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Article
Cephalometric features of skeletal Class I, II and III (A comparative study)

Authors: Khawla M Awni --- Ne’am R Al – Saleem --- Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 10 Pages: 122-130
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To identify the cephalometric features of three skeletal jaw relations (Class I, II and III).Materials and methods: one hundred thirty four students were selected aged 12–15 years fromsecondary schools in Mosul City, 45 with Class I normal occlusion as control, 44 with Class IImalocclusion and 45 with Class III malocclusion, after taking the lateral cephalometric radiographsaccording to ANB angle. A 20 variables (12 angular and 8 linear) were used in this study to correlatethese variables in the three skeletal Classes. Results: No significant sex differences were observed forthe majority of angular and linear measurements for the three skeletal types. Anterior cranial baselength (S–N) and saddle angle (NSAr) didn’t show significant difference among the three skeletalClasses, the posterior cranial base (S–Ar) was shorter in Class III which indicate the anteriorarticulation of the mandible. The length of maxillary base (ANS–PNS) was longer in Class II thanClass I and III which lead to maxillary prognathism. The body length of the mandible (Go–Pog),effective mandibular length (Ar–Gn) and lower anterior face height was significantly longer inClass III which lead to mandibular prognathism. The SNA angle was significantly smaller in Class IIIthan in the others. SNB and SNPog angles were larger in Class III followed by Class I and then ClassII. The gonial angle (Ar–Go– Me) was larger in Class III which acts to increase mandibular effectivelength. The (N–A–Pog) showed as convex in Class II and concave in Class III. (The U1–PP) angle waslarger in Class II followed by Class I and then by Class III. The (L1–MP) angle in Class II and III wassignificantly smaller than in Class I. Conclusion: Most of the angular and linear measurementsindicated that the skeletal differences between the Class I, Class II and Class III are concentrated within the maxillary and mandibular bases in both the anteroposterior and vertical dimensions and theirtype of articulation. The dental measurements appear to be compensated with that of skeletal one. Alsothese variables showed no significant sex differences in the majority of their measurements


Article
Nasopharyngeal Dimensions in Relation to Some Dento- Cranial Variables in Class I and II Skeletal Patterns (A Comparative Cephalometric Study)

Authors: Ammar A. Fadel --- Fakhri A. Ali
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 150-154
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The size of the nasopharyngeal airway was believed to have an important role in the development ofthe dentofacial structure. This study was carried out to test the relation between the nasopharyngeal dimensions withsome dento-cranial measurements in class I and II jaw relationship.Materials and Methods: This study was done on 60 subjects (30 males and 30 females) at age range 18-25 years.Cephalometric radiograph has been taken to each subject and the measurements were recorded. The sample wasdivided into two groups, class I skeletal relationship (15 males and 15 females) and class II skeletal relationship (15males and 15 females). Comparisons between the different groups were undertaken.Results: In class I skeletal relationship, all the nasopharyngeal liner measurements and all the dento-cranium linearmeasurements are significantly higher in males than females, except lower airway thickness (PNS-ad1) and upperairway thickness (PNS-ad2) showed no significant gender difference. While all the angular measurements showed nosignificant gender difference. In class II skeletal relationship, most of the nasopharyngeal liner measurements have nosignificant gender difference, while all the dento-cranium linear measurements are significantly higher in males thanfemales.Conclusion: In comparison for class difference between class I and class II skeletal relations in total sample, all thenasopharyngeal linear measurements have no significant class difference, except lower airway thickness showedsignificant difference which was higher in class II than class I and upper airway thickness showed significantdifference which was higher in class I than class II. In the whole sample of the study, positive correlation was foundbetween lower airway thickness and upper airway thickness

Keywords

Nasopharyngeal --- gender --- class I --- class II


Article
Evaluation of the Pharyngeal Size in Skeletal Class I and Class II Subjects Diseases

Author: Ne’am R Al–Saleem
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: SpIss Pages: S45-S53
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Aims: The aims of the study were to measure different variables of pharynx in class I and class II skeletal relation, clarify the effect of gender on the pharyngeal measurements and to find the effect of different classes (class I and class II) on the pharyngeal measurements. Materials and Methods: The samples consisted of cephalometric films of 40 subjects, 20 males (10 class I and 10 class II) and 20 females (10 class I and 10 class II). These films were traced and ten linear measurements of the pharynx. Results: No significant difference were noticed between males and females in class I participants except in Ba–PNS (sagittal depth of the bony nasopharynx), PNS–ppw (the sagittal depth of the pharynx along the line ANS – PNS) and hy–MP (millimeter distance from hyoid to the mandibular plane), where males showed a significantly higher value; while males showed a significantly higher value in Ba – ad2 (sagittal depth of the nasopharyngeal airway along line S – Ba) and hy–apw2 (millimeter distance from hyoid to ap2) in class II. Conclusions: No significant differences were noticed between males and females in class I and class II skeletal relation in most of the measured variables and also no significant differences were noticed in the same gender neither in class I nor in class II.

