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Article
The Incidence of Three Roots and Four Root Canals in Endodontically Treated Mandibular First Molars in Iraqi Population

Author: Hikmet A. Sh. Al-Gharrawi B.D.S., M.Sc.*
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2006 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 7-11
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

It is of utmost importance that the clinician be familiar with the variations in root canal anatomy and the characteristics features in various racial groups, since such knowledge can aid location and negotiation of canals as well as their subsequent management. The aim of the present study is to investigate the incidence of three roots and four root canals in the mandibular first molar in Iraqi population. A total of 327 endodontically treated mandibular first molars were investigated in this study. Radiographs of working length determination and canal obturation at different angles of each tooth were mounted, projected and evaluated. The clinical records were reviewed and the findings for the number of roots and root canals were then recorded and tabulated. Roots with multiple canal systems were categorized according to whether the canals exited the root by a common apical foramen or by separated apical foramina. The results showed that 81.96% of the examined teeth had three root canals and the remaining 18.04% had four root canals. Most of the teeth ( 99.08% ) had two roots. Only three teeth ( 0.92% ) had three roots. There was no significant differences between males and females in the incidence of three roots and four root canals ( P > 0.05 ).


Article
Control System for Sluice Gates Flow in Irrigation Canals †

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Abstract

Abstract – Water has become the most important problem in relations between the countries of the Middle East in the recent years. It occupies an important place on the agenda of several international organizations. Water control and reduction loss of water discharge is a major challenge facing the design of new irrigation projects. A downstream control algorithm for demand operation of irrigation system is proposed in this paper through maintaining downstream end discharge of the canal at the target point by manipulating the upstream sluice gate in real time. The control of the water level and discharge for canal irrigation system has non-linear, time-varying and uncertainty characteristics. This paper compares three control algorithms; conventional PID, fuzzy neural network PID, and PID neural network control based on fuzzy neural network model. The simulation results show that the first control has larger over-shoot, longer adjusting time and poorer anti-interference ability. The second control overcomes above-mentioned short-comings, small overshoot, faster response speed, very small steady state error. Third control produces better effects than previous controllers in both steady performance and dynamic performance, including shorter steady-state time, non-overshot, no oscillator, and higher dynamic tracking rate.


Article
A study to compare the efficiency of different instrumentation systems for cleaning oval-shaped root canals (An in vitro study)

Authors: Tay H. Kadhom طي كاظم --- Walid N. Al-Hashimi وليد الهاشمي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 49-55
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Proper cleaning and shaping of the whole root canal space have been recognized as a realchallenge, particularly in oval-shaped canals.This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate and compare theefficiency of different instrumentation systems in removing of dentin debris at three thirds of oval-shaped root canalsand to compare the percentage of remaining dentin debris among the three thirds for each instrumentation system.Materials and methods: Fifty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with single straight oval-shaped distal rootcanals were randomly divided into five groups of ten teeth each. Group One: instrumentation with ProTaperUniversal hand instruments, Group Two: instrumentation with ProTaper Universal rotary instruments, Group Three:instrumentation with Revo-Srotary instruments, Group Four: instrumentation withTwisted rotary files and Group Five:instrumentation with Self-Adjusting Files (SAF). Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was used as an irrigant for all groups. Aftercanals preparation, the roots were split longitudinally and photographed with a professional digital camera. Theimages of root sections were then magnified to 100x and the percentage of remaining dentin debris calculated forthe apical, middle and coronal thirds by dividing the pixels occupied by debris at each third by the total pixelsrepresenting the entire area of the canal using Adobe Photoshop CS6. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVAand LSD at 1% and 5% significant levels.Results: Both ProTaper hand and ProTaper rotary files resulted in significantly cleaner canals than Revo-S and Twistedrotary files at the middle and coronal thirds. The Self-Adjusting Files produced significantly cleaner canals at thethree thirds than all the other groups. The coronal and middle thirds showed a greater amount of remaining dentindebris than the apical third for all groups except a non-significant difference found between the apical and middlethirds in SAF group.Conclusion: The Self-Adjusting Files allowed more efficient cleaning of oval-shaped root canals than hand androtary instruments


Article
Sustainable Urban Development -The Role of Waters' Canals in the Morphological Urban Development - City of Basrah as a Case Study
دور القنوات المائیة في تنمیة المدن مورفولوجیاً– مدینة البصرة حالة دراسیة

