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Article
PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN PATIENTS WITH
الموت المبرمج للخلایا في مرضى سرطان القولون

Author: أریج حمد جعفر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 242-249
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACTIn this study forty cases were investigated for evaluation of apoptosis in patientswith colon cancer by using the TUNEL assay. The results showed that the number ofTUNEL positive colonic epithelial cells were significantly different from that in thecontrol group and the frequencies and percentages of apoptosis between patients andcontrols were statistically significant (p < 0.05)

الخلاصةفي هذه الدراسة تم أستقصاء 40 عینة لتقییم الموت الفسلجي للخلایا في مرضى سرطان القولون بالاعتماد علىبین (Tunel positive) أظهرت النتائج وجود إختلاف معنوي في عدد الخلایا الموجبة .(Tunel) تقنیة ال.(p< المرضى ومجموعة السیطرة ( 0.05

Keywords

Colon Cancer --- Apoptosis.


Article
Cytogenetic studies of the drug methotrexate (MTX) on the blood lymphocytes of colon cancer patients .

Author: Zainab M. T. Jaafer , Eshmail K. Shubber
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of study is to investigate the cytogenetic parameters in order to define the effect of methotrexate (MTX) on blood lymphocytes, manifested by blast index (BI), mitotic index (MI), replicative index (RI), and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). The results showed significant reduction in BI and MI and RI indices with MTX concentrations (0.0, 0.2 ,0.5 ,1, 2, 4, 8, µg/ml) in comparison with the control. The results of BI showed significant reduction according to increasing of concentration. Of the drug in colon cancer patients, it gave 28.6 %, 18.6 %, 14.5%, 10.4%, 6.8 % , 6.7 %, 3.3% respectively. The results of (MI ) gave 3.6 %, 2.3%, 1.6%, 0.18%, 0.22%, 0.0%, 0.0 % respectively. The values of (RI(, gave 0.72% at zero concentration and 0.44% at concentration of 0.2µg/ml of M% TX and 0.27 % at concentration of 0.5µg/ml. On the other hand the SCE showed increases in the SCEs frequency in colon cancer samples in MTX concentration (0.0, 0.2, 0.5, µg/ml) which gave 8.47, 10.41, 10.49. respectively. The SCEs in the high concentration of drug (1,2,4,8 µg/ml) cannot be detected due to its toxicity of the drug. The mutation fraction increased in colon cancer patient which gave 9 at 0.2 µg/ml, and 15.72 at 0.5 µg/ml and 4.1 in 1 µg/ml. The conclusion demonstrated decreasing in (MI), (BI) and (RI) and increasing in the SCEs frequencies and mutation fraction in colon cancer patients in comparison with the control. The presence of mutant cells in lymphocytes of colon cancer that resistant to MTX, gave an idea about amplification in DHFR gene that regulate the activity of DHFR enzyme and also indicated the resistance of cancer cells to drugs.


Article
Development of Modified Release Nicotine Tablet Formulation for Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

Author: Marwan Y. Al-hurr مروان يحيى الحر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2010 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 75-81
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

One of the therapeutic effects of nicotine is used as a protective against developing ulcerative colitis . ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the bowel affecting the superficial lining mucosa in the rectum and large intestine. In this study nicotine tablets were formulated as modified release tablets targeted to the colon. All formulas were studied for drug release , effect of diluent, retardant concentration, avicel grade,and compression force, the selected formula was then further studied for drug release in 3 different pH ( coated tablets) .The kinetic study revealed acceptable shelf life . Finally the selected formula was given to 6 patients in a pre-liminary clinical study which showed that nicotine can stabilize mild to moderate ulcerative colitis attacks.

التهاب القولون التقرحي احد التهابات الجهاز الهضمي التي تصيب الطبقة المخاطية السطحية للمستقيم و الامعاء الغليظه ويعتبر النيكوتين عامل حماية ضد تطور هذا المرض. في هذا البحث تم تحضير مضغوطات النيكوتين محورة التحرر موجه الى القولون. وتم دراسة تحررالدواء و تأثير نوع المواد المضافة غير الفعالة و تركيز المواد المثبطه للتحرر للصيغ المحضرة, وتأثير قوة الكبس على تحرر النكوتين. وتم أجراء دراسة اوسع للصيغه المختارة من حيث تحرر النيكوتين في اوساط مختلفة الاس الهيدروجيني و من حيث ثباتها في درجات حرارة مختلفة. وتم ايضا اجراء دراسة سريريه اولية على 6 مرضى للصيغة المختارة حيث أظهرت الدراسة ان النيكوتين يمنع تطور المرض و يزيد من استقرارية هذا المرض في الراحل البسيطة و المعتدلة الشدة.


