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Article
Urban Crowding in Iraqi Cities Zayona Area in Baghdad City – case study
الاكتظاظ الحضري في المدن العراقية منطقة زيونة في بغداد حالة دراسية

Authors: Anwar Subhi Ramdan Al-Qaraghuli أنوار صبحي رمضان, --- Abd- Al Razak Tarish عبد الرزاق طارش زبون --- Enaam Qassim Abdullah أنعام قاسم
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 387-403
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The urban crowding is one concepts that accompanied the population increasing in the world today, the importance of this concept has emerged at the present time because of the economic and social conditions experienced by the communities, this concept indicates to social phenomenon depends on the number of occupants for a particular place, the size of that place and basic feature of the concept is the Social interaction.Global and local urban studies addressed the concept of urban crowding, the discussion of these studies has produce identify knowledge and scientific gaps, and represented the problem of research, which focused on lack aspects of previous studies, related to the lack of clear and comprehensive vision to description the urban crowding and its multiple aspects in general , and studying this concept in Iraqi cities in particular, Thus determining the aim of the research to introduced more adequacy and clarity of vision based on the descriptive and analytical methodology by defining the concept of urban crowding, down to the extraction of the basic vocabulary of the theoretical framework and to benefit from the aspects and definitions presented earlier, then applicant vocabularies on one of residential areas in Baghdad city (zayona area), down to determine the conclusions and recommendations.

يُعدّ الاكتظاظ الحضري أحد المفاهيم التي واكبت الزيادة السكانية في العالم اليوم, وقد برزت أهمية هذا المفهوم في الوقت الحاضر بسبب الظروف الاقتصادية والإجتماعية التي تعانيها المجتمعات، اذ يشير هذا المفهوم إلى أنه ظاهرة إجتماعية تعتمد على عدد الأفراد الشاغلين لمكان معين, وحجم ذلك المكان ويشكل التفاعل الإجتماعي بوصفه سمة أساسية له. تطرقت الدراسات الحضرية العالمية والمحلية إلى مفهوم الاكتظاظ الحضري، وأفرزت مناقشة تلك الدراسات عن تحديد الفجوات المعرفية العلمية, وتبلورت مشكلة البحث التي ركزت على أكثر النواحي نقصاً في الدراسات السابقة المرتبطة بعدم وجود تصور واضح وشامل يصف الاكتظاظ الحضري ويعرفه من حيث جوانبه المتعددة عموماً, ودراسة هذا المفهوم في المدن العراقية على وجه الخصوص, وبذلك تحدد هدف البحث بطرح التصور الأكثر كفاية ووضوح بالاعتماد على المنهج الوصفي التحليلي من خلال تعريف مفهوم الاكتظاظ الحضري, وصولا الى إستخلاص المفردات الأساسية للإطار النظري وبالاستفادة من الجوانب والتعاريف المطروحة سابقا, ليتم بموجب ذلك التطبيق على احد مناطق بغداد السكنية المتمثلة بمنطقة زيونة، وصولا الى تحديد الاستنتاجات والتوصيات.


Article
The effect of dental educational level in adults (18–25 years old) with crowded teeth on the plaque and gingival conditions

Authors: Ne’am R Al–Saleem --- Saher S Gasgoos --- Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 10 Pages: 127-131
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationbetween crowding, plaque and gingival conditions accordingto the level of dental education of the Iraqi adults.The sample was divided primarily into two groups: Thefirst group was collected from dental students whom dentallywell educated, while the second group was collected fromother population whom dentally non educated (industrialist).Each group was subdivided into two groups according to thepresence or absence of crowding, so that four groups wereobtained (educated participants with non crowded teeth, educatedpersons with crowded teeth, non educated participantswith non crowded teeth and non educated participants withcrowded teeth).The results of this study indicated that the dental educationallevel is positively affecting on the gingival health in bothcrowded and normal occlusion. However, regardless of thelevel of education, plaque accumulation and gingivitis are significantlyhigher in the crowded teeth sample.