Authors: Sana Sati Abbas سناء ساطع عباس --- Asaad Ghalib اسعد غالب الاسدي --- Saba M. Abdul Wahid سبأ مجتبى عبدالواحد
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 6 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 165-185
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Where ever the life is found it's very likely to find a river or water in any form, people connected more and more with rivers, streams and canals and working hard to rehabilitate these waters' sources .The research problem is "there is a knowledgeable gap about the role of waters' canals in the morphological urban development of the cities ".While the aim of the research is to Diagnosis the waters' canals which embody the greatest importance in the morphological urban development of the city.The main research hypothesis is " canals vary in their importance or role in the morphological development of the cities ".The area of study is represented by city of Basrah because it has a network of waters' canals consolidated with the main streets' network in which every canal is parallel to one of city streets. The research studied the spatial organization of Basra city using the Arc View GIS 3.3 to see the canals that deserves rehabilitation within the city. and Studied lands' uses which align the important waters' canals by field survey. Also built a questionnaire about the character of urban development and its mechanism. The research reached in its practical study to diagnose the main waters' canals in the city which have the more importance in the morphological development of Basrah city , where its result come from the integration and the access to those canals by using major ways of transportation .The results of the program are about twelve canals which gained high values, those canals are " Sarraji River , Al Khora River , Alashar River , Alkhandag River , Rebat River , Jubailah River , Shatt al-Turk river , the vertical canal on the Shatt al-Turk river , Baghdad's streets' Canals beside Aljameyaaat district , the canals which paralleled Baghdad's street beside Alsma'i and Alaaleya districts ,alsheeaba's drainage canal and the vertical canal between Al-Sarraji and Al-Khora River) ,the research diagnoses and concentrates on the main lands' uses on the Both bankes of those Canals and they are (governmental , commercial and residential and mixed) . Research recommended that the focus should be on those important canals in the new developments.

حيثما وجدت الحياة , من المحتمل جدا وجود نهر او ماء بأي شكل من الاشكال , فالناس يرتبطون أكثر وأكثر بالأنهار والجداول والقنوات المائية ويعملون جاهدين لتحسين إعادتها . تمثلت مشكلة البحث في " وجود فجوة معرفية حول دور القنوات المائية في تنمية المدن مورفولوجيا" اما هدف البحث فيتعلق بتشخيص القنوات المائية الأكثر أهمية في تنمية المدينة مورفولوجياً .افترض البحث ان القنوات المائية متباينة في اهميتها و دورها في تنمية المدن مورفولوجياً .تمثلت منطقة الدراسة بمدينة البصرة كونها تحتوي على شبكة من القنوات المائية المدمجة مع شبكة الشوارع الرئيسية حيث أغلب القنوات موازية لشوارع المدينة . تم تحليل التنظيم الفضائي لهذه القنوات المائية باستخدام برنامج (Arc View GIS 3.3) لتحديد القنوات الاكثر تكاملا في المدينة والاكثراهمية في تنمية مدينة البصرة من الناحية المورفولوجية . كما قام البحث بدراسة استعمال الاراضي على امتداد هذه القنوات المائية, فضلا عن بناء استمارة استبيان تعلقت بخصائص التنمية الحضرية وجوانبها والياتها.توصل البحث في دراسته العملية الى تشخيص القنوات المائية الأكثر اهمية في بنية المدينة المورفولوجية حيث تأتي نتائجها من تكاملها و إمكانية الوصول لتلك القنوات بإستخدام طرق النقل الرئيسية .وكانت نتائج البرنامج نحو إثنا عشرة قناة مائية تمكنت من الحصول على قيم عالية متباينة فيما بينها وهي (نهر السراجي , نهر الخورة , نهر العشار , نهر الخندق , نهر الرباط , نهر الجبيلة , شط الترك , القناة العمودية على شط الترك , قنوات شارع بغداد جهة الجمعيات , قنوات موازاة شارع بغداد جهة الأصمعي والعالية , مبزل الشعيبة , والقناة العمودية بين نهر السراجي والخورة ). أوصى البحث في إن يتم التركيز على تلك القنوات المهمة في التنميات الجديدة .


