scale of five levels and according to that it was found that sample has negative attitude t- test tabulated value represented (1.22) at p (0.05). the most important results was that negative attitudes affect obesity like it is considered as a beauty sign or conducting such a selection and cooking mistakes or dealing with some practices like consuming unhealthy food. Study recommended the importance of using of the educational aids to change their attitudes and practices about food preparation and selection especially with the school children because of the risk and also MOH must conduct this subject as a National health program and include that in the parents- school meetings. Conclusion: The study concluded that there were poor levels in knowledge and attitude of mothers toward obesity among children school. Recommendation: The present study recommended that Ministry Of Health must develop programs to follow up any children gaining abnormal weight as, this health problem must be included in the meeting of the school and parents give more information to mothers about the same issue to enforce or change their attitudes.

الخلفية: تعد السمنة من المشكلات الاجتماعية المؤشرة من قبل منظمة الصحة العالمية والواسعة الانتشار وتسمى سمنة على مقياس الكتلة بوزن اعلى من 30 كغم / مربع الطول وبناءا" على مؤشرات منظمة الصحة العالمية حيث اوجدت ان اكثر من بليون ونصف البليون من الاشخاص البالغين يعانون السمنة ويعتبر الوالدين والام بشكل خاص لهم الدور الاكبر في اختيار وتهيئة الطعام. الهدف: الهدف من الدراسه الحاليه هو التعرف على اتجاهات الامهات نحو السمنه لدى الاطفال في سن المدرسه. منهجيه البحث : دراسه مقطعيه اجريت في مركز الكوثر للرعايه الصحيه الاوليه في بابل الفتره 1/4 – 1/10 /2012 للتعرف على توجهات الامهات نحو السمنه بين اطفال المدارس وقد اختيرت عينه غرضيه وبالطريقه العشوائيه من (50) ام تراجع المركز المذكور ولديها اطفال مسجلين في المدرسه للوصول الى هدف البحث. تم بناء استماره استبيان تتضمن المعلومات الديموغرافيه والمعلومات الخاصه بالاتجاهات لغرض جمع العينه وللوصول الى النتائج استخدم الباحثان طريقه التوزيع التكراري،النسبه المئويه،الوسط والانحراف المعياري،والاختبار التائي النتائج: من مجموع العينه المختاره والبالغ عدد الامهات (50) كانت اعلى نسبه لاعمار الامهات مابين 25 -28 سنه ونسبه (82%) منهن لا يعملن ، وللوصول الى هدف البحث اعتمد الباحثان مقياس ليكرت ذو الخمس مستويات لتحديد الاتجاهات وتم تصنيف الاستجابات الخاصه بالعينه على اساس الايجابيه والسلبيه ، وبترتيب الاستمارات الاستبيانيه تنازليا استعمل الاختبار التائي للوصول الى دلاله النتاثج حيث تم التوصل الى ان اتجاهات الامهات كانت سلبيه نحو السمنه وحسب القيمه المحتسبه وهي (1.22) وبمستوى دلاله (0.05 ). الاستنتاج: اهم الاستنتاجات التي توصل اليها الباحثان ان لدى الامهات اتجاهات سلبيه تؤثر على حدوث السمنه مثل اعتبارها من المكملات الجماليه او هناك اخطاء باختيار الاطعمه او طريقه طبخها او اغفال الام عن بعض اللممارسات لدى الاطفال مثل الاعتماد على مواد غير مفيده كغذاء. التوصيات: توصي الدراسه بضروره اعتماد وسائل توعيه للامهات للتأثير على اتجاهاتهم وتغيير سلوكهن بتهيئة الاطعمة الخاصة فيما يخص موضوع السمنه لدى الاطفال وخاصه اطفال المدارس لوجود عوامل خطوره بسبب الوزن الزائد وكذلك اعتماد وزاره الصحه هذا الموضوع كبرنامج وطني وتضمين مجالس الاباء والامهات مواضيع تخص صحه ابنائهم


Article
Serum leptin, estradiol and testasterone concentrations in normal healthy fertile women with different weights

