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Article
Comparative demographic and clinicopathological study on the behavior of mammary carcinoma in three Iraqi governorates (Baghdad, Hilla and Karbala)

Authors: Farah L. R. Al-Rufaee --- Nada A. S. Al-Alwan
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 4 Pages: 419-423
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Iraq, there is a tendency for this disease to be diagnosed in younger ages, at advanced stages with a prevalence of more aggressive tumor behavior.Patients and Methods: The study included a total of 216 women with breast lumps and proven breast cancer who visited the Main Referral Training Center for Early Detection of Breast Tumors in the Medical City Teaching Hospital in Baghdad (85 patients) and the Specialized Clinics belonging to the major hospitals of Hilla (62 patients) and Karbala (69 patients) complaining of apparent breast lumps.
Results: 31% of patients was in the age category (40-49 years), 38.4% of patients whose highest education within the primary school level, 36.4% of patients had history of lactation, 52.3% of total had started menstruation at the age (10-12 years), 85% of patients had negative history of oral contraceptive pills consumption, Ki-67 tumor marker was demonstrated in 62.5% of total with highest frequency of expression was displayed in Baghdad and in relation with grade II.
Conclusion: Significant differences among the three Iraqi governorates were noted with respect to patient’s age, educational status, history of breast feeding, age at menarche and history of oral contraceptive pills consumption. Higher Ki-67 nuclear expressions were demonstrated among patients from Baghdad. There was a direct significant relationship between Ki-67 nuclear expression and the nuclear staining intensity with tumor grades.

Keywords

Breast Cancer


Article
Risk factors of breast cancer in pre-menopausal women with social perspective

Authors: Nuha H. Al-Assaf نهى حاجم --- Dhafer B. AL-Youzbaki ظافر بشير اليوزبكي --- Muzahim K. Al-Khyaat مزاحم قاسم الخياط
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2008 Volume: 34 Issue: 2 Pages: 100-108
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objective: To investigate general and socio-economic conditions in the development of breast cancer in pre-menopausal women.
Methods: Between1st March 2007 to 1st. October 2007, we conducted a case-control study, on 52 pre-menopausal women proved to have breast cancer and 80 pre-menopausal women proved to be without breast cancer were considered as controls. The questionnaire included, assessment of socio-economic factors, life events (stress, social discontinuities and geographical mobility), social context (economic factors, social disintegration, urbanization) and social class. In addition, previous history of surgical operation, parity, history of contraceptive pills usage, and chronic non-communicable diseases and previous X-Rays exposure, were also obtained. Moreover, body mass index and waist to hip ratio were obtained.
Results: Regarding Personal Characteristics; positive family history, sedentary life styles, unhealthy dietary behavior, personality type A, and active smoking, all were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of breast cancer. According to Life Events; stress, social discontinuities and geographical mobility, were also found to be related to the development of breast cancer. Regarding Social Context, both economic factor and social disintegration were found to be highly and significantly associated with breast cancer. According to Other Variables, the presence of one or more of chronic non-communicable diseases in addition to previous exposure to diagnostic X-Rays radiation, having a BMI > 25, having a WHR > 1, being in lower social classes and the previous use of oral contraceptive pills were all found to be among the significant risk factors in the development of breast cancer among pre-menopausal women.
Conclusion: Pre-menopausal women with positive family history, sedentary life, unhealthy dietary behavior, personality type A, social discontinuities, active smoking, stress, social discontinuities, geographical mobility, social disintegration, sudden change of economic status, chronic diseases, previous X-Rays exposure, obesity, previous history of oral contraceptive pills usage and being from lower social classes are at high risk of developing of breast cancer. This, indicates the very high responsibility of modern doctors to bear social factors on mind in evaluating such diseases and also in health education.