Keywords

Crowding --- gingivitis --- plaque --- socioeconomics


Article
The Relationship Between Incisor Crown Shape and Dental Crowding

Author: Khawla M Awni
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 24 Pages: 344-349
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the shape of the crowns of the incisors and crowding. Materials and Methods: Plaster models of 100 individuals having class I molar relationship were chosen .By using the irregularity index, 51 individuals (22 males and 29 fe-males) were considered to be the crowding group(irregularity index >3mm),and 49 individuals (23 males and 26 females) were considered to be the normal group(irregularity index< 3mm).The casts were selected from the POP department at the college of dentistry in Mosul University. Repeated mea-surements of the maximum mesiodistal width of the incisal and cervical areas of the incisors were tak-en by means of a vernier caliper and a ratios of these measurements were calculated. Results:The mean value for the crowding group was significantly higher in the incisal area of lower incisors and upper central incisors than corresponding values in the normal group. A significant correlation was present between upper irregularity index and upper lateral incisor mesiodistal width ratio. Conclusions: The lower incisors were more triangulary shaped in the crowding group than those in the normal one.

Keywords

Incisors --- crown shape --- crowding


Article
Effect of Lace Back on Amount of Anchorage Loss Using Labial and Lingual Technique. (An in vitro Study)

Author: Omar H AL-Luazy
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 26 Pages: 366-371
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: Evaluate the amount of anchorage loss of the lower posterior teeth 2nd premolar and first molar when used as anchorage teeth for retraction of canine bilaterally by using lace back technique after extraction of first premolar in sever crowding cases. Materials and Methods: Two groups of brackets, one of them labial (conventional) were bonded on the labial aspect of metal teeth except 4 4 typodont by special adhesive and other groups lingual brackets also bonded in the same teeth lingual surface and two types of light or low gauge arch wire Niti , twisted multi strand for sliding the canines retraction by using elastomeric ring with ligature wire active lace back once with labial and other with lingual technique. Results: There is no significant difference between twisted multi strand wire when ligated on the teeth in both lingual technique and labial technique. Significant difference when used Niti wire on lingual technique when compared with the same type of wire when ligated on labial technique and significant difference with twisted multi strand when ligated on teeth in lingual technique. Conclusion: Anchorage loss decreases with twisted multi strand wire because the friction increased between arch wire and base of bracket in both labial and lingual technique and decreased with Niti wire specially when used in lingual techniques .

Keywords

Typodont --- Friction --- Anchorage --- Lingual --- crowding.


Article
The relationship of the third molar to the anterior dental crowding

Authors: Nada M Al–Sayagh --- Anas A Mohammad --- Luqman M Ismail
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2004 Volume: 4 Issue: 7 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether the upper and lower third molars can contribute to the occurrence or aggravation of crowding. The sample of this study consisted of 187 subjects (103 males and 84 females) aged 20–30 years, then the sample was divided into two main groups and three subgroups. The groups consisted of crowded and normal subjects. The subgroups consisted of persons who had maxillary or mandibular third molars that were either impacted, erupted into function or agenesis. The results showed that the crowded group revealed a higher percentage of impacted third molar and a smaller percentage of erupted third molar particularly in the mandible and a smaller percentage of third molar agenesis than the normal group. The females had more impacted third molar in the upper and lower jaws for both crowded and normal groups. The percentage of third molar agenesis in the males was higher in the upper jaw and smaller in the lower jaw than the females. In normal group, no significant difference was found between upper and lower jaws except in females where the unilateral third molar agenesis was greater in the lower jaw. In crowded group, the lower jaw revealed a higher percentage of impacted third molar for all subjects and a smaller percentage of erupted third molar for females and a smaller third molar agenesis for the males as compared with upper jaw.


Article
The Use of Computer Technology in Dental Arch Crowding Assessment

Author: Dr. Mehdi Abdul Hadi Al-Rubayee. B.D.S MSc * د. مهدي عبد الهادي
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 372-383
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Correct alignment of teeth is a fundamental goal of Orthodontic treatment. The accurate assessment of dental crowding and the space required to alleviate it, is critical for correct orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.Objectives: To assess dental crowding by using two different methods, which are manual and computerized in order to compare the advantages and disadvantages of both methods.Methods: In this cross –sectional study, we studied a convenient sample of 100 individuals (50 male and 50 female) with different degrees of crowding. Upper and lower dental casts were obtained for each subject and these casts were analyzed by using two methods, manual and computerized.Results: It was found that there is a significant difference between the manual and the computerized method in all measurements (crowding, space available and space required). Also, it was found that the computerized method is a quick method and more practical for the storage of a large number of dental casts and more reliable for the measurement of the space available than the manual method. But, there was some difficulty in the assessment of severely crowded groups (>4mm).Conclusions: The degree of dental crowding increased when the teeth size increased and arch perimeter decreased. The degree of crowding in the upper arch is more affected by the size of the teeth rather than the size of the arch, while the degree of crowding in the lower arch is more affected by the arch size rather than teeth size.