Article
تقييم صحي للمطعم والنادي الطلابي للمعهد التقني / بابل

Author: خلود عبد المجيد محمد جعفر
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2015 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 321-324
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This experiment study was conducted on 150 samples,taken from different sites of the students restaurant in Babylon technical institute. The samples were examined in Biological laboratory of the institute.The results show high rate of contamination of the food with bacterial colonies,while the samples taken from the hands of the workers show contamination.However,the samples taken from the dishes show contamination rate.Examination of the worker hair’s show the least rate of contamination.The highest rate of contamination was found at the end of the spring and the begning of summer. The present study showed that the most important isolated bacterial colonies were E . coli, Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus spp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis.

أجريت دراسة تجريبية تحليلية ل150 عينة من أماكن مختلفة من النادي والمطعم الطلابي التابع للمعهد التقني بابل وارسلت للفحص المختبري في مختبر الأحياء المجهرية في المعهد التقني بابل.و أظهرت نتائج الدراسة إن أعلى معدل للمستعمرات البكتيرية كانت في الغذاء ,بينما سجلت نماذج أيدي العاملين , أقل منها، تلتها نماذج الأواني المفحوصة، كما أظهرت نماذج الشعر أقل معدلاً. وسجل أعلى معدل لحدوث التلوث الغذائي البكتيري في نهاية فصل الربيع وبداية فصل الصيف. وبينت الدراسة الحالية ان اهم الملوثات البكترية التي تم عزلها هي E .coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus albus , Streptococcus spp., Bacillus cereus , Bacillus subtilis .


Article
Study the Effect of Locally isolated Lactobacillus acidophilus and its components as anticancer in vivo
دراسة تأثير بكتريا Lactobacillus acidophilus المعزولة محلياً ومكوناتها كعامل مضاد للسرطان في داخل الجسم الحي

Author: Maareb Nazyh Rasheed1 Zahra Mahmood Al-Khafaji2 Nahi Yousif Yaseen3
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2-2 Pages: 1-22
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Lactobacilli as a probiotic in colon cancer treatment in rats. Accordingly 29 isolates of Lactobacilli was obtained from 11 samples of feces of newborns. As well as isolating and diagnosis one isolate of Lactobacilli from standard yoghurt named (canon) which used as control for acid and bile salt tolerance. Screening of isolate according to its ability of acid resistance, showed that six isolates were able to stand in pH3.5 for 90 min. The number of living cells were 1.73×105 to 6.3×105 CFU/ml. Accordingly the number of living cells of other isolates were significantly decreased after 90 min incubation in MRS broth with pH3.5 . The isolate from standard yoghurt did not revealed high resistances to acidity since the living cells were decreased with a rrange equal about to one logarithmic cycle or more. This behaviors is important from static point of view which indicates no high acidity resistance.The isolates which appear high acidity resistance were selected to test its resistance to bile salts. Lactobacillus acidophilusone of diagnosed isolates, appeared high resistance to bile salts, since it was the most efficient isolate among the selected isolate in its high resistance to bile salts. While for Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp bulgaricus which was used for comparison with the other isolates, revealed no resistance for bile salts since the number Components of Lactobacillus acidophilus were separated. Colon cancer was induced in rats using Azoxymethane (AOM) at 15mg/Kg (animal body weight) by adding methyl group to guanine (O6- methyl guanine). Two restriction enzymes were used to detect the methylation. The first HpaII which is sensitive to presence of methyl group and the second is MspI which is resistant to methyl group so the samples treated with former will give a clear band of methylated DNA in gel electrophoresis while MspI will give diffused band when the DNA is methylated. The prophylactic effect (pretreatment) and the therapeutic effect (post- treatment) of Lb. acidophilus cells and its separated components was studied in vivo on the molecular level, DNA was extracted from rat colon and treated for methylation. The results revealed that the DNA extracted from treated animal showed smear in gel electrophoresis after digestion with HpaII which means that lactobacillus could modulate the DNA methylation, in contrast to positive control group which had specific DNA methylation band which indicates the presence of methyl group in the DNA of this animals.

