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Article
Women suicide attempted by burning in Sulaimania city
محاولة انتحار بالحرق في مدينة السليمانية

Author: Ari Raheem Qadir
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2012 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 4-8
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: This study way conducted in order to investigate the magnitude of the women suicide attempted by burning in Sulaimani and to ascertain the factors related to female suicide, including sociocultural factors and ways to solve this problem.Methods: The present study is a prospective study of self inflicted burns by women treated at the burn unit of Sulaimani teaching hospital and Emergency hospital over five years period from 1st January 2003 to 31st December 2007.Results: Out of the total number of 760 admissions to burn unit over the period, 386(50.2%) patients were positively identified as having attempted suicide by burning. Of them 345(46.6%) patients were females and 41 were males. The Suicide attempted was more common in the marriages women 258(74.7%) and women with low educational level168 (48.7%). The most common causes of suicide were arrogant husband (60) (17.4%) and forced marriage (58) (16.8%).Conclusion: Burning by kerosene is a common, traditional, and dramatic way of attempting suicide by women in Sulaimani. We suggest that Kurdish women organizations or other related authorities have to start programs for communications with women to rescue those in desperate situations, and suicide prevention programs in Kurdistan to prevent suicide as well as to evaluate prevention programs to identify evidence-based practices that are culturally appropriate and affordable within severe resource constrains.

Keywords

Suicide --- Burning


Article
Etiology of the oral burning pain and its relationship to sex, age and anatomical sites (Clinical study among a sample of Iraqi patients in Baghdad)

Author: Sabah M. Dhamad صباح ضمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 70-77
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The studies about oral burning pain are few in Iraq in spite of this disease is a significant commonamong numbers of Iraqi patients, so more information were required in order to avoid its effect and occurrence. Theaim of the current study is to determine the actual causes for the disease by examining a sample of Iraqi patients inBaghdad, in order to evaluate its relationship to the age, sex and the anatomical sites.Subjects and methods: Sixty patients were selected from two hospitals, several specialized dental clinics and publicmedical clinic, in east of Baghdad (Sadder, Jamella and Baladeyate cities). Nineteen patients were excludedbecause they could not continue in this study. The remaining forty one patients, 23 female patients, their agesranged between 25 – 60 years, while the male patients were 18, their ages ranged between 20 – 60 years. Theduration of symptoms of burning inside the oral cavity ranged from 6 months to 3 years . Each patient in this studywas examined clinically to detect any oral lesion may have direct cause for the disease , also patients were askedabout the types of drugs intake , in addition to their psychological conditions . The medical and dental histories weretaken from all examined patients, also all medical and dental reports of the patients were determined. Few results ofdifferent investigations of the examined patients were replaced by new ones, and the others were taken inconsideration for obtaining results for this study. Fasting blood sugar, thyroid function test, histopathologicalexamination and others were examples for such investigations which had been done. The most important finding inthis current study that the cause of oral burning pain in the examined Iraqi sample was mainly multi factorial causesand a few cases were caused by single etiology.Results: This study revealed that the most common causes of the oral burning pain in this Iraqi sample was , hormonalchanges , bad psychological conditions , the side effects of some drugs intake , chronic gastritis in addition to otherfactors. The most anatomical site affected inside the oral cavity was the dorsal portion of the tongue.Conclusion: One conclusion for the current study in some examined cases was found that a hiding cause may play arole in oral burning pain occurrence beside other factors. This study appeared that female patients over 50 yearswere more susceptible to this disease than male patients; also older age groups for both sexes were mostly affected


Article
ACTIVATION OF RED KAOLIN CLAY AS A POZZOLANIC MATERIAL
تفعيل اطيان الكاؤولين الاحمر واستخدامها كمادة بوزولانية

Author: Ali K. Ibrahim علي كاظم ابراهيم
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2011 Volume: 4 Issue: 3 Pages: 353-363
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

