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Article
The skeletal features of Iraqi adult nasal obstruction sample (A posteroanterior cephalometric comparative study)

Authors: Saief A. Mustafa سيف مصطفى --- Ausama A. Al-Mulla اسامة احمد الملا
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 127-132
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic respiratory obstruction can be produced by prolonged inflammation of the nasal mucosaassociated with allergies or chronic infection. It can also be produced by mechanical obstruction any where withinthe nasorespiratory system from the nares to the posterior nasal change. There may be a relation between theskeletal features of the facial skeleton and the respiratory pattern and this relation should be studied carefully. Thisstudy aimed to study and compare the relation between the nasal obstruction and the skeletal features of the facialskeleton in adults between the sample and control groups and to find the Pearson correlation coefficient betweenthe variables related to the nasomaxillary complex for the sample and control groups.Materials and methods: The sample is composed of 50 Iraqi Arab adult patients out of 167 with age range from 18-35years, having nasal obstruction had been examined in Tikrit general hospital and identified by the E.N.T. specialist.The control group will be 50 subjects out of 150 in the same age group and also had been examined and identifiedby the E.N.T specialist in Tikrit general hospital as having no nasal obstruction. Twelve linear measurements and a ratiowere determined on each radiograph. For each variable, the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, and thestandard error were calculated. For statistical evaluation, an independent-samples t-test was performed. ThePearson correlation coefficient was calculated to indicate the relationship between nasal and maxillary variables.Results: There was no significant difference between the sample and control groups for the skeletal features of thefacial skeleton except the ramal height of the right and left sides and there was weak correlation between the nasaland maxillary variables for the sample and control groups.Conclusion: There is no effect of the nasal obstruction on the skeletal features of the facial skeleton in Iraqi adultsample.


Article
Cephalometric evaluation of a sample of Iraqi adults with normal occlusion using tetragon analysis

Author: Ammar Sh. Ahmed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 163-166
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to determine the cephalometric values of tetragon analysis on a sample of Iraqi adultswith normal occlusion.Material and methods: Forty digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs belong to 20 males and 20 femaleshaving normal dental relation were analyzed using AutoCAD program 2009. Descriptive statistics and samplecomparison with Fastlicht norms were obtained.Results: The results showed that maxillary and mandibular incisors were more proclined and the maxillary/mandibularplanes angle was lower in Iraqi sample than Caucasian sample.Conclusion: It's recommended to use result from this study when using tetragon analysis for Iraqis to get moreaccurate result.

الخلفیة:تھدف ھذه الدراسة إلى تحدید معاییر قیاسات الرأس لعینة من العراقیین البالغین باستخدام تحلیل مربع الإضلاعالمواد والأسالیب: تم تحلیل قیاسات الرأس الإشعاعیة الجانبیة لأربعین شخص عراقي( 20 ذكور و 20 إناث) جمیعھم یتمتعون بإطباق سني طبیعي باستخدام برنامج الأوتوكاد للرسم. الھندسي إصدار 2009النتائج: أظھرت ھذه الدراسة أن القواطع العلویة والسفلیة في العینة العراقیة مائلة للإمام أكثر والزاویة بین الفك العلوي والسفلي اصغر في العینة العراقیة من العینة القوقازیة.الاستنتاجات: من المستحسن استخدام نتیجة ھذه الدراسة عند استخدام تحلیل التیتراكون للعراقیین للحصول على نتائج أكثر دقة.الكلمات الرئیسیة: قیاسات الرأس، تحلیل مربع الأضلاع


Article
Assessment of tongue space area in a sample of Iraqi adults with class I dental and skeletal pattern

Author: Mohammed A. Kadhum
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 117-120
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Lateral cephalometric radiography is commonly used as a standard tool in orthodontic assessment andtreatment planning. This study aimed to determine the tongue and surrounding space area in a sample of Iraqiadults with class I dental and skeletal pattern.Materials and methods: The study included thirty healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females) with an age rangedbetween 23-34 years and class I dental and skeletal pattern with no history of any sleep related disorders. Theassessed cephalometric measurement included length and height of the tongue and position of hyoid bone fromcervical line. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the data. Genders difference was evaluated by independentsample t-test.Results: There were significantly higher values in males as compared to females in most of the measurements.Conclusions: The study provides preliminary details of tongue space area assessment in normal class I profile subjects


Article
Cephalometric analysis of craniofacial deformity of β- thalassemic major by using computed tomography

