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Article
TYPES AND COMPLICATIONS OF CONTRACEPTIVE USES TYPES AND COMPLICATIONS OF CONTRACEPTIVE USES IN WOMEN ATTENDING O. P.C. OF BAGHDAD TEACHING HOSPITAL

Author: Sulaf A. Hussain
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2005 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 81-87
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

To determine the types of contraceptive methods used by Iraqi women, and the types of complications attributed to these methods, and their relationship with different factors, the study was conducted in Baghdad Province, using a cross-sectional design. Data was collected by a direct interview with the aid of special questionnaire. The sample constituted 200 married women of the child-bearing age (15-45 years), collected from the outpatient clinic of Baghdad Teaching Hospital. Analysis of the sample (200 women) showed that oral contraceptive pills were the most commonly used contraception by the study sample (53%), followed by the intrauterine device (IUD). The rate of oral contraceptives was higher in the youngest age group (<20), followed by age group (40-49). The IUD was more frequently used by age group (20-29). Complications were present in (56%) of the study sample which were mostly present in users of the IUD (72 %), followed by tablets users (46%). All women suffering from a chronic disease other than hypertension were suffering from complications (100%), women who had hypertension had a rate of complications of (64.3%). The complications in case of oral contraceptives were mostly pain (20%), malaise (10.4%), and psychological disturbances (8.55%). IUD users had suffered mainly from bleeding (39.5%) and infection (22.4%). Injectable contraceptive users had suffered from infection only in a rate if (14.3%). Analysis of the results by One-way ANOVA showed that the age group and type of contraceptive used were the only significant factors associated with the type of complaints. The Oral contraceptive pills are the most frequently used method of contraception, followed by IUD. Women complained of bleeding, infection, and pain. These complaints can be minimized by the use of the appropriate contraceptive method for woman age

يهدف هذا البحث الى تحديد نوع موانع الحمل المستعملة من قبل النساء العراقيات و المضاعفات الناتجة من اسنخدام هذه الأنواع و علاقتها ببعض العوامل. اجريت الدراسة في محافظة بغداد ، نوع الدراسة كان مقطعيا . تم جمع المعلومات من عينة البحث عن طريق انموذج استبيان أعد خصيصا للدراسة. أختيرت العينة بالطريقة العشوائية من السيدات المراجعات للعيادة الخارجية في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي ممن هن في سن الأنجاب، بين العمر 15-45 سنة. أظهرت نتيجة تحليل العينة (200 أمرأة) ان حبوب منع الحمل هي الأكثر استخداما من بين باقي الطرق (53%)، تليها طريقة اللولب الرحمي. كانت أعلى نسبة لمستخدمي حبوب منع الحمل في الفئة العمرية أقل من 20 سنة تليها فئة 40-49 سنة. أما اللولب الرحمي فكان استخدامه عاليا من قبل فئة 20-29 سنة. ظهرت المضاعفات في (56%) من عينة البحث و أكثرها ظهورا كان لدى مستخدمات اللولب الرحمي (72%) يليه مستخدمات الحبوب (46%). كانت نسبة ظهورالمضاعفات لدى النساء المصابات بالأمراض المزمنة هي (100%) ما عدا المصابات بمرض أرتفاع ضغط الدم حيث كانت النسبة (64.3%). شملت المضاعفات لدى مستعملات الحبوب: الألم (20%)، النحول (10.4%) و أضطراـــبات نفسية (8.5%). شكت مستخدمات اللولب الرحمي من نزف رحمي (39.5%)، و ظــهور التهابات رحمــية فـي (22.4%) من الحالات.شكلت مستخدمات حقن منع الحمل من نزف في( 45.5%) من الحالات بينما لم تشكي مستخدمات الواقي الذكري سوى من التهابات رحمية في( 14.3%) من الحالات.بعد تحليل النتائج بطريقة ANOVA تبين ان العمر و نوع مانع الحمل المستخدم هما الوحيدان اللذان لهم علاقة بظهور المضاعفات لدى المرأة. ان أكثر انوع منع الحمل استخداما هي الحبوب و تليها اللوالب الرحمية. تشكوا النساء من النزف الرحمي و الألتهاب الرحمي و الألم. يمكن تقليل هذه المضاعفات باستخدام نوع مانع الحمل المناسب لكل سيدة و في العمر المناسب.