Article
An In vitro Comparative Study to Evaluate The Apical Seal of Root Canals Prepared by Rotary Versus Reciprocating Wave-One Nickel Titanium System

Authors: Rasha M. Al-Shamaa --- Makdad N. Chakmakchi --- Karam A. Thiab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 288-293
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aim of present study is to assess the apical seal of root canals prepare by two different preparation techniques (Rotary and reciprocating technique) . Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human, single-rooted lower premolar teeth were decoronated at the cement-enamel junction (CEJ). The working length was determined for each tooth. The samples were divided into 2 experimental groups, each one consisted of 20 prepared teeth: group 1, rotary conventional preparation by using Wave-One file. group2, reciprocate instrumentation with Wave-One file. After instrumentation was completed then the teeth obturated with Single-cone technique related to this systems. Zinc oxide euginol (ZOE) sealer was used as a root canal sealer in this study. A dye penetration method was used to evaluate the apical seal and the teeth were cleared then apical leakage was measured using a stereomicroscope at (x10 magnification). The statistical analysis performed by Independent t-test. Results: Wave-One file instrumented by Reciprocation instrumentation technique was significantly differ from Rotary instrumentation technique for root canal preparation . The Reciprocation group registered better apical seal than Rotary group. Conclusions: Apical seal with the Wave-One Reciprocation technique and conventional Wave-One rotary approach were significantly difference. The Wave-One Reciprocation technique was markedly registered better apical seal than Wave-One rotary technique.


Article
Management of Independent Middle Mesial Canal in Mandibular First Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography Imaging as an Adjunct – A Case Report

Authors: Pardeep Mahajan --- Prashant Monga --- Roma Goyal --- Nitika Bajaj
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 26-29
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The primary objective of root canal therapy is adequate biomechanical preparation of root canal system followed by3D obturation.in clinics we are encountered with several anatomical variations, which we need to manage efficiently.One of the major factors responsible for failure of root canal therapy is missed canals. Recent technological advanceshave given the clinician opportunity to identify anatomical variations and treat them to satisfaction


Article
Radiological Evaluation of The Anatomic Characteristic of Lingual Foramina and Their Vascular Canals in The Anterior Region of The Mandible Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Fatima Mohammed Abd Al-khuther --- Ahlam Ahmed Fatah احلام احمد فتاح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 4 Pages: 53-57
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: presence of lingual vascular foramina and canals in the interforaminal regionmay increase the risk ofsurgical complications during implant placement or any surgical procedure in this area.Aim of this study is theradiological evaluation of the anatomic characteristic of the lingual foramina and their vascular canals in the anterior of the mandible using cone beam computed tomography.Materials and Methods: Prospective study including 72 Iraqi subjects (31 male and 41 female) ranging from 20 to 59 years, all subjects attended AL- Sharaa dental clinic in AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf city, scanned with CBCT from September 2016 to February 2017. Using 3dimentional and sagittal cross section to detect lingual foramina and their vascular canals. Their presence, number, diameter, position, and orientation were established.Results: Lingual foramina in the anterior mandible were viewed in whole sample. Number of lingual canals varied from (1-5), the average diameter of the canals was (0.81 mm). The average distance from the foramina to the base of the mandible and to the alveolar crest was (13.78 mm) and (16.05mm), respectively. There was no significant correlation found between age and gender on all selected measurements. There was significant association of diameter of lingual foramen with the count, situation, extent and direction of lingual canal through the mandible width.Conclusion: Cone beam computed tomography is an invaluable system in diagnosis and treatment planning of surgical procedures. It help in detection of various anatomic features of mandible like presence of lingual foramen and canals in the anterior mandible