Authors: Rajaa A. Yonis --- Fadhila S. Al-Doski
Journal: Tikret Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18172716 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 231-244
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Background: Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is a hormone secreted by adipocytes. Animals with mutations in the ob gene are obese, leptin affects not only nutritional homeostasis but also reproductive events. A prospective study was done to investigate serum leptin ,estradiol and testosterone levels in 100 fertile healthy women with regular cycle aged(18-45) years with different weights and to see the influence of obesity on these parameters , the correlation of leptin with body mass index ,waist hip ratio , estradiol and testosterone level was determined. Methods fasting blood samples were obtained for the measurement of all studied parameters. serum concentrations of leptin was measured using ( ELISA) , estradiol and testosterone concentrations measured by ( ELFA ) technique (enzyme linked fluorescent assay)by mividus, the body-mass index was defined as the weight in kilo-grams divided by the square of the height in meters. Results: according to the body mass index (BMI), the women were divided in to 3 groups: Group (1) normal weight(30 women) with BMI≤24.9 kgm2 , group( 2) Overweight(30 women) with BMI=25-29.9 kgm2 , group ( 3) obese (40 women) with BMI≥ 30 kgm2. The mean value ±SD of the weight in normal weight group was (53±5)kg , of overweight group was(65.8 ± 4.7) and of obese group was(91.6±16) so there was a highly significant difference between the 3 groups (p-value=0.000) , the Mean ± SD of waisthip ratio in normal, over weight and obese groups were (0.79 ± 0.06, 0.81 ± 0.03 and 0.84 ± 0.05) respectively and there was significant difference between the 3 groups(p-value=0.04), the leptin mean ± SD of normal ,overweight and obese groups were(12.4±6.7, 18.2±5.8 and 24.4±16.4) respectively, and p-value =0.000. Estradiol mean±SD of normal ,overweight and obese groups were (46.2±30.2 ,54.6±25 and79.9 ±52.7)respectively ,p-value =0.03,Testosterone mean±SD of normal, overweight and obese groups were (0.14±0.06, 0.16±0.07 and 0.2±0.09)respectively, p-value =0.00. Conclusions. Leptin correlate significantly with BMI, WH ratio and estradiol level, the women with higher BMI(obese) has higher level of leptin, estradiol and testosterone so the leptin clearly appears to be linked to the reproductive system .

هرمون اللبتين هو ناتج أل(وب) جين ,يفرز من الخلايا الدهنية . لوحظ ان الحيوانات التي لديها تغير في هذا ألجين تعاني من السمنة,هرمون اللبتين لا يؤثر على التوازن الغذائي فقط بل على الأحداث التكاثرية.في دراسة احتمالية تم فحص هرمون اللبتين والاستراديول والتستاستيرون في مئة امرأة في سن الإخصاب أعمارهن 18-45 سنة ولديهن دورة شهرية منتظمة وبأوزان مختلفة وذلك لمعرفة تأثير السمنة على هذه المعلمات,تم تحديد العلاقة بين هرمون اللبتين مع مؤشر كتلة الجسم ,نسبة الخصر على الورك, استراديول والتستاستيرون . طريقة العملتم سحب عينات الدم من النساء قبل تناول الفطور وذلك من اجل قياس الهورمونات المذكورة سابقا,نسبة اللبتين تم قياسها بجهاز إلالايزا, هرمون والاستراديول والتستاستيرون تم قياسهما بواسطة جهاز المنيفايدز وتم حساب مؤشر كتلة الجسم بتقسيم الوزن بالكيلو غرام على مربع الطول بالمتر.نتائج البحثتم تقسيم النساء حسب مؤشر كتلة الجسم إلى 3 مجاميع1.ذوات الوزن الطبيعي (30)امرأة مؤشر كتلة الجسم ≤24.9كغمم 22.النساء اللواتي لديهن وزن زائد (30) امرأة مؤشر كتلة الجسم 25-29.9كغمم23.النساء اللواتي يعانين من السمنة(40) امرأة مؤشر كتلة الجسم ≥30 كغمم2 كان متوسط ±الانحراف المعياري للوزن في مجموعه الوزن الطبيعي (53±5),ولذوات الوزن الزائد(65.8±4.7) وللواتي يعانين من السمنة(91.6±16) كان هناك فرق إحصائي واضح بين المجاميع الثلاثة في الوزن(ب≤0.000),كان متوسط±الانحراف المعياري لنسبة الخصر على الورك لكل من مجموعة الوزن الطبيعي ,الوزن الزائد واللواتي يعانين من السمنة(0.79±0.06, 0.81± 0.03و0.84±0.05) على التوالي وكان هناك فرق إحصائي واضح بين المجاميع الثلاثة (ب≤0.04) ومتوسط ±الانحراف المعياري للبتين في مجموعه الوزن الطبيعي وذوي الوزن الزائد والمصابين بالسمنة(12.4±6.7, 18.2±5.8, 24.4±16.4) على التوالي و ب=0.000. ومتوسط ±الانحراف المعياري للاسترادايول في المجاميع أعلاه كان(46.2±30.2, 54.6±25 و79.9±52.7) على التوالي و ب=0.03 ومتوسط ±الانحراف المعياري للتستاستيرون في المجاميع (0.14±0.06و0.16±0.07 و0.2±0.09) على التوالي و ب=0.00.استنتاجات البحثهرمون اللبتين له علاقة ذات مغزى إحصائي مع مؤشر كتلة الجسم ,نسبة الخصر على الورك ومستوى الاسترادايول والنساء ذوات مؤشر كتلة الجسم الأعلى (اللواتي يعانين من السمنة) لديهن نسبة أعلى من اللبتين والاستراديول والتستاستيرون وهذا يدل على إن هناك ارتباط بين اللبتين والجهاز التناسلي .