Keywords

Pharyngeal size --- class I --- class II


Article
Prevalence of dental caries in relation to residential factor among (6-9) years old children in Baghdad

Author: Dr. Maha Abdul-kareem Al-Mashhadaney, B.D.S., M.Sc.* د. مها عبد الكريم
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 237-241
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

dental caries survey was conducted concerning 6-9 years old children in two different social areas in the city of Baghdad.The total sample composed of 180 (90 males and 90 females). Purpose of this study included the estimation of the prevalence of dental caries and its association with the socioeconomic background of children.Results showed that for the primary dentition dmfs and dmft values were higher for males aged 6-7 and 7-8 years in high socioeconomic class (7.8 & 4.2 , 9.7 & 4.7) than in low socioeconomic class (6.7 & 3.9 ,7.2 & 3.2) with statistically no significant differences ( p> 0.05). For children aged 8-9 years in low socioeconomic area the values were higher compared with those in high socioeconomic area for both sexes.For the permanent dentition the high social class showed higher prevalence of dental caries compared with their lower social class counter parts except females aged 8-9 years with low socioeconomic status recorded higher DMFS and DMFT values ( 2.66 & 2.6) compared to those in high socioeconomic (2.6 & 1.8), while the relation was not significant ( p>0.05).Generally the present study showed that the prevalence of dental caries for primary teeth was higher among children with low social class (dmfs & dmft) than those with high social class, while the results were reversed for the permanent teeth.


Article
The possibility of manufacturing bricks from Quaternary Deposits from Al-Muthanna Governorate/ southern Iraq
امكانية تصنيع الطابوق من ترسبات العصر الرباعي في محافظة المثنى /جنوب العراق

Authors: Sawsan Hameed Al-Hazaa سوسن حميد هزاع --- Shereen Faroq Shaker شيرين فاروق شاكر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 3C Pages: 1708-1719
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study is concerned with the identification of the validity of the Recent sediments deposited in the Playa for the purpose of making the laboratory bricks by extrusion and pressing. The steps followed in this study included the formation and then burning of the pyramids at (950-1100) C° for one hour of maturity to determine their applicability to the brick industry. The study area is located in Al Muthanna province, south of Iraq. It is located south of the district of Samawah at a distance of 80 km and to the north-west of Salman district, 64 kilometers south of Baghdad, represented by three hosts: (DHS 1, DH2 and S). The results of the chemical analysis of the study samples showed that they consist of the following major oxides:SiO2 = (39.34-42.82) TiO2 = (0.52-0.76) Na2O3 = (0.97-1.22)Fe2O3 = (4.19-5.89) CaO = (14.78-19.4) K2O = (0.91-1.14)Al2O3 = (8.02-9.85) MgO = (3.85-5.95) L.O.I = (16.31-19.32)silica SiO2 represented the highest ratio followed by Al2O3. Was manufactured 36 samples of the laboratory were manufactured and prepared by extrusion method were measured in dimensions (7 * 3.5 * 2.5) cm by extruding method and were burned at (950-1100) C° for the purpose of conducting physical and mechanical checks on them including Linear and volume shrinkage, color, Water absorption, Efforescence, and compressive strength. The results of these tests showed a decrease in water absorption and Efforescence, a decrease in the values of compressive strength with increased burning temperature, decreased Linearand volume shrinkage in most samples and increased in other samples with increasing burning temperature. In addition, 12 samples were made of the cylindrical laboratory size (diameter 50 mm, height 60 mm) in semi-dry pressing method, and were burned at (950-1100) C° for the purpose of physical and mechanical tests, color, Water absorption, Efforescence, and compressive strength. The results of these tests showed a decrease in water absorption and Efforescence and an increase in the values of compressive resistance while increasing the temperature of burning, while the colors of the samples ranged from light brown and yellow or pale yellow to white. The results of physical assays were met Linear and volume shrinkage, color, Water absorption and Efforescence. As well as mechanical tests: compressive strength results were in accordance with the Iraqi standard for this industry where the data of the results of this study showed the validity of these samples for the industry mentioned above.