Article
Radiological Evaluation of the Anatomic Characteristic of Lingual Foramina and Their Vascular Canals in the Anterior Region of the Mandible Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Fatima M. Abd Al-khuther --- Ahlam A. Fatah
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-27
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: presence of lingual vascular foramina and canals in the interforaminal region may increase the risk ofsurgical complications during implant placement or any surgical procedure in this area. Aim of this study is theradiological evaluation of the anatomic characteristic of the lingual foramina and their vascular canals in the anterior of the mandible using cone beam computed tomography.Materials and Methods: Prospective study including 72 Iraqi subjects (31 male and 41 female) ranging from 20 to 59 years, all subjects attended Al-Sharaa dental clinic in AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf city, scanned with CBCT from September 2016 to February 2017. Using 3dimentional and sagittal cross section to detect lingual foramina and their vascular canals. Their presence, number, diameter, position, and orientation were established.Results: Lingual foramina in the anterior mandible were viewed in whole sample. Number of lingual canals varied from (1-5), the average diameter of the canals was 0.81 mm. The average distance from the foramina to the base of the mandible and to the alveolar crest was 13.78 mm and 16.05mm respectively. There was no significant correlation found between age and gender on all selected measurements. There was significant association of diameter of lingual foramen with the count, situation, extent and direction of lingual canal through the mandible width.Conclusion: Cone beam computed tomography is an invaluable system in diagnosis and treatment planning of surgical procedures. It help in detection of various anatomic features of mandible like presence of lingual foramen and canals in the anterior mandible


Article
Improvement of Earth Canals Constructed on Gypseous Soil by Soil Cement Mixture
معالجة القنوات الترابية المنفذة على التربة الجبسية باستخدام خليط التربة والسمنت

Authors: Maysam Th. Al-Hadidi --- Zeina Hamed Nasir AL-Maamori
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2019 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 23-37
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The gypseous soil may be one of the problems that face the engineers especially when it used as a foundation for hydraulic structures, roads, and other structures. Gypseous soil is strong soil and has good properties when it is dry, but the problem arises when building hydraulic installations or heavy buildings on this soil after wetting the water to the soil by raising the water table level from any source or from rainfall which leads to dissolve the gypsum content.Cement-stabilized soil has been successfully used as a facing or lining for earth channel, highway embankments and drainage ditches to reduce the risk of erosion and collapsibility of soil. This study is deliberate the treatment of gypseous soil by using a mixture of soil-cement. Collapsibility and settlement tests were carried out on gypseous soil brought from Karbla Governorate with a gypsum content (42.55%) soil mixed with various amounts of cement (2%,3%,5%,8%,10%,13%,and 15 %) by Wight and compacted to max. dry density 16.5 kN/m3 with O.M.C.( 12.8 % ) . The experimental tests were conducted on a flume with constant velocity (0.148 m/sec) during the test. The results marked that (10) % of cement decreases the collapsibility about 86.54% and the gypsum contained in the soil remain the same nearly after 28 day. Beside that the research shows that the minimum curing time is 14 days.

يمكن ان تعتبرالتربة الجبسية واحدة من اهم واحدة من اهم المشاكل التي تواجه المهندسين وبالاخص عند استخدامها كأساس للمنشأت الهيدروليكية والطرق و المنشأت الاخرى.ان التربة الجبسية تكون قوية ولها خصائص جيدة عندما تكون جافة ولكن تنشأ المشكلة عند بناء المنشآت الهيدروليكية أو المباني الثقيلة على هذه التربة بعد ترطيب المياه للتربة عن طريق رفع مستوى سطح الماءالجوفي من أي مصدر أو من الأمطار التي تؤدي إلى انحلال المحتوى الجبسي.تثبيت التربة بالاسمنت حققت نجاحا عند استخدامها للتغليف او لتبطين القنوات الترابية والسدود الترابية وسواقي المبازل لتقليل خطر التعرية وانهيارية التربة . في هذه الدراسة اعتمدت معالجة التربة الجبسية باستخدام خليط الاسمنت والتربة .اختبار الانهيارية والهطول اجريت على تربة جبسية جلبت من محافظة كربلاء وبنسبة جبس (42,55)% .خلطت التربة مع السمنت بنسب (2,3,5,8,10,13,and 15) % كنسبة وزنية ثم رصت لتصل الى الكثافة الجافة العظمى (16.5 كغم/م3) وباضافة المحتوى المائي (12.8 %).الفحوصات المختبرية اجريت في قناة مختبرية وبسرعة ثابتة 0.148) م/ثا (خلال الفحص . اوضحت النتائج ان استخدام نسبة 10% من السمنت قللت الانهيارية بنسبة (86.54%) كمابقيت نسبة الجبس بالتربة هي نفسها تقريبا بعد 28 يوم الى جانب ذلك اظهر البحث الى ان اقل وقت لازم للانضاج هو 14 يوم .