Authors: Alia T. Thajeel --- Jamal Ali Al-Taei جمال علي الطائي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 39-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Thalassemia is a hereditary anemia resulting from defects in hemoglobin production. β- thalassemiacaused by decrease in the production of β- globin chains affect multiple organs and is associated with cranio-orofacialdeformity which include prominent cheek bones and protrusive premaxilla with depression of the nasal bridgeoften referred to as “rodent or chip-munk face” with small mandible and Cl.II skeletal relationship. This study aimed toinvestigate cephalometric craniofacial parameters (skeletal) of β- thalassemic major patients by using computedtomography and to compare findings with a group of healthy patients in the same age group.Subject, Materials and Method: The study included (40) patients with β- thalassemic major (20 female and 20 male)with age 8-15years compared with (40) healthy controls (20 female and 20 male) with the same age, who admittedto spiral computed tomography scan unit in X-ray institute in AL-KARKH general hospital to have computedtomography scan for the brain, paranasal and for orthodontic purpose from October 2011 to June 2012.Cephalometric analysis of the selected four skeletal linear measurements and four skeletal angular measurements,by using direct analysis with software programs in a computer which is part of the computed tomography machine.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between thalassemic males and females in all selectedskeletal linear and angular measurements, Thalassemic patients have a highly significant large ANB angle and cl IIskeletal relationship, significant larger gonial angle, Mandibular base length (Me-Go) is significantly shorter,Retrognathic mandible (SNB) is significantly decreased, highly significant shorter in total anterior facial height (N-Me)and total posterior facial height (S-Go), and also the Ramus height is highly significant decreased.Conclusion: In thalassemic patients, the skeletal morphology is recognizable and mandible is retrognathism and theyhave skeletal cl. II pattern and Computed tomography is useful tool for assessment of the cranio facialmeasurement.


Article
Assessment of Anterior Alveolar Bone Dimensions in Adolescents and Adults with Class I Normal Occlusion

Author: Manar Y Abdul–Qadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 161-172
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To investigate alveolar bone dimensions in the anterior segment of maxilla and mandible in 2 age group samples; adolescents and adults. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric radiographs of 60 adolescent (30 males and 30 females) and 60 adult subjects (30 males and 30 females) with Class I normal occlusion were included in this study. The anterior alveolar segment was assessed using several parameters that measure the thickness (labial and lingual) and height of alveolar bone surrounding upper and lower incisors. Upper and lower incisor inclination and palatomandibular plane (PMP) angle were also measured. Independent samples t– test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: Sexual dimorphism was noticed in labial and palatal alveolar bone thickness of maxilla for both adolescent and adult subjects. Adult males also demonstrated significantly higher values for lower alveolar height and symphysis width than females. The comparison between 2 age groups revealed no significant difference for most variables and the most evident finding was the significantly higher values reported for upper and lower alveolar heights and symphysis width in adult males compared to adolescent males. The results of correlation analysis showed that upper incisor inclination has positive correlation with upper labial alveolar width and negative correlation with palatal alveolar width indicating that thinner palatal bone thickness is associated with more proclined upper incisors. Labial alveolar bone thickness at apical level of maxilla and mandible showed negative correlation with upper and lower alveolar heights in both age groups and with PMP angle in adults only. While, symphysis width showed positive correlation with the width of lingual alveolar bone and with alveolar heights. Conclusions: No significant differences were found between the 2 age groups, however in both adolescents and adults anterior alveolar dimensions showed sexual dimorphism and correlations with other cephalometric parameters.


Article
Cephalometric features of skeletal Class I, II and III (A comparative study)

Authors: Khawla M Awni --- Ne’am R Al – Saleem --- Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 122-130
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To identify the cephalometric features of three skeletal jaw relations (Class I, II and III).Materials and methods: one hundred thirty four students were selected aged 12–15 years fromsecondary schools in Mosul City, 45 with Class I normal occlusion as control, 44 with Class IImalocclusion and 45 with Class III malocclusion, after taking the lateral cephalometric radiographsaccording to ANB angle. A 20 variables (12 angular and 8 linear) were used in this study to correlatethese variables in the three skeletal Classes. Results: No significant sex differences were observed forthe majority of angular and linear measurements for the three skeletal types. Anterior cranial baselength (S–N) and saddle angle (NSAr) didn’t show significant difference among the three skeletalClasses, the posterior cranial base (S–Ar) was shorter in Class III which indicate the anteriorarticulation of the mandible. The length of maxillary base (ANS–PNS) was longer in Class II thanClass I and III which lead to maxillary prognathism. The body length of the mandible (Go–Pog),effective mandibular length (Ar–Gn) and lower anterior face height was significantly longer inClass III which lead to mandibular prognathism. The SNA angle was significantly smaller in Class IIIthan in the others. SNB and SNPog angles were larger in Class III followed by Class I and then ClassII. The gonial angle (Ar–Go– Me) was larger in Class III which acts to increase mandibular effectivelength. The (N–A–Pog) showed as convex in Class II and concave in Class III. (The U1–PP) angle waslarger in Class II followed by Class I and then by Class III. The (L1–MP) angle in Class II and III wassignificantly smaller than in Class I. Conclusion: Most of the angular and linear measurementsindicated that the skeletal differences between the Class I, Class II and Class III are concentrated within the maxillary and mandibular bases in both the anteroposterior and vertical dimensions and theirtype of articulation. The dental measurements appear to be compensated with that of skeletal one. Alsothese variables showed no significant sex differences in the majority of their measurements

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