الهدف: التحري عن العوامل الاجتماعية والاقتصادية وغيرها ودورها في حدوث سرطان الثدي قبل سن اليأس.الطريقة: أجرينا مابين الأول من آذار والأول من تشرين الأول من عام 2007 دراسة لـ 52 حالة سرطان ثدي وثمانين امرأة بدونه كمجموعة سيطرة وكلهن من عمر الإنجاب. اجري استبيان شمل واقعهن الاجتماعي والاقتصادي وحوادث الحياة من توترات، انقطاعات اجتماعية، وتحرك جغرافي، واقع الحالة الاقتصادية، الانفراط العائلي، التحول المدني، والطبقة الاجتماعية. كما تحرينا عن تاريخ أية مداخلات جراحية، عدد الأطفال، تعاطي أقراص منع الحمل، الأمراض المزمنة غير المعدية والتعرض للفحوص الشعاعية. كما تحرينا قياس مؤشر كتلة الجسم ونسبة محيط الخصر إلى محيط الورك.النتائج: وجدنا علاقة ذات مغزى بن حدوث سرطان الثدي وكل من التاريخ العائلي الموجب، قلة الجهد البدني، والتغذية غير الصحيحة، الشخصية نمط أ والتدخين. وبالنسبة للحوادث الحياتية وجدنا التوتر، الانقطاعات الاجتماعية والتحرك الجغرافي لهم علاقة بحدوث سرطان الثدي أيضا. أما المشاكل الاقتصادية والانفراط العائلي فقد أظهرتا علاقة ذات مغزى عالي القيمة مع حدوث سرطان الثدي. كما أن وجود مرض أو أكثر من الأمراض المزمنة غير المعدية، وسابق تعرض للفحوص الشعاعية وزيادة الوزن (مؤشر كتلة الجسم أكثر من 25كغم/م2)، وارتفاع نسبة محيطي الخصر إلى الورك إلى الواحد أو أكثر، والطبقة الاجتماعية المتدنية وسابق تعاطي أقراص منع الحمل أظهرت كل منها علاقة ذات مغزى مع حدوث سرطان الثدي في الأعمار دون سن اليأس.الخاتمة: إن من واجبات الطبيب المهمة في يومنا هذا إن يستذكر العوامل الاجتماعية وغيرها في مجال التثقيف الصحي وبيان دورها في احتمال حدوث سرطان الثدي المبكر وتجاوز ما يمكن تجاوزه منها في الحياة اليومية.

Keywords

Breast --- cancer


Article
PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC CANCER OF UNKNOWN PRIMARY SITE: DIAGNOSTIC WORKUP AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT

Author: Majeed H Alwan
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2006 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 3-9
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC CANCER OF UNKNOWN PRIMARY SITE: DIAGNOSTIC WORKUP AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENTMajeed H AlwanFRCS, FACS, Gastrointestinal and General Surgeon, Wellington Hospital, Wellington, New ZealandAbstractMetastatic Cancer of Unknown Primary site (CUP) accounts for about 4% of all cancer patients and is therefore one of the 10 most frequent cancer diagnoses in man. It is defined as biopsy-confirmed malignancy for which the site of origin is not identified by routine workup. It is believed that CUP represents a heterogeneous group of malignancies that have a presumably, specific biology with clinical characteristics of rapid progression and random atypical metastases. The diagnostic work-up could be variable. Certain clinicopathological CUP entities are considered as favorable subsets responding to systemic platinum-based chemotherapy or managed by locoregional treatment. These subsets have a better prognosis than the average median survival time of four months in patients who belong to the non-favorable subsets.

Keywords

METASTATIC --- CANCER


Article
Study on the prevalence of breast cancer in the Province OfThiQar

Author: ZuhairKadhimFarhan
Journal: Journal of Education for Pure Science مجلة التربية للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 20736592 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 238-244
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

AbstractThe current study was conducted to find out the causes of the spread of breast cancer in the provinceof ThiQar, especially in the city of AL-Nasiriyah and its surroundings compared with theother citiesof the province of ThiQar. As it was based on data registered from April 2012 until May 2014 in theDepartment of Health of ThiQar..

الخلاصةاجریت الدراسة الحالیة لمعرفة اسباب انتشار مرض سرطان الثدي في محافظة ذي قار وبالأخص مدینة الناصریة ونواحیھا مقارنةمع مدن محافظة ذي قار الاخرى. اذ تم الاعتماد على البیانات المسجلة لدى دائرة صحة ذي قار ابتدأ من شھر نیسان ۲۰۱۲ ولغایة. شھر ایار ۲۰


Article
Serum Protein Levels and Albumin/Globulin Ratio in Patients with Uterus, Ovary, and Breast Tumors Compared to Healthy Women in Kirkuk City