كان الهدف من الدراسة هو استبيان دور العصيات اللبنية كأحياء علاجية في مجال التعامل مع سرطان القولون في الجرذان المختبرية وقد شملت الدراسة عزل وتشخيص 29 عزلة لبكتريا العصيات اللبنية (Lactobacilli) من 11 عينة لغائط الأطفال الرضع حديثي الولادة، فضلا عن عزل وتشخيص عزلة واحدة لبكتريا العصيات اللبنية من اللبن القياسي (كانون)، التي استخدمت لغرض المقارنة في اختبار تحمل الحموضة وأملاح الصفراء. وقد استخدم نظام API 50 CH لتشخيص العزلات. أظهرت غربلة العزلات على أساس قدرتها على مقاومة الحموضة قابلية ست عزلات على أبداء مقاومة عالية للحموضة اذ تراوحت قيم أعدادها الحية ما بين (1.73 × 105 - 6.3× 105 وحدة تكوين مستعمرات / مللتر) مقارنة بقيم الأعداد الحية لبقية العزلات بعد 90 دقيقة من حضنها في مرق MRS برقم هيدروجيني 3.5 التي انخفضت قيم أعدادها الحية بشكل معنوي ،أما في ما يخص العزلة المعزولة من اللبن القياسي لم تبد مقاومة عالية للحموضة اذ انخفضت أعدادها الحية بمدى يقارب دورة لوغاريتمية واحدة أو أكثر والتي تعد مهمة احصائيا، وبهذا لم تبد مقاومة عالية للحموضة. انتقيت العزلات التي أبدت مقاومة عالية للحموضة لاختبار مقاومتها لأملاح الصفراء، وقد أبدت بكتريا Lactobacillus acidophilus (أحدى العزلات المشخصة) مقاومة عالية لأملاح الصفراء، اذ كانت العزلة الأكفأ من بين العزلات المنتقاة في مقاومتها لأملاح الصفراء، أما بالنسبة لبكتريا Lb.delbrueckii ssp bulgaricus والتي استخدمت لغرض المقارنة مع بقية العزلات لم تبد مقاومة لأملاح الصفراء، اذ انخفضت قيم أعدادها الحية انخفاض شديد (أي أكثر من دورة لوغاريتمية واحدة). تم استحثاث سرطان القولون في الجرذان المختبرية باستخدام مادة (AOM) Azoxymethane بتركيز 15 ملغم / كغم ( وزن الحيوان ) التي تؤدي الى حث سرطان القولون، وذلك بإضافة مجموعة المثيل الى ذرة الاوكسجين السادسة في الكوانين (O6 -methyl guanine ) وقد استخدمت انزيمات القطع الحساسة وغير الحساسة لمجاميع المثيل في الكشف عن حالة المثيلة، فالانزيم HpaII لا يقطع DNAالحاوي على المثيل لذلك يظهر الاخير بشكل حزمة متماسكة، في حين ان الانزيم MspI يقطع جزيئات DNA بغض النظر عن حالة المثيلة مما يؤدي الى انتشار DNA في هلام الترحيل الكهربائي ( يظهر بشكل مسحة متواصلة ) .وقد اجريت دراسة التأثير الوقائي والعلاجي لخلايا ومكونات بكتريا Lb.acidophilus في الأنظمة الحية in vivo قبل الحقن بالمادة المسرطنة Pretreatment) ) وبعد الحقن (Post treatment) على المستوى الجزيئي وقد ظهرت نماذج DNA المستخلصة من قولون الجرذان المختبرية المعاملة بخلايا ومكونات بكتريا Lb.acidophilus بشكل مسحه صغيرة ضمن هلام الترحيل مع انزيم التقيد HpaII وهذا بدوره يعكس قابلية خلايا ومكونات بكتريا Lb.acidophilus في التأثير والتعديل في مثيلة DNA. مقارنة بنماذج DNA الخاصة بمجموعة حيوانات السيطرة الموجبة والتي ظهرت بشكل حزمة ضمن هلام الترحيل عند حضنها مع الانزيم نفسه، مما يدل على وجود مجاميع المثيل في DNA هذه المجموعة من الحيوانات.


