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Article
Comparative demographic and clinicopathological study on the behavior of mammary carcinoma in three Iraqi governorates (Baghdad, Hilla and Karbala)

Authors: Farah L. R. Al-Rufaee --- Nada A. S. Al-Alwan
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 4 Pages: 419-423
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Iraq, there is a tendency for this disease to be diagnosed in younger ages, at advanced stages with a prevalence of more aggressive tumor behavior.Patients and Methods: The study included a total of 216 women with breast lumps and proven breast cancer who visited the Main Referral Training Center for Early Detection of Breast Tumors in the Medical City Teaching Hospital in Baghdad (85 patients) and the Specialized Clinics belonging to the major hospitals of Hilla (62 patients) and Karbala (69 patients) complaining of apparent breast lumps.
Results: 31% of patients was in the age category (40-49 years), 38.4% of patients whose highest education within the primary school level, 36.4% of patients had history of lactation, 52.3% of total had started menstruation at the age (10-12 years), 85% of patients had negative history of oral contraceptive pills consumption, Ki-67 tumor marker was demonstrated in 62.5% of total with highest frequency of expression was displayed in Baghdad and in relation with grade II.
Conclusion: Significant differences among the three Iraqi governorates were noted with respect to patient’s age, educational status, history of breast feeding, age at menarche and history of oral contraceptive pills consumption. Higher Ki-67 nuclear expressions were demonstrated among patients from Baghdad. There was a direct significant relationship between Ki-67 nuclear expression and the nuclear staining intensity with tumor grades.

Keywords

Breast Cancer


Article
Detection of BRCA1and BRCA2 mutation for Breast Cancer in Sample of Iraqi Women above 40 Years
تشخيص طفرات BRCA1و BRAC2 عند عينه من النساء العراقيات المصابات بسرطان الثدي لعمر فوق الاربعين

Authors: Sarah Salih Hassan ساره صالح حسن --- Waleed H. Yousif وليد حميد يوسف --- Amina N. AL-Thaweni امنه نعمه الثويني
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2010 Volume: 7 Issue: عدد خاص بمؤتمر العلمي النسوي 1 Pages: 394-400
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Breast cancer is the commonest cancer affecting women worldwide. Different studies have dealt with the etiological factors of that cancer aiming to find a way for early diagnosis and satisfactory therapy. The present study clarified the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of BRCA1 & BRCA2 genes and some etiological risk factors among breast cancer patients in Iraq. This investigation was carried out on 25 patients (all were females) who were diagnosed as breast cancer patients attended AL-Kadhemya Teaching Hospital in Baghdad and 10 apparently healthy women were used as a control, all women (patients and control) aged above 40 years. The Wizard Promega kit was used for DNA isolation from breast patients and normal individuals. By this method suitable quantities of DNA approximately (50 µl) with purity ranged from (1.7-1.9) were obtained from 100-200µg of fresh biopsy which had been taken from women breast patients. The extracted DNA was successfully used in amplification of BRCA1 & BRCA2 genes by PCR and some mutation were detected. The outcome of genetic analysis indicated that the percentage of 185delAG mutation was 16 (4 patients) whereas, the percentage of 5382insC mutation was 32 (8patients) in BRCA1 gene and the third mutation 6174delT in BRCA2 present in 3 patients only (12%). The study demonstrated that the frequency of BRCA1 mutation (48%) was higher than BRCA2 (12%) in this sample of Iraqi women with breast cancer.