Author: Israa Ghassan Zainal, Ebaa Ghassan Zainal
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2019 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 136-140
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Gynecological cancer is one of the most serious public health problems in the world with main gynecological cancers, uterus,breast, and ovarian, causing morbidity with severe suffering and a high mortality. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the levels of thetotal protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), and Alb/Glo ratio in the female patients with (uterus, ovary, and breast) cancer comparedto healthy females. Materials and Methods: This study included 120 females with (28 uteri, 31 ovaries, and 25 breasts) cancer patientsand 36 healthy control participants, with age ranges between (20 and 42) years. Results: Alb levels significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased in allpatient samples except those with uterus cancer who showed significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) compared to healthy participants, and Glo levelssignificantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased for uterus and breast cancer samples and nonsignificant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in patients with ovary cancercompared to healthy participants; finally, the ratio of Alb./Glo. showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in all patients group except patientswith breast cancer showed significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) compared to healthy participants. The results of correlation coefficient indicated thatthere were significant (P ≤ 0.05) positive correlations between TP and Glo for uterus and breast cancer patients and between TP and Alb forovary cancer patients. Conclusion: The ratio of Alb/Glo was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased in all patients group except patients with breastcancer who showed significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) compared to healthy participants which could be used in the diagnosis of these patients.


Article
The Effect of Crude Extracts of Sonchus oleraceus on Cancer Cell Growth (In vitro)
تأثيرا لمستخلصات الخام لنبات المرّير (Sonchus oleraceus) على نمو الخلايا السرطانية في الزجاج

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Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the anticancer, effects of the ethanolic (EE), cold aqueous (CAE), and hot aqueous (HAE) extracts of Sonchus oleraceus on cancer cell lines (in vitro). In vitro study was performed on three cancer cell lines (murine mammary adenocarcinoma AMN-3 cell line, laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cell line) and rat embryogenic fibroblast (REF) as normal cell line. Periods of exposure of cell lines were measured at 24, 48, and 72-hr in a microtitration plate under complete sterile conditions. Different concentrations starting from (78.125 to 10000) µg/ml of two fold dilution for each extract were prepared and tested on each cell line, with three replicates for each concentration. The three extracts showed concentration and time dependence with growth inhibitory effects, and the highest effect was obtained from ethanolic extract at higher concentrations after 48 hr. of exposures on both AMN3 and Hep-2 cell lines, while the cytotoxic effect of both cold aqueous and hot aqueous extracts on AMN-3 and Hep-2 cell lines exhibited that the higher concentrations gave a significantly (P<0.05) and the higher inhibition growth rate of cells were increased at 24 hrs.Conclusion: These results suggest that the cytotoxic concentrations of Sonchus oleraceus extracts showed variation in values among cell lines according to cell types in vitro.


Article
Pattern of Cancer mortality in Thi Qar governorate

Authors: Hazim T. Zuaiter د. حازم الزعيتر --- Omran S. Habib د. عمران سكر حبيب
Journal: Thi-Qar Medical Journal مجلة ذي قار الطبية ISSN: 19929218 Year: 2007 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-32
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Abstract:This paper reports the results of a study carried out in Thi Qar governorate during 2007. It aims at quantifying the burden of cancer in terms of number of deaths distribution and specific rates. The data were obtained from all death registration offices in the governorate and covered age, sex, type of cancer, residence and year at which death took place. Six years were covered; 1985, 1986, 1995, 1996, 2005 and 2006.These years were chosen on the basis of feasibility and to allow presentation of any time trends in cancer mortality. The results showed that cancer represent a significant cause of death in Thi Qar governorate. It accounts for 7.3% of all deaths in the studied years with clear increase in both cancer specific mortality rate and cancer proportional mortality ratio with time. Also, cancer deaths were more frequent among males than among females. The geographical distribution shows no major variation except some excess in Nassiriyah city. Five cancers (urinary bladder, lung, Leukaemias, breast and lymphomas) accounted for more than half the deaths recorded in Thi Qar. It is highly recommended that cancer registration is enhanced in Thi Qar and more attention is given to the quality of death registration.