تعنى هذه الدراسة بالتعرف على مدى صلاحية الاطيان الحديثة المترسبة في الفيضات لأغراض صناعة الطابوق المختبري بطريقتي البثق والكبس. شملت الخطوات التي تم اتباعها في هذه الدراسة تشكيل ثم حرق الأطيان بدرجات حرارة 950), (1100م° لوقت انضاج ساعة واحدة للتعرف على مدى صلاحيتها لصناعة الطابوق. تقع منطقة الدراسة في محافظة المثنى/ جنوب العراق, وتحديدا جنوب قضاء السماوة بمسافة (80) كم والى الشمال الغربي عن قضاء السلمان بمسافة (64) كم في جنوب العاصمة بغداد متمثلة بثلاث فيضت ام الفرس1 (DH1) وام الفرس2 ((DH2 والسلحوبية (S). أظهرت نتائج التحليل الكيميائية لعینات الدراسة بأنها تتكون من الاكاسید الرئیسیة التالیة: SiO2 = (39.34-42.82) TiO2 = (0.52-0.76) Na2O3 = (0.97-1.22)Fe2O3 = (4.19-5.89) CaO = (14.78-19.4) K2O = (0.91-1.14)Al2O3 = (8.02-9.85) MgO = (3.85-5.95) L.O.I = (16.31-19.32)تمثل لسليكا SiO2 تمثل النسبة الأعلى وتليها نسبة الالومينا .Al2O3 تم تصنيع (36) عينة من الطابوق المختبري بأبعاد (7 * 3.5 * 2.5) سم بطريقة البثق وتم حرقها بدرجات حرارة 950), (1100 م° لغرض إجراء الفحوصات (التقيمية (الفيزيائية والميكانيكية عليها التي تضم: اللون، التقلص الطولي والحجمي، امتصاص الماء، التزهر، ومقاومة الانضغاط حيث بينت نتائج هذه الفحوصات نقصانا في نسبة امتصاص الماء ومدى التزهر وانخفاض في قيم المقاومة الانضغاطية مع زيادة درجة حرارة الحرق ، كما انخفضت نسبة التقلص الطولي والحجمي في معظم عينات الدراسة وزادت في عينات اخرى مع زيادة درجة حرارة الحرق. وايضا تم تشكيل (12) عينة من الطابوق بالحجم المختبري الاسطواني (القطر 50 ملم , الارتفاع 60 ملم) بطريقة الكبس شبه الجاف وتم حرقها بدرجات حرارة 950), (1100م° لغرض إجراء الفحوصات (التقيمية (الفيزيائية والميكانيكية عليها التي تضم: اللون، امتصاص الماء، التزهر، ومقاومة الانضغاط حيث بينت نتائج هذه الفحوصات نقصانا في نسبة امتصاص الماء ومدى التزهر وزيادة في قيم المقاومة الانضغاطية مع زيادة درجة حرارة الحرق. أما ألوان العينات فقد تراوحت بين البني الفاتح وبنية صفراء او الأصفر الباهت الى الابيض.لمطابقة نتائج الفحوصات التقويمية (الفيزيائية): الانكماش الطولي, الانكماش الحجمي, امتصاص الماء, التزهر. فضلا عن الفحوصات الميكانيكية: مقاومة الانضغاط كانت النتائج مطابقة للمواصفة العراقية لهذه الصناعة حيث أظهرت معطيات نتائج هذه الدراسة صلاحية هذه الأطيان للصناعة المذكورة أعلاه.

