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Article
ASSESSMENT OF CANCER RISK AND HEREDITARY GENETIC DAMAGE TO BAGHDAD'S POPULATION RELATED TO RADIOLOGICAL EXPOSURE TO NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION
تقدير مخاطر الإصابة بالأورام السرطانية والتأثيرات الجينية الوراثية لسكان مدينة بغداد بسبب التعرض للنشاط الإشعاعي الطبيعي

Author: نبيل هاشم أمين
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 446-457
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The risk of cancer incidence (morbidity) and mortality to individuals in Baghdad’s population related to external exposure to ambient gamma radiation is evaluated in this study by using linear, no-threshold (lnt) dose-response model. Exposure rate measurements are carried out outdoors and in a house built from bricks and a building constructed from concrete by using BGS-4 gamma-ray scintillation counter (Scintrex, Canada). Absorbed dose rates in air and in human tissues are determined by applying typical conversion factors available in the literature. Age-dependent radiation dose is calculated for infants, children, and adults. Dose-to-risk conversion factors are applied to estimate potential risk to various body organs and tissues as a result of exposure to ambient gamma radiation. The effective dose equivalents to individuals living in houses and in buildings are found to be less than the allowable dose limit for the public. However, the results indicate that there is one cancer risk incident (morbidity) expected for every 329 individuals (0.3%) exposed to ambient gamma radiation. The lifetime fatal cancer probability (mortality) is found to be occurs at a rate of 0.21% (1 per 473 exposed individuals).Other consequences of radiation injury (genetic effects transmitted to succeeding generations) are expected to occur at a rate of 0.0325% in the offspring of Baghdad population as a result of changes transmitted via the genetic mechanisms due to irradiation of gonads.

أجرى في هذه الدراسة تقدير خطورة الإصابة بالسرطان المميت لسكان مدينة بغداد بسبب التعرض الخارجي للنويدات المشعة الطبيعية المنشأ بإستخدام نظرية .LNTتم قياس معدلات التعرض للنشاط الإشعاعي الطبيعي بإستخدام جهاز BGS-4. أستخدمت معاملات تحويل الجرع في تقدير معدلات الجرع الإشعاعية الممتصة في الهواء وفي جسم الإنسان للأشخاص البالغين والأطفال. كما أستخدمت معاملات تحويل الجرع – إلى – الخطورة في تقدير مخاطر الإصابة بالأورام السرطانية لمختلف أعضاء وأنسجة جسم الإنسان. وبينت النتائج أن معدلات الجرع الإشعاعية المكافئة للأشخاص الساكنين في البيوت والشقق هي أقل من الحدود المسموح بها.أظهرت النتائج احتمالية حصول عيوب وراثية بمعدل 0.0325% من الأجيال القادمة لسكان مدينة بغداد كنتيجة للأضرار الجينية التي قد تلحق بالجينات الوراثية بسبب تعرض الغدد التناسلية للنشاط الإشعاعي الطبيعي.


Article
Cancer Incidence Risks to Patients due to Barium Meal and Barium Enema by Using Fluoroscopy
خطورة الا صابه بالسرطان باستعمال جهاز الفلوروسكوب بعد اجراء فحص التنظير الاشعاعي للمعده وفحص الحقنه الشرجيه للباريوم