يعد سرطان الثدي السرطان الاكثر شيوعا الذي يصيب النساء في مختلف انحاء العالم . وقد تناولت الدراسات والبحوث مختلفه العوامل المسببه لهذا المرض من اجل التوصل للتشخيص المبكر والعلاج الناجح له. تناولت الدراسه الحاليه العلاقه بين التغايرات الوراثه للجينين BRCA1 و BRCA2والتي تعد من العوامل الخطرة المسببه لسرطان الثدي في النساء .وشملت الدراسه 25 مريضة بسرطان الثدي من مراجعي مستشفى الكاظمية التعليمي و10 نساء طبيعيات ظاهريا تمثل مجموعه السيطرة . بينت النتائج ان كميات الدنا المعزوله من النساء الطبيعيات والمصابات بسرطان الثدي تراوحت 50 مايكروليتر لكل 100-200مايكروغرام من النسيج وبنقاوه تراوح من( 1,9-1,7) عند استعمال العده المستخدمه من شركه بروميكا .وقد خضعت المريضات لدراسه وراثيه جزيئيه تم من خلالها استخلاص الدنا من العينات النسيجيه المأخوذه من ثدي المريضات و استخدم هذا الدنا المعزول لتضخيم جيني BRCA2 و BRCA1 بواسطه تفاعل البلمره المتسلسل (PCR) وتم تحديد بعض الطفرات في جيني BRCA2 و BRCA1. اظهر التحليل الوراثي ان نسبه الحذف في مريضات سرطان الثدي كانت في4 حالات (16%) للطفره الموجوده في جين BRCA1 185del AG ,اما نسبه الاضافه للطفره الموجوده في جين BRCA1 5382insC للمريضات المصابات بسرطان الثدي(8 حالات) (32(% , اما الطفره الاخيرهBRCA2 6174T موجوده في ثلاث حالات بنسبه ( 12%) و قد استنتج من الدراسه ان نسبه حدوث الطفره في جين BRCA1 48% هي اعلى من نسبه حدوث الطفره في جين BRCA2 12% في العيّنة من النساء العراقيات المصابات بسرطان الثدي.

Keywords

BRC --- BRCA2 --- Breast Cancer


Article
15- BREAST CANCER IN KIRKUK, IRAQ. A REVIEW OF 170 BREAST CANCER FEMALES...

Author: NAHRAIN JOHN AZIZ
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 86-88
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Iraq as well as other parts of the world. InWestern world, the progress in public education and screening program had led to earlydetection of the disease which led to good prognosis. Appearance of late stages of breastcancer reflects the need for active screening and public education programs. The aim of thisretrospective study is to report the pattern of breast cancer in 170 women in Kirkuk province inrelation to age, stage of disease at first presentation and histopathology during nine yearsperiod (Jan.1994 – Jan.2003).This is a prospective and retrospective study underwent at Breast Clinic, Azadi GeneralHospital, Kirkuk, Iraq.Patients were 170 women with histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer. Out of the 170women with breast cancer (61.7%) presented between ages 20-50 years and (38.1%) betweenages 51-80 years. Regarding stage of disease on first presentation, (62.3%) of the patients hadlate stages of the disease (stage III and stage IV) while only (37.6%) presented at early stages(stage I and stage II). No stage 0 detected in this study. The commonest histopathology wasinfiltrating duct carcinoma (74.1%).In conclusion, breast cancer in Kirkuk is detected in young women and in late stages on firstpresentation. These results highlight the need for increased community awareness about breastcancer and the need for early detection.


Article
•Immunological Study On Breast Cancer In Hilla Province

Authors: Ifad Kerim Al-shibly --- Mohammed Abod Muhsin --- Mohammed Sabri A.Razak
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2011 Volume: 4 no 2 Issue: 10 Pages: 1140-1145
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the general population. Breast cancer is the top. In Iraq, where the population was exposed to high levels of depleted uranium following the first and second Gulf Wars, breast cancer became the most common tumor type in females.1Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and Interleukin 12 (IL-12) are the main immunological interplayers against cancer, and their impairment can be observed in many cancers, including breast cancer. Over the last ten years, there has been a three-fold increase in the incidence of breast cancer, with most of this increase being attributed to a particularly aggressive type of the cancer.Objectives: The high incidence rate of breast cancer in the last few years in Iraq inspired us to create an investigation about the immunological bases of breast cancer in a series of local Iraqi women to see whether any differences in this immunological profile could be found in a population exposed to depleted uranium.Methods: A Case-control study was designed and applied. A total of 40 subjects were chosen for the immunological study. Blood samples were obtained at Hilla General Teaching Hospital, Breast Cancer Centre (Pathology Department). The ELISA method was used for the interleukins and β2-microglobulin detection.Results: In this study, the association between the levels of the IL-10 , IL-12 and β2microglobuline and breast cancer was evaluated. The data showed significant increase in these cytokines levels among breast cancer patients and healthy controls.Conclusions: The conclusions that can be extrapolated by this study are that, there was a significant increase in the levels of the IL-10 , IL-12 and β2-microglobuline among breast cancer patients and healthy controls.