This work included two stages; in the first stage the optimum burning temperature to convert red kaolin clay to metakaolin was investigated. The red kaolin was burnt in a different temperature (800, 850, 900, 950, 1000, and 1050) ºC for one hour. Many tests was carried out on the cement containing (8)% of calcined kaolin such as normal consistency, setting time, soundness, compressive strength at (3, 7, and 28) days, and pozzolanic activity index at (7, and 28) days. The results show that the optimum burning temperature to convert kaolin clay to metakaolin is (900) ºC. In the second stage the effect of replacing the red kaolin calcined at (900) ºC at a (5, 8, and 10) % by weight of cement on compressive strength of cement mortar at (3, 7, and 28) days, and compared the results with reference mix. The results shows that the mortars contains red kaolin have compressive strength less than the reference mix at (3, and 7) days, but it shows slightly increasing in the compressive strength at (28) day about (100.8, 102.5, and 103.4) % for the mixes containing (5, 8, and 10) % of red kaolin respectively. The results also showed that the mortar containing (10)% red kaolin gives higher compressive strength compared with the mortar containing (5, and 8)% red kaolin at (28) day.

تضمن العمل في هذا البحث على مرحلتين, المرحلة الاولى تم فيها ايجاد افضل درجة حرارة لحرق الكاؤولين الاحمر وتحويله الى ميتاكاؤولين حيث تم حرقه بدرجات حرارة مختلفة (800 ,850 ,900 ,950 ,1000 و 1050 ) ºم لمدة ساعة واحدة.تم اجراء العديد من الفحوصات للسمنت الحاوي على (8) % من الكاؤولين المحروق مثل فحص القوام القياسي وزمن التجمد والثبات ومقاومة الانضغاط بأعمار (3, 7و 28) يوم ودليل الفعالية البوزولانية بعمر (7و 28) يوم وقد تبين من خلال هذه الفحوصات بأن افضل درجة حرارة حرق لتحويل الكاؤولين الاحمر الى ميتاكاؤولين هي (900) ºم. اما في المرحلة الثانية فقد تم دراسة تأثير تعويض الكاؤولين الاحمر المحروق بدرجة حرارة (900) ºم بنسب (5و 8و 10) % من وزن السمنت على مقاومة الانضغاط لمونة السمنت بأعمار (3و 7و 28) يوم ومقارنتها بالمونة القياسية وقد تبين ان المونة الحاوية على الكاؤولين الاحمر المحروق بدرجة حرارة (900) ºم تعطي مقاومة انضغاط اقل من المونة القياسية في الاعمار المبكرة (3 و 7) أيام لكنها تعطي زيادة طفيفة بالمقاومة مقدارها ( 100.8 ,102.5 و 103.4 )% للخلطات الحاوية على (5 , 8 و10)% من الكاؤولين الاحمر المحروق على التوالي بعمر (28) يوم. وكذلك بينت النتائج ان المونة الحاوية على (10) % من الكاؤولين الاحمر تعطي مقاومة انضغاط اعلى من الخلطات الحاوية على (5 و 8) % بعمر (28) يوم.


Article
The Effect of Boundary Air Flow on Premixed Stationary Burning Velocity
تأثير جريان الهواء المحيط باللهب الساكن مسبق الخلط على سرعة الاحتراق

Author: Ali Rasool M. Al-Zubaidi
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2009 Volume: 27 Issue: 14 Pages: 2611-2623
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this study the effect of boundary condition on premixed methane-airstationary Bunsen flames has been experimentally investigated. Laminar burning velocity is calculated by the concentrated cons method (CCM) and Schlieren photography technique, under the effect of laminar boundary horizontal stream air bulk with a range of air flow speeds. The experimental results have shown that the effect of these boundary conditions in general is small on calculated burning velocity if air flow speed is around between (0-50 cm/s). So, it is suggested thatthis effect be neglected. This effect so characterized increases at/around Stoichiometric ratio flames because of the increase of temperature difference between flame and boundary. The results of the experimental findings were compared with the latest published work and showed a good agreement with it, with a maximum discrepancy of (±2.5% at j =1.1).