يعرض البحث الحالي نتائج بحث اجري في محافظة ذي قار خلال عام 2007 ويهدف إلى قياس العبء السرطاني بمعايير الوفيات الناشئة عنه.تم الحصول على المعلومات من جميع مكاتب تسجيل الوفيات في المحافظة وأطرافها وغطت المعلومات ست سنوات: 1985، 1986، 1995، 1996، 2005، 2006 وقد اختيرت السنوات لغرض السماح برسم صورة لمدى ونمط الوفيات السرطانية زمانيا ومكانيا.أظهرت النتائج إن وفيات السرطان تمثل جزء مهما من مجموع الوفيات في المحافظة إذ شكلت حوالي 7.3% من مجموع الوفيات المسجلة أو30،7% لكل 100000 نسمة مع ميل إلى زيادة أهميتها مع مرور الزمن.كذلك كانت الوفيات أعلى بين الذكور مما هي بين الإناث وأعلى في مدينة الناصرية ومحيطها مما هي في بقية أقضية المحافظة وكانت خمسة أنواع من السرطان ( المثانة، الرئة، ابيضاض الدم، الثدي، والغدد اللمفاوية ) قد سببت أكثر من نصف وفيات السرطان.ويوصي الباحثان بضرورة إنشاء تسجيل سرطاني والاهتمام بالبحث العلمي الفرقي في مجال السرطان.


Article
Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in A Hundred Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Sorror Mahdi Latif --- Sorror Mahdi Latif --- Kholod Dhaher Habib
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 375-379
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Breastfeeding has been found to provide a measure of protection against uterine, cervical and ovarian cancers as well as breast cancer. . It's long been known that breast cancer is common in situations where women have few children and breast feed for short periods. Various physiopatholoical mechanisms are involved in the protective effect of breast feeding; anovulation , and cellular differentiation of the mammary cells.OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of breast feeding on breast cancer incidence.METHODS:One hundred married Women with breast cancer were evaluated to find out the impact of breast feeding on breast cancer incidence in these women .Data on risk factors were collected by self-administered questionnaires .The questionnaire included data like woman's age of having breast cancer ,woman's age at menopause , woman's age of first full term pregnancy , number of pregnancies ,lactation period , the age at menarche ,woman's social habit like smoking , type of contraception ,and family history of breast cancer ,the data were collected and analyzed .RESULTS:We studied 100 married women with breast cancer .Their age groups were distributed between 22years and 55 years when they had been discovered to have breast cancer, most of women were house wives (81%).Only three of them were smokers. Seventy nine women had menarche between age of 13-15 years, and only 4 of them had menarche at 16-17 years. Thirteen women had one full term pregnancy, other 48 women had 2- 4 full term pregnancies and only 38women had more than 5full term babies. According to lactation periods we found that 21 women had never lactating their babies, 49 women lactated their children for 7-12 months and only 18 women lactated their children for 19-24 months. Regarding the age of women at first full term baby birth, there were 4 women had their first full term baby at age of 14-17 years ,58 women at age of 18-22 years , 37 women at age of 23-33 years and only one woman at age of 35year.CONCLUSION:There was significant increasing risk of breast cancer with reducing periods of lactation (p value <0.001), with decreasing age at menarche (p value<0.001), early age of marriage (p value <0.001), and early age of having first full term baby (p value<0.001) .We can conclude that lactation for more than 24 months can provides important benefits for the women's health, such as reduced risk of breast cancer. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in breast cancer risk between subjects who had ever smoked and those who had not. There was a statistically insignificant relationship between a positive Family history of breast cancer, and increasing risk of breast cancer, (p value >0.05).


Article
The Pattern Of Primary Malignant Bone Tumors In Nassyriha

Author: Dr-Kareem Al zirkani
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2010 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 76-90
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Abstract Background .Bone is the supporting framework of the body. Most bones are hollow. The outer part of bones consists of a network of fibrous tissue called matrix .The soft tissue inside hollow bones is called bone marrow. The bone itself contains 2 kinds of cells. The osteoblast and the osteoclast.Although bone often looks like it doesn't change much, the truth is that it is very active, new bone is always forming while old bone is dissolving. The primary malignant bone tumors are tumors that start in the bone itself; these tumors that are true bone cancer are called sarcoma. There are several types of bone cancer .Their names are based on the area of bone that is affected and the kind of cells forming the tumor.Objective. To present the pattern of malignant bone tumors in Nassyriha province (south of Iraq), geographical distribution of these tumors, and compares with other series.Material and methods .Between October 2002 and 0ctober 2007, 101 patients with malignant bone tumors were collected .Clinical data concerning the age ,sex, the clinical presentations ,radiological features as well as gross appearance of affected bone were evaluated. Routine biochemical, haematological, and plain radiography was done for all patients. Bone scan, CAT scan ,and MRI were only performed some times.Results. The study included 67 males and 34 females with males to females ratio 1.97:1. The patients age ranged between 5 and 70 years .The second decade was the most common age group of occurrence accounted for 65 patients. Out of the total 101 patients, osteosarcoma constituted the most frequent cancer, accounted 35 (34.65%) followed by Ewing's sarcoma 24 (23.76%), chondrosarcoma 14 (13.86%), multiple myeloma 12 (11.88%), malignant giant cell tumors 9 (8.91%), fibrosarcoma 3(2.97%) ,and one case (0.99%) was chordoma .No clear-cut diagnosis was recorded in 3 (2.97%) cases.Conclusion. The results of the study suggest a rising incidence of primary malignant bone tumors. The peak incidence was in the second decade of life, and the male was more affected than female.