Keywords

Breast cancer --- interleukins --- Iraq


Article
Overexpression of mammaglobin in tissue breast carcinoma by immunohistochemistry

Author: Shoroq Mohammad Abbas شروق محمد عباس
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 13 Pages: 59-68
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Our purpose was to investigate the mammaglobin overexpression in tissue breast cancer and to determine its correlations with conventional prognostic parameters. There were investigated 60 patients with breast carcinoma, and slides from paraffin blocks were stained with an antibody against mammaglobin. The immunohistochemical reaction was scored based on the percentage of positive tumor cells in tumors. Positive reaction for mammaglobin was diffused cytoplasmic staining foundin 75% of tissue breast carcinoma. A significant correlation was found between the mammaglobin expression in the breast cancer and grades of the tumor. Out results suggest that mammaglobin is a good prognostic marker forbreast carcinomaAim of study:-this study was to investigate the mammaglobin overexpression in tissue breast cancer and to determine its correlations with prognostic significant.

يهدف البحث عن التعبير المناعي النسيجي الكيميائي لجين أل mammaglobinفي خلايا سرطان الثدي و معرفة ترابط هذا التغير مع درجة تمايز الورم. تمت دراسة 60 عينة من سرطان الثدي في مختبرات مستشفى الديوانية التعليمي للفترة منذ بداية تشرين الثاني 2005 وحتى آب 2011 , تراوحت أعمارهم بين 45 و 60 سنه, صنفت العينات حسب درجة التمايز إلى 20 عينات من الدرجة الأولى 20 عينة من الدرجة الثانية و20 عينة من الدرجة الثالثة على التوالي . أظهرت الدراسة المناعية النسيجية أن تعبير أل- mammaglobinكان موجبا في 45 عينة (75%)من سرطان الثدي, وكان أكثر في العينات ذات التمايز من (الدرجة الاولى والثانية ) عنه في العينات ذات التمايز من (الدرجة الثالثة ) كما انه توجد علاقة واضحة لتعبير ا لmammaglobin مع درجة التمايز ( قيمة ألفا <0.05).مما يدل علىأن جين أل-mammaglobin يلعب دور أساسي في تقييم حالة سرطان الثدي المستقبلية .


Article
IL-2 and IL-4 Serum Levels in Breast Cancer

Author: Batool H. Al-Ghurabi* BSc, MSc, PhD (Clinical Immunology) د. بتول هاشم الغرابي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 3 Pages: 300-303
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary: Background: The role of cytokines in cancer immunity and carcinogenesis in general has been well established, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of many solid cancers.This study aimed to estimate serum levels of IL-2 and IL-4, and to shed light on the correlation of these interleukins with progression of breast cancer. Patients and Methods: The study included 80 women, it comprised of 45 breast cancer patients, 12 patients with benign breast lesions and 23 apparently healthy controls. ELISA method has been used for estimation the level of IL-2 and IL-4 in serum of three studied groups.Results: This study showed elevation of IL-4 level in the sera of breast cancer patients with significant differences between breast cancer and controls (p<0.001), this elevation was correlated with progression of the tumor. In addition, the elevation of serum level of IL-4 was found to be inversely related to ER and PR expression (P=<0.05). On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the median of serum level of IL-2 in patients as compared with control groups. Conclusions: There was association between elevated serum level of IL-4 and breast cancer and this elevation was correlated with advanced stage of disease. In addition, there was no association between the statistical significant decrease of IL-2 serum level and the advanced stage of breast cancer. Keywords: Breast cancer, Cytokines, ER