تم في هذا البحث دراسة تأثير الظروف المحيطة بلهب بنسن الطباقي لخليط غاز الميثان مع الهواء مسبق الخلط. سرعة الاحتراق تم حسابها باستخدام طريقة المخروطين المتمركزين وتقنية تصوير شليرن تحت تأثير ظرف جريان هواء طباقي لسرع هواء مختلفة. (CCM) التجارب بينت وبشكل عام إن هذا التأثير على سرعة الاحتراق يكون صغيراً بحدود سرعة هواء 0-50 ) واقترحت الدراسة إهمال هذا التأثير. لكن هذا التأثير يزداد عند/حول نسبة الخلط cm/s) المثالية نتيجة زيادة الفرق بين درجة حرارة اللهب والمحيط. النتائج العملية لهذه الدراسة تم مقارنتها مع احدث الاعمال المنشورة واعطت توافق جيد معها. بنسبة خطاً.(j = اقصاها (% 2.5 ± عند 1.1


Article
ESTIMATING THE THICKNESS OF COATING IN THE BURNING ZONE OF CEMENT KILNS INCLUDING THE AGING FACTOR

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Abstract

The coat in the burning zone play an important role in cement industry and energy keeping, not only it protect the refractory bricks but also affect the type of clinkers produced so it is a good idea to make some researches about this coatIn this papers the model produced by Sepehr Sadiqhi et.al. 2011 depending on themeasured process variables and scanned shell temperature, will reviewed to estimate thethickness of coating at Kufa cement kilns. The Aging factor will be entered to representthe phenomena when fused clinkers transform to solid and calculate the time required formaking this coating.The estimation of thickness in this model was depending mainly on the differencebetween the inside temperature gotten from the model and outside temperature measuredby kiln shell scanner at burning zone. The model was applied on two kilns (2 and 3) atKufa plants. The difference between theoretical and practical results for measuringthickness at kilns 2and 3 was 4.43 and 3.92cm respectively , the time required forformation the stable coating was 24 hr or 960 rpm.


Article
ESTIMATING THE THICKNESS OF COATING IN THE BURNING ZONE OF CEMENT KILNS INCLUDING THE AGING FACTOR

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Abstract

The coat in the burning zone play an important role in cement industry and energy keeping, not only it protect the refractory bricks but also affect the type of clinkersproduced so it is a good idea to make some researches about this coatIn this papers the model produced by Sepehr Sadiqhi et.al. 2011 depending on themeasured process variables and scanned shell temperature, will reviewed to estimate thethickness of coating at Kufa cement kilns. The Aging factor will be entered to representthe phenomena when fused clinkers transform to solid and calculate the time required formaking this coating.The estimation of thickness in this model was depending mainly on the differencebetween the inside temperature gotten from the model and outside temperature measuredby kiln shell scanner at burning zone. The model was applied on two kilns (2 and 3) atKufa plants. The difference between theoretical and practical results for measuringthickness at kilns 2and 3 was 4.43 and 3.92 cm respectively , the time required forformation the stable coating was 24 hr or 960 rpm.


Article
EFFECT OF OXYGEN ENRICHMENT UPON LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF (BUTANE – O2 – N2) MIXTURE
تاثير زيادة الاوكسجين على سرعة انتشار اللهب لخليط (Butane – O2 – N2)

Authors: Dr. Fouad A. Saleh --- Shaymaa Y. Ibrahim
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 4 Pages: 154-163
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The effect of oxygen enrichment on the laminar flame speed of (butane – oxygen – nitrogen) premixed mixture. The measurement system is designed to measure the laminar flame speed using a tube – method and optical technique (photodiode).The laminar flame speed results were obtained at atmospheric pressure, initial temperature 301K, three level of oxygen concentration (0.21, 0.23 & 0.25) and equivalence ratio ( 0.6 – 1.4 ). All the measurements were carried out at pre-pressure period to use “density ratio method” for the calculation of laminar burning velocity. The adiabatic flame temperature, flame thickness and Zel’dovich number have been calculated theoretically. Validation of experimental work is approved by comparison measured values of laminar burning velocity for (butane – air) mixtures with the available published data. Good agreements are obtained in its comparison with the literature results employed in the present work are successful and precise.

