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Article
Assessment of Neck Circumference Measurement among Type 2 Diabetic

Author: *Hayder Sabah Hasan ,M.B.CH.B., M.Sc.
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 41-45
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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health problem in both developed and developing countries. Traditional obesity indices as body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio are well known measures to identify obese subjects, however, neck circumference as an index of upper-body obesity was found to be a simple and time-saving screening measure that can be used to identify obesity and the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients.Aim: to investigate the relationship of neck circumference (NC) to obesity and metabolic syndrome in Iraqi subjects with type 2 diabetes.Methods: The study group included 90 type 2 diabetic subjects (48 men and 42 women) aged 30-68 years. The subjects were those who attending The Specialized Center for Endocrinology and Diabetes/Baghdad. Main indicators studied included Neck Circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipoprotein levels.Results: Pearson's correlation coefficients indicated a significant association between NC and body circumference, and waist-hip-ren and from 0.014 to less than 0.0001 in women). Also NC is positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglycerides (TGA), fasting blood glucose level (p value from 0.092 to less than 0.0001). Cross tabulation between NC and BMI indicated that NC identified obese persons with 100% sensitivity in men and 90% in women, also a cross tabulation between NC and metabolic syndrome indicated that NC can identify metabolic syndrome with 100% sensitivity in both men and women. Metabolic syndrome was identified according to a modified criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII).mass index, waist atio (p <0.0001 in mConclusion: Neck circumference is positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio, and positively correlated with components of metabolic syndrome in Iraqi individuals with type 2 diabetes. Accordingly, the measurement of neck circumference could be useful in clinical screening for obese persons and for persons who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome.Keywords: neck circumference, obesity, metabolic syndrome.


Article
Subclinical Hypothyrodism and Central Adiposity

Author: Ikhlas Khalid Hammed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 423-429
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The pandemic of central obesity has driven new interest in the relationship between thyroid hormone and body weight distribution since it is well known that thyroid hormones play a key role in regulating energy homeostasis and that subtle elevation in TSH as in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH)is associated with deficiency in resting energy expenditure and increased body weight. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess possible associations of subclinical hypothyroidism with central obesity in apparently healthy women. METHODS: 133 apparently healthy, clinically euthyrotic women were included in this study; 91of them were centrally obese and 42 were centrally non obese, Thyroid function tests and waist circumference measurement were done in all participants. RESULTS: 13.5 %( n=18) of the studied population had subclinical hypothyroidism.In the centrally obese group the frequency was 17.5 %( n=16), while in the non obese it was 4.7% (n=2), the highest frequency was found in the 40-49 years old women (38.8%). Positive significant correlation was found between waist circumference and age, negative significant correlation was found between age and T3. CONCLUSION: The frequency of SCH is more in centrally obese women. Assessment of thyroid function must be regarded as part of the screening program in obese.


Article
A prospective study on the effect of waist circumference on symptom severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease
دراسة مستقبلية حول تأثير محيط الخصر على شدة أعراض مرض ارتداد المعدي المريئي

Authors: Nuri Baderkhan Saeed Ahmed --- Muhammed Mustafa Kamal --- Sabah Jalal Shareef
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 3 Pages: 1531-1535
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Background and objective: Gastro esophageal reflux disease is one of the commonest gastrointestinal diseases and its incidence is increasing. There is a real challenge in diagnosis and treatment because of its complication if untreated and its effect on patient daily performance. We tried to find the relation between this disease severity symptom known by the number of heartburn attacks per week and (waist circumference).Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 patients (55% female and 45% male) diagnosed with gastro esophageal reflux disease in Rizgary Teaching Hospital Erbil city from January 2014 to June 2014. Their ages ranged from 17 to 75 years. The criteria for patient selection depended on history and clinical examination and endoscopy, waist circumference measured with a tape measure in centimeter.Results: The mean age ± SD of participants, was 37.13 ± 12.5 ranged from 17-75 years. Regarding the relation between frequency of heartburn attacks and waist circumflex, the study revealed that the number of heartburn attacks was significantly increasing with increasing waist circumflex, (P <0.001), indicating that there is a strong relation between the increase in waist circumflex and severity of gastro esophageal reflux disease symptoms. Conclusion: Increasing of body weight especially waist circumference increases acid exposure to the esophagus. This affects on gastro esophageal reflux disease symptoms severity and its complication. That is why decreasing body weight should be the first line of treatment which will decrease future complication.