Keywords

Breast cancer --- Cytokines --- ER


Article
Assessment of P53 and soluble FasL (sFasL) serum concentration in females with benign & malignant breast tumors
تقييم تركيز بروتين 53 وانزيم المخلق الشحمي الذائب لدى الاناث المصابات باورام الثدي الخبيثة والحميدة

Authors: Sura O. Yousif سرى عكاب يوسف --- Aqeel Shakir Mahmood د. عقيل شاكر محمود --- Batool A. AL- Haidary د. بتول الحيدري
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 124-128
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground: During Embryonal development and morphogenesis apoptosis may be induced by two pathways. The first is an external P53 protein signal originating from other cell-also named as death signal another is specific cell reaction to external stress factors. Serum concentration of proteins regulating external pathway may be useful in early diagnosis and staging of breast tumors.Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate P-53 and sFasL serum concentrations in patients with benign and malignant breast tumors. Methods: The study population was composed of 69 patients [33 patients with newly diagnosed breast carcinoma, 6 patients with recurrent carcinoma and 30 patients with fibroadenoma (tumor types were verified by fine –needle biopsy)], ELISA Technique was applied for estimation of both P-53 & sFasL levels as well as apparently healthy 50 volunteer's women.Results: p53 and sFasL levels were evaluated before surgery. The results revealed high p53 serum concentration in patients with recurrent breast cancer in comparison with other groups which may be considered as a prognostic marker; while, sFasL revealed no significant differences between its levels among the studied groups though it was elevated among benign breast tumor subjects. Conclusion: Estimation of P-53 level showed significantly elevation of the concentration among the sera of recurrent breast cancer in comparison with other groups which may be considered as a prognostic marker.Key words: p53, sFasL, breast cancer.

الخلاصة خلفية البحث: خلال مرحلة التنمية الجنينية وموت الخلايا المبرمج يخضع الجسم لأثنين من المسارات: الأول هو إشارة البروتين الخارجية الناشئة من الخلايا الأخرى كما يدعى أشارة الموت والثاني هو رد فعل الخلية المحددة بعوامل الضغط الخارجي ربما يكون مفيد قياس تركيز البروتين في مصل الدم الذي ينظم مسار موت الخلايا المبرمج في التشخيص المبكر عن اورام الثدي .هدف الدراسة: الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو تقييم تركيز p53 و FasL في مصل المريضات اللاتي يعانين من أورام الثدي الحميدة والخبيثة كعلامة تشخيصية.طريقة العمل والنماذج: ضمت الدراسة 119 متطوعة من الأناث منهن 33 يعانين من سرطان الثدي المشخص حديثآ، 6 يعانين من سرطان الثدي المتكرر , 30 منهن يعانين من ورم غدي ليفي و50 متطوعة من النساء الاصحاء ظاهريآ (تم التحقق من أنواع الورم عن طريق فحص نسيجي بواسطة الارتشاف بالابرة الدقيقة ،خضعت جميع العينات لقياس مستوى بروتين P53 و أنزيم مخلق الحمض الشحمي sFasL بتطبيق تقنية ELISA .النتائج: أظهرت النتائج ارتفاع تركيز البروتين p53 في مصل المريضات اللواتي يعانين من سرطان الثدي المتكرر مقارنة مع مجاميع الدراسة الاخرى والذي يمكن ان يعد علامة تنبوئية لسرطان الثدي المتكرر في حين كشفت الدراسة عن مخلق الحمض الشحمي المخلق sFasL عدم وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية في مستوياته بين المجموعات المدروسة.الكلمات المفتاحية: بروتين 53، انزيم المخلق الشحمي الذائب، سرطان الثدي

Keywords

p53 --- sFasL --- breast cancer.