Authors: Ilham Khalid Ibrahim الهام خالد --- Edrees Muhammad Tahir Nury ادريس محمد --- Wan Muhammad Sardin وان محمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2017 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 141-147
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Abstract: Background: The most common radiological tests of the GI tract are barium meal and barium enema, which are performed using conventional fluoroscopy and digital fluoroscopy, all of which result in high radiation doses to patients. And it is carries some risks like the other X-ray procedures. The object of this research is to estimation of effective dose and a Cancer incidence risk associated with barium meal and barium enema in some hospitals in Erbil City-Kurdistan region/Iraq. Material & Material & Methods: The dosimetric survey was carried out on 120 patients. The procedures were performed by two equipments, the first was a Siemens unit which is a conventional fluoroscopy, and the second was Shimadzo which was a digital unit Beside BMI, patient exposures factors (mAs, kVp, exposure time, and air kerma) were measured. Organ doses, effective dose with per cent (%) of Risk of exposure-induced death (REID) were estimated by using PCXMC 2.0 software. Results: The mean±S.D for DAP values found in the present study are 25.20±2.41 Gy.cm2 and 12.80±0.68 Gy.cm2 for BaMC and BaMD, respectively, with significant differences p= 0.001 And, 32.13±0.25 Gy.cm2 and 25.0±2.68 Gy.cm2 for BaEC and BaED, respectively with significant differences p= 0.0001. the value of effective dose for BaMC and BaMD are (5.73±1.93,5.49±1.89)mSv and (2.72±1.22, 2.62±1.16)mSv, respectively. But for BaEC and BaED are (6.04±1.60, 7.07±1.86)mSv and (4.17±1.41, 4.90±1.63)mSv, respectively . The first and second values in the brackets correspond to the ICRP103 and ICRP60. The type of cancer received the high value of REID% for BaMC and BaMD is the Colon cancer (0.0128%, 0.069%) respectively, for male patients, but for female patients are Lung cancer (0.264%, 0.123%) respectively. Also, the high value of REID% for BaEC and BaED are the Colon cancer (0.283%, 0.174%) respectively, for male patients, but for female patients are the bladder cancer (0.275%, 0.183%) respectivelyConclusion: From this study concluded that digital systems give a lower dose-areaproduct than non-digital systems for both examinations BaM and BaE. Also, the DAP for BaE is higher than that recorded for BaM. The three organs that received higher dose in both examination and both system are the same (Stomach , Liver and Colon ) Also, concluded that The REID% values for female patients were slightly higher than the corresponding values for males for both examination groups, and the REID% are higher from conventional procedure than that record for digital system.

استخدام جهاز الفلوروسكوب بنوعيه الرفمي والتقليدي لقياس نسبة خطورة الاشعاع الذي يتعرض له المرضى الذين يعانون من امراض الجهاز الهضمي بجزئيه العلوي والسفلي. الفحص الاول هو التنظير الاشعاعي للمعده باستخدام الاشعه السينيه والتي تمكن الطبيب من تصوير القناة الهضميه العلويه المعده, المرئ, الامعاء الدقيقه بشكل واضح. اما الجزء الاسفل من الجهاز الهضمي (الامغاء الغليظه) فيتم فحصها بواسطة الحقنه الشرجيه للباريوم لتشخيص امراض القولون التي تؤدي الى انسداد الامعاء وتقرحاتها من خلال التصويرالشعاعي للفلوروسكوب والتي تكون على حساب جرعات زائده من الاشعاع وتحديد فيما كانت في حدود مقياس السلامه الحاليه وتقدير نسبة جرع الاشعاع لاعضاء الجهاز الهضمي لكلا الجنسين الذكور والاناث وتقدير نسبة الاشعاع في كل عضو والجرع المؤثره من الاشعاع والتي قد تسبب السرطان في المستقبل وذلك بواسطة برنامج خاص(PCXMC/Stuk) يحدد نسبة الاشعاع في كل عضو وحساب الجرع المؤثره من الاشعاع باد خال العمر ونوع الجنس ومدة التعرض للاشعاع حسب نوع الفحص لكل مريض.


Article
Risk Of Cancer And Radiation Dose Received By Patients From Common Diagnostic Radiological Examinations