Article
The relationship between the maxillary dental arch width, depth and circumference

Author: Khidair A SALMAN
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: 401-410
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study was carried out on a random sample of (50) upper stone dental caste for intermediate school student (25 males and 25 females) aged (12-15) years from different areas of Mosul city.The correlation between the dental arch width, depth and circumference was calculated. It was found that male maxillary dental arch is greater in all dimensions than the female one. There was a weak correlation between the dental arch widths and the corresponding palatal vault depths. The correlation was moderate between the maxillary arch circumference and widths except at intercanine distance width, which it showed a high correlation and it was a weak between the arch circumference and the palatal vault depths.


Article
Waist circumference: a better predictor forlung ventilation than body mass index

Authors: Hazim M. Al-Habib حازم محمد الحبيب --- Rajaa A. Yonis رجاء --- Amjad F. Ahmad امجد فوزي احمد
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2010 Volume: 36 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 12-17
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between waist circumference, as a measure of central fat distribution, and lung ventilation function in both sexes among different weight categories in comparison with body mass index (BMI).
Subjects and Methods: One hundred healthy adults from both sexes were volunteered in this observational-cross-sectional study (53 males aged 19-69 years and 47 females aged 19-51 years). Subjects were recruited from Mosul Medical College students, teaching as well as administration staff. After collecting personal and health information necessary for the study, all subjects underwent anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference) before spirometry test using computerized spirometer. The study was conducted in the Department of Medical Physiology-Mosul Medical College.
Results: All spirometric data were within 80-120% of the normal predicted values, thus excluding the possibility of any asymptomatic airway disease. A consistent negative correlation between, both waist circumference and BMI, with FVC and FEV1 were clearly observed in both sexes. Unlike BMI, waist circumference revealed stronger and significant negative correlation with lung function especially in male subjects. The significant negative correlation between waist circumference and FVC and FEV1 was more evident in overweight and obese subjects.
Conclusion: Waist circumference, as a measure of body fat distribution, seems more reliable predictor of poor lung function, secondary to overweight and obesity, than BMI. This might be attributed to the fact that BMI relies only on body weight and height without consideration to the distribution of body fat, muscle and bone mass which might possess a more significant role.

Keywords: Waist circumference, body fat distribution, lung function tests.



الخلاصة
هدف البحث: لتقييم العلاقة بين محيط الخصر، كمقياس لتوزيع الدهون في الجسم، ووظائف الرئة في كلا الجنسين ولمختلف الفئات الوزنية و ذلك بالمقارنة مع مقياس كتلة الجسم.
طريقة البحث: شمل البحث مئة متطوع من الأصحاء البالغين من طلبة كلية طب الموصل ومنتسبيها من كلا الجنسين.
بعد أخذ كافة المعلومات الشخصية والطبية المتعلقة بالبحث، تم قياس الطول والوزن وكذلك محيط الخصر لجميع عينة البحث وذلك قبيل إجراء فحص وظائف الرئة باستخدام جهاز فحص وظائف التنفس الالكتروني (السبايروميتر) وقد تمت الدراسة في فرع الفسلجة الطبية في كلية طب الموصل.
نتائج البحث: أظهرت نتائج البحث ان جميع أفراد العينة كانوا ضمن المديات الطبيعية المتوقعة لقياسات وظائف الرئة (80-120%) لاستبعاد إمكانية وجود اي أمراض تنفسية. وقد أشارت النتائج ايضا الى وجود علاقة عكسية بين كل من محيط الخصر ومقياس كتلة الجسم مع حجم الزفير القسري الكلي وحجم الزفير القسري في الثانية الاولى في كلا الجنسين. الا ان هذه العلاقة العكسية كانت أقوى وذات دلالة احصائية بالنسبة لمحيط الخصر خصوصا لدى الذكور وكذلك مجموعة الأشخاص ذوي الوزن الزائد والأشخاص ذوي السمنة.
استنتاجات البحث: ان محيط الخصر، كمقياس لتوزيع الدهون في الجسم، أكثر قدرة على توقع التأثيرات السلبية لزيادة الوزن والسمنة على وظائف الرئة بالمقارنة مع مقياس كتلة الجسم والذي يعتمد على وزن الجسم وطوله فقط دون الأخذ بنظر الاعتبار توزيع الدهون في أنحاء الجسم وكذلك كتلة العضلات والعظام والتي ربما لها الدور الأهم.