Keywords

IUP --- contraceptives


Article
Clinical Management of an Unusual Case of Gingival Enlargement

Author: Dr. Barzan Abdulwahab Atrooshi, B.D.S M.Sc.* د. برازن عبد الوهاب
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 429-433
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The purpose of this article is to report a case of conditioned gingival enlargement managed by non surgical periodontal therapy. Hormones are specific regulatory molecules that modulate a host of body functions. Hormonal effects reflect physiologic and pathologic changes in almost all tissues of the body with the periodontium being no exception. Physiologic changes like puberty, the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy cause hormonal variations that may cause inflammation of the gingiva. Oral contraceptives that contain estrogen and/or progesterone are associated with gingival enlargement.A 28-year-old female presented with a complaint of swelling of the gingiva with spontaneous bleeding in the maxillary anterior region for a period of one year. The health history documented the use of contraceptives for one year, and a clinical examination revealed the existence of poor oral hygiene and enlarged painful gingival tissues that bleed when touched.This case reaffirms the fact plaque control is the most important procedure in any periodontal therapy. Another factor contributing to the excellent response to therapy is patient compliance. The patient followed home care instructions well and was effective in personal oral hygiene measures.


Article
Maternal Factors that Determining Birth Spacing Interval among a Sample of the Women at Child Bearing Age

Author: Aqeel Abbas Noaman
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 60-65
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Birth interval is the length of time between two successive live births. It might be affected with socio-economic factors related to mother as age, education and parity.Objectives: To determine the rate of birth spacing interval for a sample of women at the child bearing age and to find out any association between maternal factors and birth spacing interval.Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Al- Takia PHC center by using special questionnaire from 15th September 2012 to 15th September 2013. Sample size was 184 women at child bearing age. Results: Out of 184 women at the child bearing age (60.33%) had birth interval less than two years, (68.5%) below 25 years had birth interval shorter than two years, (60%) and (32.9%) of women with birth spacing interval < 2 years and ≥ 2 years respectively were primary school graduates, (83.8%) and (74%) of the studied women with birth spacing interval < 2 years and ≥ 2 years respectively were housewives, (45.9%) of women with birth interval < 2 years had high parity ( ≥ 5 live births). Conclusions: All studied maternal factors were significantly associated with length of birth interval except mother's work status.


Article
THE RATE AND THE REASONS OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG WOMEN IN THE MOSUL CITY
نسبة و أسباب استخدام وسائل منع الحمل بين النساء في مدينة الموصل

Author: Myasar M. Azeez ميسر محسن عزيز علي
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2017 Volume: 30 Issue: 2 Pages: A1-A12
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

This descriptive study design as a quantitative approach was adopted to identify the Rate and the Reasons for of Contraceptive use among Women in the Mosul city ( the aim of the study ) and to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics of the Women with the Rate and the Reasons for of Contraceptive use among through the period from ( 1rst of June - 2012 to the 1rst of April - 2013 ). The sample of the study included ( 250 ) A married woman, Samples were collected from women following are reviewing three hospitals in the city of Mosul (( Ibn al-Atheer Teaching Hospital - 67 - Woman )) , (( AL- Khansa Teaching Hospital - 83 - Woman )) and (( Al-bitol Teaching Hospital - 100 - Woman)) in the center of Nineveh Governorate. In order to collect the data, a questionnaire was constructed depending on the previous studies and related literatures. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by presenting the questionnaire to a panel of ( 11 ) experts and the reliability of the study was determined by applying the tool to ( 27 ) Woman, and the Person's Correlation Coefficient was ( r = 0.79 ; P . < 0.05 ). The Result analysis showed that there were significant statistical relationships among some categories and between the rate and the reasons for the use of contraceptives with the attributes of the sample. The study concluded that there is a relationship between the age of the wife and the husband's age and years of marriage with ways and methods of contraceptive use and the reasons for the use of contraceptives, and the educational level of impact on the ways and methods of contraceptive use, and the job or work effect on the reasons for contraceptive use. The study recommends: Do not use contraception for married at an early age except consult your doctor, and the need to conduct in-depth research on the subject, and increase awareness and education for women around the ways and reasons for the use of contraceptives.