تمهيد :تشكل العظام الجهاز الداعم في جسم الإنسان.إن معظم العظام تكون جوفاء يتكون الجزء الخارجي منها من شبكة من الانسجه الليفية تسمى نسيج مابين الخلايا بينما تسمى الانسجه الرخوة داخل التجاويف نخاع العظم و تحتوي العظام على نوعين من الخلايا يعملان بشكل متوازن تقوم احداهما بعملية البناء بينما تقوم الأخرى بعمليه الهدم والتقويم بحيث يبدو العظم وكأنه لا يتغير ولكن الحقيقة ان العظم في عملية تغير مستمر فعلى الدوام هناك تكوين لعظم جديد بينما يختفي العظم القديم نتيجة لعمل هذه الخلايا. ان العظام قد تصاب بالأورام السرطانية شأنها في ذلك شأن بقية أجزاء الجسم ، وتسمى الأورام السرطانية التي تنشأ في نفس العظم بسرطان العظم الأولي ، إما الأورام السرطانية التي تنتقل إلى العظام من أنسجة أخرى في الجسم فتسمى بسرطان العظم الثانوي أو المنتشر .هناك انواع عديدة ومختلفة من سرطان العظم الأولي وتسمى هذه الأنواع تبعا للمنطقة التي تنشأ فيها من العظم أو نوع الخلايا التي ينشا منها الورم السرطاني .ان الدراسة الحالية معنية بسرطان العظم الأولي ونأمل في المستقبل القريب إن يوفقنا الله في دراسة سرطان العظم الثانوي او المنتشر . الاهداف :لمعرفة مدى انتشار أورام العظم السرطانية الأولية في محافظتنا( الناصرية ) ورسم الخارطة الجغرافية لهذه الحالات ومقارنتها مع دراسات أخرى . الطرق خلال الفترة مابين تشرين الأول 2002 وتشرين الاول 2007 تمت دراسة (101) حالة لأورام العظم السرطانية الاولية ..... تم تصنيف الأورام حسب العمر ، الجنس ، ونسبة الإصابة بهذا الأورام وكذلك المنطقة الجغرافية . النتائج:تضمنت الدراسة (67) حالة للذكور ، و (34 ) حالة للإناث وكانت نسبة الذكور للإناث (1.97:1) تراوحت أعمار المرضى بين (70ـ 5) سنة وكان العقد الثاني من العمر هو الأكثر إصابة بهذه الأورام ومن مجموع (101) حالة ، كان عدد المرضى المصابين بـــ ( ورم عظمي لحمي "غرن عظمي") (35مريض ) بينما كان عدد المرضى المصابين بـ ( سرطان او ونك) (24 مريض ) والسرطان الغضروفي (14 مريض) وداء الأورام النقية المتعددة (12) والنخاعية الخبيثة (9) والسرطان الليفي (3 مريض ) والسرطان الحبلي ( مريض واحد ) في حين لم يثبت التشخيص بشكل قطعي في ثلاث حالات من المرضى. الاستناجات :تبين الدراسة زيادة نسبة الاصابة باورام العظم السرطانية الاولية في السنوات الاخيرة في المحافظة (الناصرية) وخاصة الجزء الغربي من المحافظة كما تبين الدراسة ان الرجل اكثر اصابة من المراة . والعقد الثاني من العمرهو الاكثر اصابة بهذه الاورام. ان دراسة هذه الحالات بشكل شامل وتفصيلي لا يزال يواجه بعض المعوقات التي نامل ونعمل على تجاوزها من اجل تقليل الاصابة بهذه الاورام او محاولة اكتشافها مبكرا ليتسنى لنا اجتثاثها ومعالجتها.


Article
Relationship between estrogen hormone as risk factor and development of breast and endometrial cancer

Author: Liqaa Y.Abed.Alrahman لقاء عبدالرحمن
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit مجلة تكريت الطبية ISSN: 16831813 Year: 2015 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-47
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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