Article
Some Maternal Factors Affecting Anthropometric Measurments of Newborns

Author: Qusay A. Al-Rahim
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 118-124
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Fetal growth may at any time during gestational period be affected by several factors that may cause diseases to fetuses or neonates, and interfere with neonatal morbidity and mortality. Among these factors are racial, genetic, socioeconomic factors and maternal malnutrition and illnesses like diabetes, preeclampsia and anemia.OBJECTIVES:Our aim is to study the effect of maternal height, age, and illnesses on the anthropometric measurements of full term singleton newborns.METHODS:Two hundred full term singleton newborns were studied cross-sectionally in the maternity wards of 2 hospitals in the medical city /Baghdad .They were assessed by measuring the newborn weight, length and occipitofrontal circumference using standard methods of measurements. The gestational age was assessed by simplified Ballard-Dubowitz method. Mother's height was also measured. The maternal illnesses during pregnancy were listed in special questionnaire form. Statistical analysis was done by statistician.RESULTS:Of 200 full term singleton newborns, 109 (54.5%) were females and 91 (45.5%) were males. Mean body weight of males was 2850 grams, while that of females was 2600 grams. Mean length of males was 48.75 cms, while that of females was 48 cms. Mean OFC of males was 34.5 cms, while that of females was 33.5 cms. The weight of males was more than that of females at maternal height of 140-150 cms, 161-170 cms and 171-180 cms. Males were longer at maternal height of 161-180 cms. Males had higher OFC than females at maternal height of 161-180 cms. Males were lighter in weight than females of preeclamptic mothers, but no such effect on length and OFC. Maternal anemia also affect mainly newborn s` weight. There is no effect of other maternal diseases on weight, length, and OFC. The largest number and heaviest weight of newborns were at maternal age of 26-35 years, while male newborns of extreme maternal ages being longer than females. No effect of maternal age on OFC.CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we found more female newborns than males, and the mean weight, length and OFC of males were greater than that of females, and the heaviest newborns were at maternal height of 170-180 cms .Maternal preeclampsia and anemia affecting newborns weight mainly. Maternal age of 26-35 years gave heavier newborns. We recommend improving the maternal antenatal care, nutrition, and controlling maternal illnesses to improve the neonatal anthropometric measurements, and also recommend making wide national study to construct and apply local intrauterine growth curves specific to our country


Article
Some Anthropometric Measurements of Normal Full Term Neoborns at Birth

Author: Kholod Dhaher Habib Alshemeri
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-11
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:All health personnel working in child health care should be familiar with normal patterns of growth, sothat they can recognize any deviations from the normal range and try to deal with the underlyingdisorders which could be nutritional, socio economic or infectious diseases.OBJECTIVES:I undertook this study to find some anthropometric measurements like length, weight andoccipitofrontal circumference of normal healthy Iraqi neonates at birth which can be used in future todraw an Iraqi growth chart.METHODS:The Study carried out from 1st of May 2005 to30th of April 2006 at Fatema AL-Zahra TeachingHospital. The study was performed on 1001 live born neonates with gestational age (37-42 week) wereall born in Fatema AL-Zahra teaching hospital in Baghdad. Babies of mothers with risk factors(gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking and multiple gestation,number of party more than 5,mother age less than 17 years, or more than 35 years, mother bodyweight less than 45kilogram(kg) or more than 90 kg, mother height less than 150 centimeter(cm)),premature, and malformed babies were all excluded. The study was performed by measuring thelength, weight and (&) occipitofrontal circumference (OFC ) of these babies.RESULTS:The Results showed that the mean length at birth(male & female) was 50.888 (+/- 1.1004) cm ,(male ;female was51 cm(+/- 1.055) ; 50.72 cm (+/_0.953)). The mean OFC(male & female) was 34.678(+/-1.189) cm ( male ;female ,34.719(+/- 1.1305) cm ; 34.621(+/-1.074)cm ) .The mean birth weight (male& female) was 3.291 (+/-0.346)kg (male ; female was 3.30(+/-0.356) kg ; 3.28(+/-0.336)kg ).CONCLUSION:The study concluded that the mean length at birth(male & female) was 50.888 (+/- 1.1004) , The meanOFC(male & female) was 34.678(+/-1.189) cm . .The mean birth weight (male & female) was3.291(+/-0.346) kg.