Article
تقييم حركة الرسوبيات في القنوات الاروائية الصغيرة (تفرعات شط الحلة كحالة دراسية )

Authors: عصام عيسى عمران --- محسن جاسم ناصر --- امير هاشم حسين
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2016 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 421-441
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

In this research, a field and laboratory study have been conducted to evaluate the movement of sediment load in irrigation canals of small discharge. Ten irrigation canals ( divided into two groups A & B) branching from the main canal (Shatt Al-Hillah) were selected, which characterized by different hydraulic parameters . The research started from the date of 1 / 8 / 2014 , and continued for a period of time about 14 months . The results showed that the soil texture at the upstream of canals section was more rough and homogeneous compared to the section of downstream, and the silt ratio increased by twice at the downstream section. The relative density of soil was about 2.68 . Sediment concentration at the downstream section of canals increased with the amount of (64, 41 ppm) for the two canal groups (A & B) respectively , besides the increasing of concentration ratio of 50% in summer and 21% in winter of the downstream section compared to the upstream section of canals.The results proved that the decreasing rate in the flow section and hydraulic depth was about 34% at the downstream of canals, which means that the canals of groups (A & B) are classified as unstable and unbalanced canals . Also the search stated that the application of Van_Rijn , Engelund and Hansen equations is the closest to the result of a field discharge of sediments compared to the other studied equations , with correlation coefficient not less than 97% for their positive logarithmic relationships . Results indicated that the water discharge and the shoulder slope of canal cross – section have a clear role in determining the amount of sediment load .The results showed that the water discharge effects on the calculations of suspended & bed sediment loads,and the relationship between them is a positive logarithmic. Also it stated the positive logarithmic relation between the field sediment discharge and these loads. The ratio of suspended to bed loads is about 30 times at the upstream section , while it was about 110 times in the downstream section of canals .

في هذا البحث, أنجزت دراسة حقلية ومختبرية لتقييم حركة الرسوبيات في القنوات الاروائية ذات التصاريف الصغيرة.اختيرت عشر قنوات (وزعت على مجموعتين أ, ب ) متفرعه من القناة الرئيسه ( شط الحلة), والتي تميزت بمتغيرات هيدروليكية مختلفة، استمرت مدة البحث لمدة 12 شهرا بدءاً من 1 / 8 / 2014 . اوضحت النتائج, ان نسجة تربة مقاطع القنوات عند مقدم الجريان اكثر خشونة وتجانساً مقارنة بما هي عليه في مؤخر الجريان , وازدادت نسبة الغرين بمقدار مرتين عند المؤخر, وبلغت الكثافة النسبية للتربة حوالي 2.68 . كذلك حدوث زيادة في تركيز الرسوبيات عند مؤخر الجريان بمعدل (41, 64 جزء بالمليون ) لمجموعتي القنوات (أ , ب) على التوالي, اضافة الى زيادة في نسبة التركيز بمقدار 50% صيفاً و 21% شتاءاً عند مؤخر الجريان مقارنة بمقدم تلك القنوات .لقد بينت النتائج, ان نسبة النقصان في مقطع الجريان والعمق الهيدروليكي عند مؤخر الجريان للقنوات كانت حوالي 34% , مما يعني تصنيف قنوات المجموعتين (أ , ب) الى قنوات غيرمستقرة وغير متوازنة. واشار البحث, الى ان تطبيق معادلتي Van_Rijn و Engelund and Hansen هما الاقرب لنتيجة التصريف الحقلي للرسوبيات مقارنة بالمعادلات المدروسة الاخرى , وبمعامل ارتباط لا يقل عن 97% للعلاقة اللوغاريتمية الطردية الخاصة بهم .وذكرت نتائج البحث ايضاً, ان للتصريف المائي وانحدار كتف مقطع الجريان (1: Z) دوراً واضحا في التأثير على مقدار تصريف الرسوبيات، مع توضيح تأثير التصريف المائي على حسابات الحمل العالق وحمل القاع للرسوبيات, والعلاقة اللوغاريتمية الطردية الحاصلة بينهم ،اضافة لبيان العلاقة اللوغاريتمية الطردية بين التصريف الحقلي للرسوبيات وتلك الاحمال (العالق والقاع) . بلغت نسبة الحمل العالق الى حمل القاع حوالي 30 مرة عند مقدم الجريان, بينما كانت حوالي 110 مرة في مقاطع القنوات عند مؤخر الجريان .

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