Keywords

Catered --- Class --- Brick


Article
Evaluation of Lip Profile in Adolescent Subjects with Skeletal Class I Occlusion and Class III Malocclusion

Authors: Ra'ed J Sa'eed --- Saba H Al-Zubaidy --- Manar Y Abdul-Qadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 19 Pages: 177-184
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To examine the difference of anteroposterior lip position using lateral cephalometric radiograph in a sample of Class I and Class III malocclusion adolescents. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 80 adolescent subjects (40 males and 40 females) who were divided according to the type of occlusion into two groups; dental and skeletal Class I group (40 subjects) and the dental and skeletal Class III group (40 subjects). On lateral cephalometric radiograph, lip position was assessed using 7 linear and 2 angular measurements. The data were analyzed using independent samples t–test. Results: Significant differences were noticed between the two groups for most of the variables. The combined sample showed more retrusive position of the upper lip in Class III group in relation to Steiner, Burtone and Canuts lines. While significantly more retrusive position of the lower lip in Class III group was noticed in relation to Burstone and Harmony lines. In addition, Class III sample showed a significantly smaller H angle and greater Z angle than Class I group. When these reference lines were compared for sensitivity, H line and B line were found to have the greatest power to differentiate between the 2 groups. Sexual dimorphism was noticed in both groups. In Class I group, males showed more protru-sive lips in relation to Steiner line. While in the Class III lines group, males showed more protrusive upper lip in relation to Burton and Canuts lines and in both groups males showed significantly larger H angle and smaller Z angle than females. Conclusions: The skeletal Class III malocclusion tend to have lip profile that differs significantly from skeletal Class I occlusion and is characterized by retrusive upper lip, protrusive lower lip, smaller H angle and more obtuse Z angle. These findings emphasize the importance of integumental evaluation as an aid in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning of this type of malocclusion.


Article
Evaluation of the effect of preheating on micro leakage of Class II composites Restoration (A comparative in vitro study)

Authors: Wasan M. Hasson --- Zainab M. AbdulAmeer
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 21-25
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of preheating microleakage among three different filler size composites which include Filtektm Z250 micro hybrid, Z250xt Nano hybrid and nanocomposite Z350xt. in Class II cavity preparation .Materials and methods: sixty maxillary first premolars were prepared with class II cavities. Samples were divided into three groups according to material used group A (FiltekZ250 micro hybrid). Group B(Z250xt Nano hybrid). Group C (nanocomposite Z350xt)and each group divided into two subgroups of ten teeth according to temperature of composite: Group A1 Teeth are restored by composite at room temperature(24±1˚C), A2 Teeth are restored by same composite at preheated temperature(54±1˚C). After 24 hrs. immersion in 2% in methylene blue, samples were sectioned and micro leakage was estimated.Results: The greater scores of micro leakage mentioned in Group A( Z250 micro hybrid) in cervical margin while in Group B( Z250xt Nano hybrid) and Group C (Z350xt nanocomposite) have least score of micro leakage especially in occlusal margin.Conclusions: The scores of micro leakage for all groups varied with different material, margin and temperature. Generally, preheating decreased micro leakage in all groups of composites ,but Preheating decreased micro leakage effectively in Z250 micro hybrid more than Z250xt Nano hybrid and Z350xt nanocomposite micro leakage


Article
The position of mandibular incisors in a sample of Iraqi adults with Class I malocclusion

Author: Samher Ali Al-Shaham سمهر علي الشحام
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2010 Volume: 22 Issue: 4 Pages: 107-110
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The attempt to make good diagnosis enforce the orthodontists to examine the relationship of themandibular incisors position in patients with malocclusion to provide the practitioners with more diagnostic normsand correlation equation. This study aimed to determine the position of the mandibular incisors in a sample of adults(aged 18-25 years) with Class I malocclusion, to determine the existence of gender differences in mandibular incisorsposition, and to determine the correlation between the mandibular incisors position with some measurements.Materials and method: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for 60 adults subjects (30 males and 30females). The cephalometric radiographs were traced and verified using AutoCAD 2008 program.Results and Conclusions: The results show non-significant gender difference in the position of the mandibular incisors,and very high significant direct correlation between GoGn-NB angle and the ˉ1ˉ-NB. The GoGn-NB angle can beclassified as most important of the guiding angular variables in determining the lower incisors position (ˉ1ˉ -NB).