إن هذه الدراسة الوصفية تم اعتمادها للتعرف على نسبة وأسباب استخدام موانع الحمل في مدينة الموصل ( وهو هدف الدراسة ) وكذلك لفحص العلاقة بين المتغيرات الشخصية للعينة ومعدل وأسباب الاستخدام للموانع للفترة من ( ١ / 6 / ٢٠١2 م ولغاية ١ / ٤ / ٢٠١3 م )، تكونت عينة الدراسة من ( 25٠ ) أمرآة متزوجة حيث جمعت العينات من النساء الأتي يراجعون ثلاث مستشفيات في مدينة الموصل (( مستشفى ابن الأثـــــــــــير التعليمي ــ ٦٧ ـ أمرآة )) و(( مستشفى الخنساء التعليمي ــ 83 ـ أمرآة )) و(( مستشفى البتول التعليمي ــ 100 ـ أمرآة )) في مركز محافظة نينوى، ولغرض جمع بيانات البحث تم اعتماد استمارة استبيانيه أعدت اعتمادا على دراسات سابقة ومصادر متعلقة بالموضوع ، تمّ فحص صدق الأداة من خلال عرضها على ( 11 ) خبيراً، وكذلك تمّ قياس ثبات الأداة من خلال تطبيقها على ( 27 ) امرأة وكانت قيمة معامل ارتباط بيرسون ( 0,79 ) عند مستوى دلالة ( ٠5,٠ ). توصلت الدراسة إلى وجود علاقة إحصائية بين نسبة وأسباب استخدام وسائل منع الحمل وبعض المتغيرات الشخصية للعينة . استنتجت الدراسة انه يوجد علاقة بين عمر الزوجة وعمر الزوج وسنوات الزواج والوسائل والطرق المستخدمة لمنع الحمل وأسباب استخدام موانع الحمل, وان للمستوى التعليمي تأثير على الوسائل والطرق المستخدمة لمنع الحمل ، وللوظيفة او العمل تأثير على أسباب استخدام موانع الحمل . وتوصي الدراسة بـ : عدم استخدام موانع الحمل للمتزوجين في عمر مبكر إلا باستشارة طبيب النسائية، وضرورة إجراء بحوث معمقة حول الموضوع ، وزيادة الوعي والتثقيف للنساء حول طرق وأسباب استخدام موانع الحمل .


Article
The effect of oral contraceptive on the oral health with the evaluation of Salivary IgA and Streptococcus Mutans in some Iraqi women

Authors: Dr. Nebal Thabit Shaker, M.Sc., Assist. lecturer د. نبيل ثابت شاكر --- Dr. Esra Hassan Abd-Ali, PhD., Lecturer د. اسراء حسن عبد علي
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2013 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 52-63
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim: To assess if there is any effect of using oral contraceptive and the duration ofusing on the inflammatory responses of the gingival tissues , concentration ofsecretary immunoglobulin A ( IgA) and the colony count of mutansStreptococcusMS in saliva .Methods: This study includes 80 women in their reproductive age (16-40) year. 40women who were using oral contraceptive in different duration, as the study groupand 40 women who not used oral contraceptive and it were assigned to the controlgroup. Both groups were clinically examined (for dental caries using DMFSIndex, and gingival condition using gingival index GI of Loe&Silness ) andlaboratory assessment (by using non stimulated saliva for each woman wascollected and homogenized then Mutans Streptococci (MS) were counted,isolated, purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristic andbiochemical tests also, the Salivary IgA concentration was measured by usingsingle radial immune diffusion method in different duration of oral contraceptiveusing ).Results: Gingival index was significantly higher among oral contraceptive users thannon-users (P<0.01), which was correlated with the duration of usage (r=0.50).sIgA concentration higher in study group than in control group (P<0.01)which also increased positively with duration of using(r=0.80). A positivecorrelation between sIgA and gingivitis (r=0.54) was found. DMFS Index and thenumber of MS colony were highly significant in study group than the control(P<0.01). MS colony count was positive correlated with duration of usage(r=0.88) but the DMFS had too weak correlation with the duration of using whichwas a non significant at (P>0.05).Conclusion: The use of contraceptive pills for a long period increases the likelihoodof gingival inflammation and significantly associated with increase sIgA level, sothe regular use of oral contraceptive seems to enhance mucosal immune functionin study subjects.

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