Article
Study of BRCA1 gene expression in breast cancer in relation to some clinicopathological parameters in Al-Diwanyia city by immunohistochemistry

Author: Maather Baqer Hussein Al-Harmooshy ماثر باقر حسين
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 15 Pages: 13-26
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Background: Breast cancer causes major part of cancer deaths in women and is increasing in incidence. The tumor suppressor gene, BRCA1 has been conferred to increase the susceptibility to breast cancer. We aimed to determine the significance of BRCA1 gene expression in relation to other prognostic factors. Materials and methods: 45 patients with positive family history of breast cancer were selected from Al-Diwaniya Teaching Hospital / department of pathology for the study. A control group of 10 healthy subjects were also included. BRCA1 expression was assessed and correlated with age, family history , histological type and grade of breast cancer. Results: BRCA1 was found in 9 patients 'samples (20% of the breast cancer tissues) while remaining patients (80%) were negative as well as the control group. A positive significant relationship was demonstrated between BRCA1 expression and high histological grade, age of the patient and family history and A significant negative correlation was found between BRCA1 expression and type of the tumor. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the lack of BRCA1 gene expression in the majority of breast cancer cases and confirmed the relationship between BRCA1 expression and parameters that determine the poor prognosis in breast cancer .

البحث عن التعبير المناعي النسيجي الكيميائي لجين أل BRCA1 في خلايا سرطان الثدي و معرفة ترابط هذا التغير مع بعض المتغيرات السريرية - المرضية . تمت دراسة(45) عينة مطمورة بالفورمالين من سرطان الثدي و (10) عينات من نسيج الثدي الطبيعي في مختبرات مستشفى الديوانية التعليمي والتي تم استئصالها للفترة منذ بداية تشرين الثاني 2005 وحتى آب 2011 , تراوحت أعمارهم بين 35 و 75 سنه مع معدل عمر(55 ) . مع وجود تاريخ عائلي من الدرجة الأولى للمرض في 25 عينة من العينات , صنفت العينات حسب درجة التمايز إلى( 13 ) عينات من الدرجة الأولى و(32 ) عينة من الدرجة الثالثة, وحسب النوع إلى 30 عينة سرطان الثدي القنوي و15 عينة من سرطان الثدي الفصيصي . أظهرت الدراسة المناعية النسيجية أن تعبير أل BRCA1 كان موجبا في (9 ) عينة (20 %) من سرطان الثدي, وكان أكثر في العينات ضمن مجموعة العمر الأصغر من 50 سنة والعينات ذات التاريخ العائلي المرضي والعينات ذات التمايز الضعيف (الدرجة الثالثة ) عنه في العينات ذات التمايز القوي (الدرجة الأولى ) وفي سرطان الثدي الفصي عنه في سرطان الثدي القنوي كما انه توجد علاقة واضحة لتعبير ا ل BRCA1 مع التاريخ العائلي المرضي للمرضى و عمر المرضى و درجة التمايز ( قيمة ألفا < 0.05).


Article
Assessment of The Nurses’ Knowledge about Skin Care For Patients Undergo Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer at Al –Amal National Hospital for Cancer Management in Baghdad City
تقييم معارف الممرضين حول العناية الجلدية للمرضى الخاضعين للعلاج الاشعاعي لسرطان الثدي في مستشفى الأمل الوطني لعلاج السرطان في مدينة بغداد

