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Article
Validity & reliability of cephalometric measurements in traditional versus digitized cephalometry

Authors: Ass.prof. Nagham Al-Sahaf B.D.S, M.Sc. د. نغم الصحاف --- Ass. Prof. Asmaa Tahseen Uthman B.D.S, M.Sc .* د.اسماء تيسير
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2006 Volume: 3 Issue: 3 Pages: 233-238
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim: Film digitization is generally used to prevent potential damage or loss oforiginal films. The method of film processing has been changing from wet to dryprocessing due to recent trends toward digitization of medical imaging.Materials & Methods: 50 Lateral cephalometric radiograms were used in this study.All radiographs were viewed under standardized conditions& traced. Elevenlandmarks were selected to calculate 12 variables (9 angles&3 linearmeasurements).These traced radiographs were photographed when digitized using scan jet scanner &the same variables were measured using Dimaxis pro classic imaging software.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between traditional&digitized Linear & angular measurements except for upper incisor-Frankfortplane angle & upper incisor-lower incisor angle.Conclusion: Angular & linear measurements in digital images were comparable withthat of original radiograph & are clinically acceptable. This will substantiate thebenefits of digitized cephalometry in term of reliability of cephalometric analysis.


Article
A Cephalometric Comparison of Pharynx and Soft Palate in Iraqi Adolescents and Adults Population

Author: Nada M Al-Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 19 Pages: 32-42
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: This paper aims to estimate and compare the pharynx and soft palatal dimensions of Iraqi ado-lescent and adults with class I normal occlusion at Mosul City and to identify any gender dimorphism within each group. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 160 normal Iraqis what were separated into two groups (80 adolescents and 80 adults). Each group was additionallydi-vided into two subgroups according to gender (40 of each gender). Twelve linear measurements were made in all subjects; gender dimorphism and comparison between two age groups were analysed by students t test.Results:No gender differences in all variables except in retropalatal airway space (U-MPW) in the adolescents group. While, in the adults the only significant gender differences were found in the thickness of posterior nasopharyngeal wall (ad1-Ba)and in the vertical airway space (Pm-Eb).The adults had significantly larger values for superior nasopharyngeal(pm-ad2) and inferior naso-pharyngeal depth (pm-ad1) than adolescents .While ,adolescents had larger value for superior nasopha-ryngeal thickness (ad2-s) and posterior nasopharyngeal thickness(ad1-Ba) than adults in both genders .The adult male had a higher value for (Pm-Eb) than adolescent male .While ,adolescent female had a higher value for soft palate thickness (SPT) than adult female. Conclusions: Data derived from this study should be a useful reference for assessment of sleep apnea and other conditions in the Iraqi popu-lation.Developmental changes were found in all nasopharyngeal parameters except the Pm-ba(sagittal depth of the bony nasopharynx).


Article
Comparison of Lateral Cephalometric Analysis among the Conventional, Digital and Hardcopy Cephalographs

Author: Khudair A Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 19 Pages: 80-88
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the reliability of landmarks identification and their effect on the accuracy of the linear and angular measurements among the conventional, hardcopy and direct digital cephalographs. Materials and Methods: The conventional cephalometric radiographs and their digital, hardcopies counterparts are taken for110 males and females between 1825 years of age for students of dental col-lege of Mosul University and from the patients who are attending College of Dentistry Teaching Hos-pital. Seventeen cephalometeric landmarks are selected on original radiographs and their digital, hard-copies cephalographes to evaluate the accuracy of 5 angular and linear measurements derived from the landmarks identified in conventional, hardcopy and direct digital cephalographs and to determine which is the most accurate method to be used in the cephalometric analyses nowadays. Results: The SNA, SNB, ANB showed no significant differences among the three analyses techniques. Total ante-rior facial height skeletal dimension showed more accurate measurements within digital techniques rather than within conventional and hardcopy techniques. Inter-incial angle showed no significant dif-ference in its measurements between conventional and digital methods; although it showed more accu-racy in its measurements within digital method rather than in conventional and hardcopy techniques. Conclusions: This study has shown that most of cephalometric landmarks have been identified with more precision and reliability within the digital techniques rather than with conventional and hardcopy techniques. However, there was significant difference in some measurements both linear and skeletal, but it can be considered clinically accepted.


Article
Assessment of sagittal lip position and some affecting factors in a sample of Iraqi adults

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Abstract

This study aimed to determine the sagittal lip position and some of the factorsaffecting it regarding the gender differences, and their correlations in a sample of Iraqiadults.Sixty two participants (37 females and 25 males) collected among dental studentshaving Cl I skeletal and occlusal relations and full permanent dentition regardless thethird molars were chosen for this study. Each person was subjected to clinicalexamination and digital true lateral cephalometric radiograph. The radiographs wereanalyzed by using AutoCAD 2007 computer program to measure the sagittal lipposition using the soft tissue analyses of Steiner, Burstone, Ricketts, Sushner,Holdaway, and Merrifield. Descriptive statistics were obtained from themeasurements of both genders; independent samples t-test was performed to evaluatethe gender differences and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to find thecontributing factors to the sagittal lip position.Sagittal jaw angles were significantly higher in males than females, while verticaljaw angle was higher in females. Lower incisors showed slight proclination in bothgenders. The mean values of H-angle and revised H-angle in males were nonsignificantlyhigher than that of females, while the mean value of Z-angle was nonsignificantlyhigher in females. Upper and lower lips thickness mean values weresignificantly higher in males. Females had non-significantly more projected nosecompared to males. Regarding the sagittal lip position, upper and lower lipmeasurements were non-significantly higher in males than females in Ricketts,Steiner, Burstone, and Holdaway analyses, but it was significant in Sushner analysis,while Z-angle of Merrilfield was non-significantly higher in female sample. Pearson’scorrelation coefficient test revealed that upper and lower lip thickness wassignificantly positively correlated with sagittal lip position, while nose projection wassignificantly negatively correlated.Sagittal position values of the upper and lower lips in a sample of Iraqi adults areclose to the norms of Ricketts, Steiner, Sushner, Burstone, and Holdaway analyseswith a slight tendency of upper lip toward retrusion and lower lip toward protrusionwith the exception of that when compared with Sushner norms. In addition to the chinposition, lips thickness and nose projection are the most important factors thatinfluence the sagittal lip position and compensate for the variations in the jaw basesbetween genders.


Article
The Effect of Digital Image Size on the Ac-curacy of Linear Cephalometric Measure-ments

Authors: Khudair A Al-Jumaili --- Ruba J Mohammad
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 24 Pages: 82-89
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study compared the accuracy of linear cephalometric measurements between the com-pressed and non-compressed digital cephalometric images. Materials and Methods: The adult sample consisted of (60) Iraqi subjects (30 females and 30 males) with age ranged 18 – 25 years old, the sam-ples satisfied the criteria of this study. Eight linear cephalometric measurements were recorded from lateral digital cephalometric radiographs, the ACDsee photo manger software used to compress and resaved the original images in 80% and 60% from their original size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and ANOVA & Duncan test. Results: No significant differences were found be-tween the accuracy of the compressed and non-compressed digital cephalometric measurements. Con-clusions: The results of this study indicated that image compression up to 60% of their original size will not effect on the accuracy of routine cephalometric analysis and reduce the size of image storage and facilitates the easier and faster image transmission.

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