Author: Ridha Jawad Al-Basri *
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-69
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Although radiological diagnostic studies (RDS) are an important and acceptable part of medical practice, it is not without hazards. It is associated with increased risk of cancer. Unfortunately the typical and safe dose of each radiological examination is not known. Most of our knowledge of cancer risk comes from studies of survivors of those exposed to whole body radiation from atomic bomb in Hiroshima & Nagasaki, jobs associated with radiation exposure, Chernobyl survivors & patients treated with radiation therapy for cancer and other diseases. Objectives To estimate radiation dose received by patients from diagnostic radiological examinations and lifetime attributable risk of cancer (LTARC).Type of the study: A prospective study. Methods A prospective study was conducted in Al-Kindi Teaching Hospital (KTH) during the period from 1st June to 31st august 2016. The study was performed on 910 adult patients. There were 595 males (65.38%) and 315 females (34.62%); mean age was 41.5 years (range 20-63).Different RDS were considered including chest-x ray (CXR), skull x-ray(SXR), x-ray of limbs and pelvis (LPXR) for orthopedic causes , computed tomography scan (CTS) and mammography (MG) .Results CXR was performed for 260 (28.57%) patients which delivers 0.12 mSv. SXR was done for 160 (17.58%) patients which delivers 0.3 mSv. LPXR was performed for 220 (24.175%) which delivers 0.3-0.6 mSv. MG exposes 150 (16.48%) to 3 mSv. While CTS ,which delivers 6.2-16 mSv according to anatomic area being scanned, was done for 120(13.19%) patients. Conclusion There is great abuse for using RDS from both patients and doctors, without realizing their danger and association with cancer development. It was proved that RDS expos patients to different kinds of tissues injury including cancer.


Article
Radon Concentrations Assessment and Effective Dose Estimation in The Buildings of University of Technology/ Baghdad
تقييم تراكيز الرادون والجرعة الفعالة في مباني الجامعة التكنولوجية- بغداد

Authors: Sahar A. Amin --- Saadi M. D. Al-Nuzal --- Muwafaq H. M. Lami and --- Shemaa K. Kataa
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 13 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 3216-3227
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The objective of the present work was to assess the distribution of radon in the University of Technology buildings, Baghdad - Iraq and to identify the effective dose of radon exposure to the staff using passive dosimeter (SSNTD) CR-39. One hundred CR-39 dosimeters were distributed over different buildings in the University campus according to the number of floors area. The exposure time started from December 2012, and the dosimeters were left inside buildings for 40 days. Only 93 dosimeters were collected, while the remaining 7 were considered lost. The average concentrations were calculated in units of Bqm-3, for each sample in each building, and then are repeated after grouping in each floor of the same building. The average radon concentrations per building and at the university as a whole were also calculated. Radon concentrations were found to vary from 80.1 to 416.7 Bqm-3. The highest radon concentration with a mean value of 416.7 Bqm-3 was found atuniversity press section building, while the lowest radon concentration was found at the welding division 2 building with a mean value of 80.1 Bqm-3. The average value of radon concentration at the university was found to have the value of 181.9 Bqm-3 which is less than the recommended value of 200 Bqm-3 UNSCEAR [18].Dose rate (in µSv/h), annual dose rate (in mSv/y & WLM/y), cumulative dose (in mSv& WLM) and cancer risk were also calculated. It was found that the university staffs are exposed annually to 2.083 mSv which equal to 0.231 Working Level Month (WLM) from radon gas and its short-lived daughters. Hence, a person takes on the average an annual effective dose equivalent to 2.56and 1.84mSv according to average value considered by UNSCEAR [18] and ICRP [19], respectively. This implies an expected value for lung cancer probability of 0.0046.

هدف البحث الى تقييم تركيز الرادون في مباني الجامعة التكنلوجية, بغداد – العراق وكذلك حساب الجرعة الفعالة التي يتعرض لها العاملون في الجامعة باستخدام مجراع كاشف الاثر النووي CR-39. تم توزيع 100 مجراع في مباني الجامعة وتُركتلمدة 90 يوم ابتداءاً من كانون الاول 2012. بينت النتائج ان تركيز غاز الرادون يتراوح بين اوطأ قيمة له80.13 بيكريل/م3 في مبنى شعبة اللحام الى اعلى قيمة له416.67 بيكريل/م3 في مبنى مطبعة الجامعة. كما وجد ان متوسطمستوى الرادون في الجامعة 181.86 بيكريل/م3 وهذه القيمة اقل من القيمة المسموح بها عالمياَ.كما تم في هذه الدراسة حساب معدل الجرعة ومعدل الجرعة السنوية والجرعة المتراكمة وكذلك نسبة خطر الاصابة بسرطان الرئة. وُجد ان العالمين في الجامعة يتعرضون سنوياً الى 2.083mSv من غاز الرادون ووليداتها وهي اقل من المعدلات المسموحة والمقترحة منUNSCEAR (1982) و . ICRP (1993)

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