Author: Wafaa M. Atoof Al-Attar
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 119-127
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objectives: The study aims to identify the nurse’s knowledge toward skin care for patients undergo radiotherapy breast cancerMethodology: Seventy nurses were selected to achieve the objectives of the study. The study was conducted during Feb./2014 at Al –Amal National Hospital for Cancer Management in Baghdad City. The questionnaire consists of two parts first part: included demographic characteristics of the nurses and the second part: included clauses relating to the knowledge of nurses about skin care to patients undergoing radiation therapy consisted of (20) items .Data were analyzed by using Frequency, percentage and chi-squared test. Results: The study results showed that most of nurse’s Knowledge was range between low(40%) and moderate(45.7%)and there were significant differences between nurse’s knowledge and nurse’s variables age, level of education, years of experience in radiotherapy unit and number of training sessions at (p<0.05).Conclusion: The researcher concluded that the nurse’s knowledge is insufficient about skin care for patients undergoing radiotherapy of breast cancer.Recommendation: It is recommended increase the researcher to focus on the nurses knowledge about skin care for patients undergoing radiotherapy of breast cancer and to identify the symptoms of the side effects of radiation therapy and prevention.

الهدف: تهدف الدراسة إلى التعرف على معارف الممرضين تجاه العناية الجلدية لمرضى سرطان الثدي الخاضعين للعلاج الإشعاعيالمنهجية : تم اختيار سبعون ممرض وممرضة للتحقيق اهداف الدراسة. واجريت الدراسة خلال شهر شباط/ في مستشفى الأمل الوطني لعلاج السرطان في مدينة بغداد. ويتألف الاستبيان من محورين المحور الاول تضمن الصفات الديموغرافية للممرضين والمحور الثاني تضمن فقرات تتعلق بمعارف الممرضين حول العناية بالجلد للمرضى الخاضعين للعلاج الاشعاعي وتكونت من (20) فقرة وقد تم تحليل البيانات باستخدام التكرارات، والنسبة المئوية والمتوسط الحسابى واختبار مربع كاىالنتائج: اظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن معظم معارف الممرضين تراوحت مابين منخفضة (40٪) ومتوسطة (45.7٪)،وتبين وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية بين معارف الممرضين ومتغيرات العمر، ومستوى التعليم، وسنوات الخبرة في وحدة العلاج الإشعاعي وعدد الدورات التدريبية بمستوى معنوية (P<0.05).الاستنتاج: استنتج الباحث بان معارف الممرضين غير كافية حول العناية بالجلد لمرضى سرطان الثدي الخاضعين للعلاج الإشعاعيالتوصيات: يوصى الباحث بزيادة التركيز على معارف الممرضين من خلال دورات تتعلق بكيفية العناية بالجلد لمرضى سرطان الثدي الخاضعين للعلاج الإشعاعي وتحديد الاعراض من التاثيرات الجانبية للعلاج الاشعاعي والوقاية منه.


Article
The Association of Severe Toxoplasmosis and Some Cytokine Levels in Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Entsar Jabbar Saheb --- Maha Mustafa Assim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3A Pages: 1189-1194
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic pathogen in which the reactivation of a latent infection can cause death in congenitally infected fetuses, newborns, and immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to determine the seropositivity of toxoplasmosis infection and the possible association with Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and Interleukin-23 (IL-23) cytokines in breast cancer patients. In this study, 190 women were enrolled. All serum samples were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) antibodies and (IL-12, IL-23) levels using ELISA technique. The result of this study showed that breast cancer patients recorded the highest percentage of toxoplasmosis infection. There were no positivity rates for anti- Toxoplasma IgM in breast cancer patients while the positivity percentage for anti- Toxoplasma IgM among the control group was (7.00%). Furthermore, the seroprevalence of anti- Toxoplasma IgG was the highest in the age group (31- 40) years in patients with breast cancer while the highest mean titer of the IL-12 is restricted to ages (21-30) years in the control groups who are seropositive to anti- Toxoplasma IgG. Although, in patients with breast cancer who are seropositive to anti- Toxoplasma IgG, the highest mean titer of the IL-23 was in ages (21-30) years. Since most immunosuppressive patients are exposed to various possible risk factors including Toxoplasma primary infection or reactivation, so it is important to diagnose and treat toxoplasmosis in breast cancer patients to reduce the consequences of the infection.

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