Article
Effect of Body Mass Index and Physical Activities on Risk of Osteoporosis in Babylon Iraq

Authors: Sulaf A. Hussain --- Aleem Mardas K. Al-nuaimi --- Ali Alkazzaz
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 173-187
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Objectives: To identifying effect of body mass index and physical activities on risk of osteoporosis in Babylon governorate.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study carried out during the period from December 2012 till the end of March 2013. Data were collected by the researcher depending on the direct interview with the participants using especial questionnaire, was constructed for the purpose of the study, consisted of five parts: the first part was concerned with the socio-demographic characteristics, second part was physical activities levels, third part was about obstetric-gynecological history of female, fourth part measured body mass index, fifth part dealt with Medical history and family which consist of Chronic diseases, Medications used, Certain features and Family history. The study sample was (312), (281) females and (31)males.Results: The results indicated that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis in this study was 25.6%. The higher percentage of osteoporosis (26.7%) were female ,while (16.1%)were males and (58.3%) were within age group (70+) years. The majority of osteoporosis were (35.1%) were illiterate ,(34.3%)female at menopause,(36.5%) had rheumatoid arthritis,(47.1%)had intestinal disease, (27.6%) did not take Calcium supplement,(30.5%) had backache,(50%)were change in height,(54.8%)had fracture bone and (60%)family history with osteoporosis.The present study showed that (52.6%) of patients with osteoporosis had normal body mass index, while (11.9%)were obese(3+). In addition to, the study revealed that (55.4%) of patients with osteoporosis were within lowest quartile of physical activitiesRecommendation: For prevention and control of osteoporosis, the researcher recommends the following: We suggest Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry examination to be done as a survey for all females above 50 years and all males above 70 years with serial assessment and follow up to be done yearly or every two years to decrease possibility of risk of fracture or osteoporosis. In addition, the high risk groups should be identified, educated and well communicated by the health personnel.

ألهدف : تحديد تأثير مؤشر كتلة الجسم و الأنشطة البدنية على خطر الإصابة بهشاشة العظام في محافظة بابل.المنهجية: أجريت دراسة وصفيه ,مقطعية نفذت خلال الفترة من ديسمبر 2012 وحتى نهاية مارس 2013. تم جمع البيانات من قبل الباحث اعتمادا على مقابلة مباشرة مع المشاركين باستخدام استبيان خاص ، تم إعداده لغرض الدراسة ، ويتألف من خمسة أجزاء: الجزء الأول كان يعني مع الخصائص الاجتماعية و الديموغرافية ، وكان الجزء الثاني مستويات الأنشطة البدنية ، وكان الجزء الثالث حول تاريخ الولادة و أمراض النساء من الإناث ، الجزء الرابع قياس مؤشر كتلة الجسم ، الجزء الخامس التعامل مع التاريخ الطبي و العائلي الذي يتضمن من الأمراض المزمنة ، الأدوية المستخدمة ، بعض الميزات و التاريخ العائلي . كانت عينة الدراسة 312, (281 ) إناث و ( 31 ) ذكور. ألنتائج: أشارت النتائج إلى أن معدل انتشار هشاشة العظام في هذه الدراسة هو 25.6 ٪ . وكانت أعلى نسبة من مرض هشاشة العظام ( 26.7 ٪ ) من الإناث ، في حين أن ( 16.1 ٪ ) من الذكور و ( 58.3 ٪) كانوا ضمن الفئة العمرية ( 70 + ) سنوات . وكانت غالبية من هشاشة العظام (35.1 ٪ ) هم من الأميين ، وكان ( 34.3 ٪ ) من الإناث في سن اليأس ، ( 36.5 ٪ ) التهاب المفاصل الروماتويدي ، ( 47.1 ٪) لديهم مرض معوي ، ( 27.6 ٪) لا تأخذ مكملات الكالسيوم ، ( 30.5 ٪ ) لديهم الم الظهر ، ( 50 ٪) التغير في الطول ، ( 54.8 ٪ ) كسر في العظم و ( 60 ٪) تاريخ عائلي مع مرض هشاشة العظام. وأظهرت هذه الدراسة أن ( 52.6 ٪ ) من المرضى الذين يعانون من هشاشة العظام كان مؤشر كتلة الجسم الطبيعي ، في حين أن ( 11.9 ٪) كانوا يعانون من السمنة المفرطة (30 + ). وكشفت الدراسة أن ( 55.4 ٪ ) من المرضى الذين يعانون من هشاشة العظام كانت ضمن الربع الأدنى من الأنشطة البدنية. التوصيات: للوقاية والسيطرة على مرض هشاشة العظام ، يوصي الباحث بما يلي : نقترح فحص (قياس الأشعة السينية مزدوج الطاقة) الذي يتعين القيام به لمسح جميع الإناث فوق 50 سنة و جميع الذكور فوق 70 عاما مع تقييم مستمر ومتابعة القيام به سنويا أو كل سنتين لتقليل احتمال خطر الإصابة بكسور أو هشاشة العظام . وبالإضافة إلى ذلك ، ينبغي تحديد الفئات المعرضة للخطر، تعليمها وإبلاغها بشكل جيد من قبل العاملين في المجال الصحي.

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