Article
Mesiodistal crowns angulation in Class II division 1 malocclusion

Authors: Dina A Al–Khashab --- Mahmood Kh Ahmed --- Neam F Agha
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 7 Pages: 53-63
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the mesiodistal angulation of the crowns in 50 study models (25 for each sex) ofClass II division 1 malocclusion and compare it to 38 study models (19 for each sex) of Class I normalocclusion to find the differences between the two groups so as to provide valuable information in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: Mesiodistal crown angulation is measured as the angle formed between the long axis of the crown and a line perpendicular to the occlusal plane. The data subjected to statistical analysis at p< 0.05. Descriptive statistics (mean,standard deviation, minimum, maximum), correlation for all the crowns and comparison between rightand left side, male and female and between Class I and Class II were carried out. Results: Significantdifferences in the angulation of the crowns between the two classes in the buccal segment of the upperdental arches for both sexes with significant higher values in Class II division 1 were found. For thelower arch there were significant differences in central, lateral incisors and second premolar in malesand in all crowns except first molar in females with significant higher values in Class II division 1 indicating that the crowns are more mesially inclined in Class II division 1 malocclusion. Conclusion:The crowns were more mesially inclined for Class II division 1 malocclusion than for Class I occlusion. There was a correlation among teeth in each quadrant.


Article
A Comparison of Arch Width in Adults with Normal Class I Occlusion and Adults with Class II Division1 Malocclusion in Ramadi City
مقارنة عرض القوس السني للبالغين من ذوي الإطباق من الصنف الأول مع ذوي سوء الإطباق من الصنف الثاني . النموذج الأول في مدينة الرمادي

Author: Zena Hekmat Al-Taee زينة حكمت بشير
Journal: Al- Anbar Medical Journal مجلة الأنبار الطبية ISSN: 20708882 Year: 2012 Volume: Vol.10 Issue: 1 Pages: 75-80
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the arch width between normal class I occlusion and class II div 1 malocclusion in males and females in Ramadi city Methods and Materials: Fifty-six pairs of study models samples were selected from Ramadi secondary school. The mean age of this group is 18.3±0.7 years. The 56pairs of study are divided into two groups. The first group consists of 28 study models of Class I occlusion.The samples were divided evenly between the genders (14 females and 14 males). The second group consists of 28 study models of Class lI division1 malocclusion who were equally divided between the genders (14 males and 14 females) Measurements were made directly on upper and lower dental casts with an electronic digital caliper with sharpened tips. The dental arch width was recorded by measure intercanine width, intermolar width and interalveolar width to compare the two groups, the student’s t-test was used with 95% confidence interval.Results: The present study showed the maxillary intercanine and intermolar width were significant narrower in Class II Division 1 than that in Class I normal occlusion. The maxillary interalveolar widths showed no difference between the two groups. These results suggested that transverse discrepancy in Class II division 1 patients originated from upper posterior teeth and not from the maxillary alveolar base. On the other hand, the mandibular intercanine width was significant larger in Class II, Division 1 than that in Class I normal occlusion . The mandibular intermolar and Interalveolar width were significant larger in Class I normal occlusion subjects.Conclusion: The arch widths were smaller in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion compared to Class I normal occlusion except mandibular intercanine width and the arch widths were larger in males than that of females.

الهدف: من الدراسة مقارنة عرض القوس السني بين فئتين من ذوي الأطباق من الصنف الأول والصنف الثاني النموذج الأول من سوء الإطباق في الإناث والذكور في مدينة الرمادي .طريقة العمل : (56) زوج من قوالب سنية أخذت العينة من طلاب المدارس الثانوية في مدينة الرمادي ومعدل أعمارهم (18.3 ± 0.7) سنة هذه القوالب قسمت إلى قسمين القسم الأول يتكون من (28) قالب لعينة من ذوي الإطباق من الصنف الأول وبالتالي قسمت إلى قسمين (14 ذكور – 14 إناث) .والقسم الثاني يتكون من (28) قالب لعينة من ذوي سوء الإطباق من الصنف الثاني النموذج الأول وقسمت بالتساوي (14 ذكور – 14 إناث) تم استخدام مقياس ثخانة اليكتروني لقياس عرض القوس السني .النتائج: أظهرت النتائج أن المسافة بين الانياب والرحى العلوية هي اقل في ذوي سوء الإطباق من الصنف الثاني النموذج الأول منهم في ذوي الأطباق من الصنف الأول و بين الانياب السفلية هي اكثر في ذوي سوء الإطباق من الصنف الثاني النموذج الأول منهم في ذوي الأطباق من الصنف الاول و أن المسافة بين الرحى السفلية هي اكثر في ذوي الإطباق من الصنف الاول من ذوي سوء الإطباق من الصنف الثاني النموذج الأول الاستنتاجات: القوس السني في ذوي الإطباق من الصنف الثاني النموذج الأول هو أصغر منهم من ذوي الإطباق من الصنف الأول . وان عرض القوس السني أكبر في الذكور منه في الإناث .

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