Article
Prevalence of Obesity among Adult Population in Karbala

Author: Al-Hilaly K. A*
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2008 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 343-352
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Objective: To determine the prevalence and type of obesity in adult population in Karbala city and its correlation with age, sex, social class, educational level, occupation, history of chronic medical diseases, and family history of obesity.Design: Population-based observational study.Setting: Al Hussein Hospital in Karbala city.Subjects: A total of 1545 companion of patients attending the outpatient clinic in Al Hussain hospital. They were 844 men and 701 women and aged 20-81 years.Methods: Socio-demographic data collected includes age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, type of work, presence of chronic medical diseases, and family history of obesity. Anthropometric indices including weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Individuals with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/ m2 were considered obese. Abdominal obesity was considered when waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS program.Results: Of the 1545 individuals who were examined in this study 453 (29.3%) were obese, 485 (31.4%) were overweight, 519 (33.6%) had normal body weight and 88 (5.7%) were underweight. The average BMI was higher in women Abdominal obesity was determined in 51.5% of women and 13.3% of men. Positive correlations were determined between BMI and age, and family history of obesity, and waist circumference. The prevalence of obesity showed a positive correlation with age and it is higher in individuals with low educational level.Conclusion: Obesity affects about 30% of adult population in Karbala, and it is higher in women. Abdominal obesity affect more than 50% of women. This high prevalence of obesity should be described as an epidemic which demands community based multiple strategies to control and to treat affected individuals.

تمهيد: إنّ السمنة مشكلة صحية خطيرة تهدد أغلب دول العالم المتقدمة والنامية، وهي في زيادة مستمرة، وأصبحت تشكل وباءً. تعتبر السمنة عامل خطورة لكثير من الأمراض المزمنة، مثل داء السكري وارتفاع ضغط الدم وأمراض الشرايين التاجية وبعض الأمراض السرطانية، مثل سرطان الثدي والرحم وعنق الرحم. تسبب السمنة هدر كثير في ساعات العمل والانفاق في علاج الأمراض المسببة لها.الأهداف: معرفة مدى إنتشار السمنة في مدينة كربلاء وعلاقتها بالعمر والجنس والحالة المادية والمستوى الثقافي ونوع العمل الذي يمارسه والأمراض المزمنة ووجود تاريخ عائلي للسمنة.الطرق: تمت هذه الدراسة في مستشفى الحسين في مدينة كربلاء، وشملت الدراسة الأشخاص المرافقين للمرضى المراجعين للعيادة الاستشارية للأمراض الباطنية، وكان عددهم 1545 شخصاً، منهم 844 ذكراً و701 أنثى، تتراوح أعمارهم بين 20 و 81 سنة. المعلومات التي تم جمعها تشمل العمر والجنس والحالة المادية، والمستوى الثقافي، ونوع العمل الذي يمارسه الشخص، ووجود أمراض مزمنة يعاني منها الشخص، ووجود السمنة في أفراد العائلة. القياسات التي تم أخذها تشمل الوزن والطول ومحيط الخصر. السمنة تعتبر عندما يكون معامل كتلة الجسم 30 كلغم/م2 أو أكثر. والسمنة البطنية عندما يكون محيط الخصر 102 سم أو أكثر للرجال، و 88 سم أو أكثر للنساء. تم استعمال البرنامج الإحصائي الأس بي أس أس لتحليل النتائج.النتائج: معدل السمنة كان 29,3%، وزيادة الوزن 31,4% و33,6% كانوا ضمن الوزن الطبيعي. معامل كتلة الوزن كان أكبر عند النساء. معدل السمنة البطنية كان 51,5% في النساء و13,3% في الرجال. علاقة السمنة كانت إيجابية مع العمر، وكانت أعلى في الأشخاص ذوي المستوى الثقافي المنخفض.الاستنتاجلت: السمنة تصيب حوالي 30% من الأشخاص البالغين في مدينة كربلاء، وهي أكثر في النساء. وهذه النسبة العالية تستدعي إتخاذ إجارءات إجتماعية ورسمية للحد من هذه الظاهرة.