تم اجراء دراسة عملية لبيان تاثير زيادة الاوكسجين على سرعة جبهة اللهب الطباقية لخليط غاز )البيوتان اوكسجين – –نايتروجين( المسبق الخلط . ولاجراء ذلك تم تصميم منظومة قياس استخدم فيها طريقة الانبوب والتقنية البصرية ) الخلايا الضوئية (لقياس سرعة جبهة اللهب . تم ايجاد قيم سرعة جبهة اللهب عند الضغط الجوي , ودرجة حرارة ابتدائية ) K301 ( لثلاثة تراكيز منالاوكسجين ) 0.21,0.23 & 0.25 ( ونسبة مكافئة ) 1.4 – 0.6 ( . جميع القياسات تم اجراؤها في فترة ثبوت الضغط وذلك لاستعمالطريقة نسبة الكثافة لحساب سرعة انتشار اللهب الطباقية . درجة حرارة اللهب , سمك جبهة اللهب ورقم زيلدوفج تم ايجادها نظريا.تماختبار صحة النتائج العملية لخليط )البيوتان هواء( وذلك من خلال المقارنة مع النتائج العملية المنشورة وتبين وجود توافق جيد بينها , –مما يدل على نجاح ودقة التقنية والحسابات المستخدمة في هذا البحث


Article
An Experimental Investigation upon the Effect of Oxygen Enrichment on the Laminar Burning Velocity of (Iraqi LPG – O2 – N2) Mixture
دراسة عملية لتاثير زيادة الاوكسجين على سرعة انتشار اللهب لخليط (Iraqi LPG – O2 – N2)

Authors: Jalal M. Jalil --- Fouad A.Saleh --- Shaymaa Y. Ibrahim
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 5 Pages: 55-63
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The present study is focused on the effect of oxygen enrichment (as oxidizer) on the flame characteristics of premixed flame of Iraqi Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG),which consider the first measurements of laminar premixed flame speed for (LPG) with oxygen enrichment. A test rig is designed and fabricated to measure the laminar flame speed using a tube – method and optical technique (photodiode). The laminar flame speed results were obtained at atmospheric pressure, 301K initial temperature; three levels of oxygen concentration (21, 23 & 25) volume %, and equivalence ratio (from 0.6 to 1.4) were tested. All the measurements were carried out at pre-pressure period. Experimental laminar burning velocity is calculated according to “density ratio method”, also the variation of adiabatic flame temperature, flame thickness and Zel’dovich number which introduced. The experimental results show that the maximum value for laminar burning velocity occur at equivalence ratio = 1.1, and the maximum increase percentage was (23.45%). Validation of experimental work is approved by comparison values of laminar burning velocity for (ILPG – air) mixture with the available published data at the same conditions. Good agreements are observed in the comparison with the other literature results. (21, 23&25) volume%.

هذه الدراسة تبين تاثير زيادة الاوكسجين ( كمؤكسد ) على خواص اللهب الطباقي المسبق الخلط لغاز البترول المسال العراقي, حيث تم تقديم القياسات الاولى من نوعها لقياس سرعة اللهب الطباقي لهذا الغاز. ولاجراء ذلك تم تصميم وتصنيع منظومة قياس سرعة اللهب الطباقي باستخدم طريقة الانبوب والتقنية البصرية ( الخلايا الضوئية ). تم ايجاد قيم سرعة جبهة اللهب عند الضغط الجوي , ودرجة حرارة ابتدائية301K لثلاثة تراكيز من الاوكسجين(21,23 & 25) volume% ونسب مكافئة (0.6-1.4) . جميعالقياسات تم اجراؤها في فترة ثبوت الضغط وذلك لاستعمال طريقة نسبة الكثافة لحساب سرعة انتشار اللهب الطباقية . اضافة لذلك تم ايجاد كلا من درجة حرارة اللهب , سمك جبهة اللهب ورقم زيلدوفك نظريا . وقد بينت التجارب العملية ان اعلى قيمة للزيادة في سرعة انتشار اللهب الطباقية تحدث عند النسبة المكافئة = 1.1 , وان مقدار الزيادة كان (23.45%). م اختبار صحة النتائج العملية من خلال مقارنة قيم سرعة اللهب الطباقي لخليط (LPG – air )مع النتائج العملية المنشورةعند نفس الظروف وتبين وجود توافق جيد بينها.