Article
The Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Colorectal Cancer in Young Age Group in Karbala Province/ Iraq

Authors: Rasha Abdul Raouf ALSafi --- Nazar j. Metib --- Ameer Dhahir Hameedi --- Abulmahdi F Mohammed
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 4025-4031
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in Iraq. Aim: to identify the clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancer in young Iraqi patients in Karbala. Design of study: Retrospective study was conducted in a single center, Imam AL-Hussein general teaching hospital during the period from January 2009 to April 2017. Patients and Methods: A sample size of 96cases of Colorectal Carcinoma was diagnosed during the study period. The clinic-pathological parameters were reported. Results: The mean age of the patients was (51.68). There is a general increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer across the years with percentage of (41.7%) being younger than 45 years. There was slight male predominance. The predominant site of the tumor is colon in (75%) of cases followed by rectum (17.7%). The most common type was adenocarcinoma (82.1%) followed by mucinous type (27.3%), most patients presented with grade I (61.5%). In the majority of patients the malignancy reaching the pericolic fat (54.5%). About (43.6%) of patients presented with N1 and (50.9%) with stage III followed by stage II in (30.9%). For all cancer grades, the frequency of CRC was higher among patients > 45 years with the majority of patients with grade III being younger than 45 years and this make a significant difference between both categories, (P=0.043). With respect to the depth of invasion, those with advance disease (T3), 17 out of 30 cases were younger than 45 years, thus there was significant difference between 2 age groups. Conclusion: the incidence of colorectal cancer is upgrading in those younger than 45 years

Keywords

colon cancer --- young age --- epidemiology --- stage --- grade


Article
Isolation and Characterization of XantIsolation and Characterization of Xanthine Oxidase from Tissues of Benign and Malignant Colon Tumors Patients
عزل ودراسة خواص أنزيم الزانثين اوكسديز من أنسجة مرضى أورام القولون الحميدة والخبيثة

Author: Lelas F. Bdaiwi ليلاس فرحان بديوي
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2012 Volume: 23 Issue: 4E Pages: 70-82
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The present research included the determination of xanthine oxidase XO in tissues of benign and malignant colon tumor patients.Six samples were collected from patients in surgery unit in Al-Zahrawi hospital in Nineveh Governorate, three of them were benign and the others were malignant colon tumors.The results showed that there are (62%) increase in the specific activity of the enzyme in malignant than benign.The research also included an isolation and partial purification of XO using gel filtration chromatography from benign and malignant colon tumor tissues. The number of purification folds was (12) fold from benign and (17) folds from malignant.The molecular weight of XO was determined using gel filtration on sephadex G-100 and it was found to be (199000 ± 2000 , 191000 ± 2000) dalton from benign and malignant colon tumor respectively.The results also showed that the enzyme gave a maximum activity at (1.5×10-4 M) of xanthine as a substrate and phosphate buffer at pH (8.5), temperature of (40/°C) and incubation time (6 minutes). Using linweaver-Burk plot, the Km was (2.5 × 10-4M) and Vmax was ( 7.1 10-5) U/ml.The research also shows an inhibition effect of some metal ions like Cu+2, Hg+2, Ag+2 (but not by Co+2) and some chemical compounds like N-acetyl cysteine, 1-phenl-3-pyrazolidinone on XO activity.

تضمن البحث تقدير فعالية إنزيم الزانثين اوكسديز في أنسجة مرضى أورام القولون الحميدة والخبيثة إذ جمعت العينات من وحدة الجراحة في مستشفى الزهراوي في محافظة نينوى وكان عددها ست عينات ثلاثة منها لمرضى ذوات ورم خبيث والباقية لمرضى ذوات ورم حميد.أشارت النتائج إلى حدوث ارتفاع معنوي بنسبة (62 %) في الفعالية النوعية للإنزيم في الورم الخبيث مقارنة مع الحميد كما تضمن البحث عزل وتنقية الإنزيم باستخدام تقنية الترشيح الهلامي وكان عدد مرات التنقية (12) مرة للحميد و(17) مـرة للخبيث كما تم تقدير الوزن الجزيئي للإنزيم وكان بحدود (199000 ± 2000 ، 191000 ± 2000) دالتون للإنزيم من الورم الحميد والخبيث على التوالي.كما تضمن البحث تحديد الظروف المثلى لعمل الإنزيم من الورم الخبيث وأظهرت النتائج أن أعلى فعالية للإنزيم كان عند تركيز (1.5×10-4) مولاري باستخدام الزانثين كمادة أساس وعند استخدام محلول الفوسفيت المنظم عند أس هيدروجيني (8.5) عند درجة حرارة (40/ºم) وزمن تحضين (6) دقائق. وباستخدام رسم لينويفر-بروك كانت قيمة km (2.5×10-4) مولاري. والسرعة القصوى كانت (7.1  10-5) وحدة/ ملي لتر.كما تم دراسة التأثير التثبيطي لبعض المركبات والمعادن على فعالية الإنزيم وكانت Cu+2، Hg+2، Ag+2، N-acetylcystine ، 1-phenyl 3-pyrazolidinone، أما Co+2 أظهر تأثيراً تنشيطياً.