Article
Coronary Heart Disease in Karbala Population Related to Central Obesity and Other Coexisting Risk Factors – Comparative Study

Author: Amir Omran
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2014 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 1980-1985
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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background: Around 6 years ago, a study has been published describing the prevalence of improvement life style behavior in Karbala population in the period between1/12/2004-1/6/2005.Objectives: comparative study is conducted to estimate prevalence of improvement life style behavior in Karbala population and compare it with the previous study.Setting: Coronary care unit (CCU) of Hussein teaching hospital.Design: Prospective study.Methods: one hundred patients participated in this study admitted in CCU during the period from 1/12/2010 to 1/6/2011, all patients newly diagnosed as having acute (MI) by selected criteria in relation to central abdominal obesity (W.C), BMI, age, sex, fat consumption, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, fruit and vegetable consumption.Results: mean age (females 57.5 years, males 63.3 years) males 65%, females 35%, consumed saturated fat 54%, smoking 39%, Alcohol 0%, consumer of fat 54% fruit and vegetables 63%, W.C (males 96.7±12.9, females 99.9 ±16.4)Conclusion: The comparative study shows an adverse results, improvements at certain aspects of life style behavior


Article
Obesity and Overweight among Sample of Foundation of Technical Education Students in Iraq During 2011

Authors: Muna .A.Zadian --- Suhair M. Hassoon --- Wafaa. F.T
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2013 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 162-172
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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The aims of this study are to find the prevalence of obesity among the studied sample, the BMI, waist and hip ratio, and to find out any association between BMI, W ∕ H Ratio and socio-demographic variables.Methods:- A cross-sectional study conducted in College of Health and Medical Technology, College of Administration Technology, Almansour medical technology Institute, Bab-almoadham Medical Technology Institute. The data was collected by self recording of a previously designed questionnaire to obtain socio- demographic information and the sampling was systematic random one.Results: 63.8% of the studied sample of students was in the age 21-25 years. The studied ample was 500 students 64.4% male and 35.6% female, about 35.5% of students were overweight. A significant association between the family history of obesity and gender with BMI. Highly significant association of Hip circumference with age and BMI . The mean age for male was 20.9 ± 23.7 years, while for female was 19.1± years, there was significant association with W ∕ H Ratio (p=0.000) for both sexes. A positive correlation was obtained between BMI and age , WC., HC., W ∕ H Ratio.Conclusions: A significant association between the family history of obesity and gender with BMI. Hip circumference was significantly associated with age and BMI. A positive correlation was obtained between BMI and age , WC., HC., W ∕ H Ratio.

الهدف من الدراسة هو تحديد معدل شيوع السمنة لعينة من الطلاب وايجاد اي ارتباط بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم , ونسبة محيط الخصر / لمحيط الورك والعوامل الديموغرافية. المنهجية: وهي دراسة مقطعية اجريت في كلية التقنيات الصحية والطبية, وكلية التقنية الادارية والمعهد التقني الطبي / المنصور والمعهد الطبي التقني باب المعظم. حيث جمعت المعلومات والبيانات باستخدام الاسئلة المباشرة طبقا لاستبانة معدة مسبقا للحصول على المعلومات الاجتماعية والديموغرافية للعينة العشوائية الطبقية.النتائج: 63.8% من عينة الطلاب كانت في عمر 21-25 نة وعينة الدراسة كانت 500 طالب , 64.4% كانوا ذكورا و35.6% اناثا , وحوالي 35.5% من الطلاب يعانون من زيادة الوزن ووجد ارتباط معنوي بين التاريخ العائلي للاصابة بالسمنة والجنس ومؤشر كتلة الجسم, وارتباط معنوي عالي لمحيط الورك مع العمر ومؤشر كتلة الجسم. متوسط العمر للذكور كان 20,9 ±23,7 سنة بينما للاناث كان 19,1± 22,9 سنة, واختلاف معنوي لنسبة محيط الخصر / لمحيط الورك لكلا الجنسين , وارتباط عالي بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم والعمر ومحيط الخصر ومحيط الورك ونسبة محيط الخصر / لمحيط الورك الاستنتاجات:نستنتج من هذه الدراسة وجود ارتباط معنوي بين التاريخ العائلي للاصابة بالسمنة والجنس ومؤشر كتلة الجسم,وارتباط معنوي عالي لمحيط الورك مع العمر ومؤشر كتلة الجسم, وارتباط عالي بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم والعمر ومحيط الخصر ومحيط الورك ونسبة محيط الخصر / لمحيط الورك.

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