Article
EFFECT OF BURNING CYCLES ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAY

Authors: Safa Hussain Abid Awn --- Waad Abdul Sattar Hussain --- Hassan Obaid Abbas
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 79-92
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Natural soil is exposed, like other elements of the construction, to significant changes in temperatures are sources of forest fires or volcanic eruptions or natural bulky. Usually, accompanied by significant changes in temperatures of up to more than 300 degrees centigrade. Therefore, the need arises to study the effect of burning clayey soils, on the grain distribution and distribution of particleboard intricacies and atterbering limit and soil classification, in addition to the direct impact on the variables for the design of foundations such as the cohesion of the soil. The soil used was naturally clayey soil brought from Diyala province with (Liquid limit=56%, Plastic limit=51%, Specific gravity=2.59, the soil is classified as OH (Organic clays of medium to high plasticity). The soil was burned at different temperatures (75- 150- 300- 600 ° C) using special oven for burning at high temperature, the study was directed to investigate the effect of repeat arson for each grade and study changes in soil properties and distribution particleboard and suitability of the construction. The study showed basic change in the particle distribution and Atterbering limits which means changing the engineering properties for the design of foundations construction which indicates the importance of this types of research and potential development to expand in this area and develop ways to put construction solutions for such cases. A reduction percent in plastic limit was 20% and 26% at the end of the fourth cycle at 300oC and 150oC respectively. Author Discoverd that the soil type changed from OH to MH after the first burning cycle at 75oC. With the repetitive burning cycle, more changes on soil properties and type accrue. The soil is Ml after the fourth burning cycle at 75oC.


Article
Structural Performance of Short Square Self Compacting Concrete Columns in Fire
الاداء الانشائي للاعمدة القصيرة المربعة المصنوعة من الخرسانة الذاتية الرص والمعرضة للحريق

Author: Mohammed Mansour Kadhum Alkafaji
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2015 Volume: 33 Issue: 1 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 237-256
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This paper represents an experimental program on the behavior of SCC columns under fire. The research includes testing reinforced SCC columns subjected to various loading levels and heating rates. Nine columns were tested under concentric and eccentric loading and two burning rates (400 and 700oC) for 1.5 hour period of exposure at 60 days age. The paper represents the main results including the residual ultimate load carrying capacity, maximum crack width, axial deformation, crack pattern, the measured concrete and steel temperatures and axial displacements. It was found that the predicted load carrying capacity of SCC columns by the three codes which are (ACI-318/08, BS-8110/97 and Canadian/84), was unstable after burning except for the BS Code equation which was able to predict load capacity after exposing to high fire temperature levels. Valuable conclusions on the effect of loads and heating on concrete explosive spalling are shown in the paper.

يمثل هذا البحث البرنامج العملي لسلوك الاعمدة الخرسانية الذاتية الرص SCC والمعرضة للحريق. يتضمن البحث فحص نماذج الاعمدة المسلحة والمعرضة الى مستويات احمال وحرارة مختلفة. تم فحص تسعة من نماذج الاعمدة تحت محورية التحميل او لامحورية بلا تمركزية وعرضت الى لهب النار بمستويات حرارة مختلفة (400 و 700) درجة مئوية ولفترة تعرض ساعة ونصف وبعمر 60 يوم. من خلال الفحوصات والاعمال المختبرية تم دراسة مقاومة الاحمال المتبقية، عرض الشق الاقصى، التشوه المحوري وانماط التشقق قبل وبعد التعرض الى لهب النار المباشر وتم تسجيل وعرض ومناقشة النتائج. لقد وجدت النتائج العملية ان معادلات المدونات (الامريكي، البريطاني، الكندي) غير قادرة للتنبؤ بمقاومة الحمل بعد التعرض للحريق ما عدا معادلة المدونة البريطانية تكون قادرة لتخمين الحمل الاقصى بعد التعرض للحريق وبدرجات الحرارة العالية. ومن الاستنتاجات الثمينة ايضأ لهذا البحث لوحظ تشضي القطع الخرسانية لاعمدة الخرسانة الذاتية الرص SCC والمعرضة للتأير المزدوج الحمل والحرارة سوية.

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