Article
Use of colon caliber diameter as auxiliary method in pregnancy dating between 34-40 weeks of gestation

Author: Wisam Akram1
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 52-57
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Objective: to verify whether fetal colon caliber correlate with gestational age from 34 to 40 weeks of gestation and to develop equation and chart which can be used for pregnancy dating by measuring colon caliber. Methods: a total of 220 healthy pregnant women whose age range from 18- 35 years were collected. They were distributed as 30 patients for each of the following gestational ages 34, 35, 36,37,38,39 weeks and 40 patients for 40 weeks of gestation. Their head circumference, abdominal circumference, bi-parietal diameter and femoral lengths were assessed by ultrasound. In addition colon caliber was assessed in the transverse colon. Result: there was a highly significant correlation between colon caliber and gestational age in days. In addition a highly significant correlation between colon caliber and bi-parietal diameter, femoral length, head circumference and abdominal circumference were found with P values < 0.0001. A formula was developed to calculate gestational age directly from the fetal colon caliber alone. The equation accuracy was checked by Kappa- Cohen coefficient and found to be 0.71 indicating good predicative ability of this formula. Conclusions: despite a new easy to use formula and associated easy to use chart was developed yet we call for extreme caution in its use as we don’t know its significance in real life obstetrical world. Further studies are required to confirm its reliability and safety


Article
Immunohistochemical detection of p16INK4a proteins expression in paraffin embedded sections of colorectal cancer tissues.

Authors: Faeza aftan فايزة عفان --- Nidhal abdulmohaimen نضال عبد الرحمن --- Abdelameer K. lelo عب الامير ليو
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 4 Pages: 445-448
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Uncontrolled tumor cell proliferation is a reality in tumor cells, and the progression from a normal cell into a transformed cell probably includes genetic events affecting checkpoints in the cell cycle machinery.Materials and methods: This study investigated the immunoexpression of p16INK4a in the paraffin sections from 43-cancers of colorectal tissue (CRC),26-hyperplastic polyps and adenomas(CRHPA) and 35-normal tissues (CRN),using immunohistochemical assay. We correlated the expression patterns with tumor histopathological type, site of the tumor, distance metastasis according to the TNM system. Results: In colorectal cancer (CRC) patients’ p16INK4a,immunoexpression was detected in 32/43, there was significant association for p16INK4a, which showed high reaction with monoclonal antibodies in the distal colon and rectal area with P value < 0.001. There was no significant correlation between tissue invasion stage and p16INK4a. There was no significant difference in the immunoexpression of p16INK4a in relation to the two groups of patients with the stage of the disease. Conclusion: p16INK4a, expression have high level in CRHPA than in CRN tissue. Also, their expression in CRC is more than in CRN tissue. In addition, p16INK4a immunoexpression in CRC was significantly more than in CRHPA.Keywords: colon cancer, p16INK4a, immunohistochemical assay, cell cycle checkpoints


Article
Role of mRNA Binding Protein (HuR) Expression Level in Cancer Cells

Authors: Ibrahim Abdulmajeed Altamemi --- Rateb Fanokh Abo Khadher
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 17-23
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

HuR is a mRNA-binding protein. Intracellular localization of HuR is mainly found within nucleus, but it could be translocate between the nucleus and cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm HuR canincrease half-life of certain mRNA target. Since cytoplasmic localization of HuR is essential for its activity, thus, HuR translocation in malignant cells could have prognostic indication. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the significance importance of HuR in the aggressiveness ofcolorectal adenocarcinoma. To achieve this goal, we have investigated itsexpression level in adenocarcinoma sample from Iraqi patients, 7through linking its expression with tumor histopathological variables (stage, grade, grade, and lymph node involvement), by using Immunohistochemical staining method. Study done on 40 colorectal cancer samples and their respective resection margins. Present study demonstrated that, the positive expression rate of integrin HuR in non-tumor colorectal mucosa was significantly lower than that of the colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue (P<0.005). Moreover, when CRC samples breakdown according to histopathological variables, significant differences in expression level of HuR protein when compared with different tumor stage, grade, and LN involvement depending on mean expression ±SE value (P< 0.05, P< 0.05, and p<0.05 respectively). Our results show that high cytoplasmic HuR expression is associated with a poor histologic differentiation, large tumor size, and poor prognosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

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