Article
Vertical analysis of patients with late lower arch crowding

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Abstract

Background: Because of many factors play a role in the developing of late lower arch crowding, therefore theobjective of the current study is to do vertical analysis for subjects with late lower dental arch crowding. Theconducted study is the first attempt to do vertical analysis for Iraqi subjects with late lower arch crowding to see ifthere is a vertical discrepancy in such patients.Subjects and methods: Eighty subjects were selected according to certain inclusion criteria from patients attendingthe Orthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry, Baghdad University, patients ranged between 18-25 yearsold. The 80 patients were divided into two groups (crowding and normal), 40 patients each (20 males and 20females). A study cast of lower dental arch was obtained, and then Nance's space analysis made for each cast,Cephalometric radiographs were also taken for each patient involved in the current study and digitization was doneto calculate nine vertical linear and twelve angular measurements.Results: Most of linear measurements showed higher mean values in crowding than normal subjects except S-Go, Ar-Go, and PFH/AFH, also subjects with crowding had significantly higher (P<0.05) anterior facial height (ANS-Me) thannormal subjects, and that difference occurred only in the lower part of the face, the Jaraback Ratio (PFH/AFH) wasalso low in crowding subjects, also higher mean values of LADH, UADH and UPDH in crowding group, may be due tocompensatory over eruption of teeth as a result a bite opening occurred, indicating that patients with crowdinghave tendency toward posterior rotation. Regarding the angular measurements, subjects (total males and females)with crowding had larger mean values than normal. There were no interactions between total mean values ofnormal and crowding subjects for any outcome angular parameter, except four of the twelve angularmeasurements (SN-MP, Occ-MP, PP-MP, and sum S.A.G angles) showed an interaction, with females in both normaland crowding groups exhibited higher mean values than males.Conclusions: Subjects with late lower arch crowding can have and/or affect on the vertical dimension, and thevertical discrepancy in late lower arch crowding should be considered during diagnosis and treatment plane oforthodontic cases, active treatment, and retention phase, in order to have stable end result in long term prognosis inorthodontics.

بسبب العوامل الكثیرة التي تلعب دورا في تكون تراكب الاسنان المتأخر للفك السفلي, عملنا ھذه الدراسة لتقیم البعد العمودي للرأس للاشخاص ذوي التراكب السني المتأخر في الفكالسفلي, و تعتبرھذه الدراسةھي الاولى في ھذا المجال للمرضى العراقیین. تتألف عینة البحث من ثمانین شخصا, اختیروا وفق بعض الضوابط من المرضى الذین راجعوا فرع تقویم الأسنان في25 عاما, الاشخاص الثمانون وزعوا الى مجموعتین (الاعتیادیون وذوي الاسنان المتراكبة), كل مجموعة تتألف من اربعین شخصا - كلیة طب الأسنان، جامعة بغداد، تراوحت اعمارھم بین 1820 ذكرا و 20 انثى). القوالب التشخیصیة للفك السفلي صنعت و عمل لھا تحلیل الفراغات السنیة بطریقة نانس, وتم اخذ اشعات قیاسیة للرأس وتم تحلیل تسعة قیاسات خطیة واثنى عشر زاویة. )و , Ar-Go و S-Go وقد تبین من نتئج البحث بأن معظم القیاسات الخطیة كانت اعلى في الاشخاص ذوي التراكب السني للفك السفلي من ما ھو علیھ في الاشخاص الاعتیادیین ما عدا ابعاد,UADH كذلك الاشخاص ذوي التراكب السني المتأخرللفك السفلي لدیھم قیمة معنویة عالیة وملحوظة في بعد الوجھ الامامي وھذا الاختلاف وجد في الجزء السفلي من الوجھ, وان , PFA/AFHاعلى في المجموعة المتراكبة بینما نسبة جاراباك كانت منخفضة, ویمكن ان یعزى ھذا الاختلاف الى زیادة نمو الاسنان العمودي نتیجة العضة المفتوحة مما یدل على ان UPDH و,LADHالاشخاص ذوي التراكب السني للفك السفلي لدیھم میل نحو الدوران الخلفي للفك السفلي, اما فیما یخص القیاسات الزاویة فلم تكن ھناك اختلافات معنویھ ملحوظة بین مجموع متوسطات القیم لأينستنتج من ھذه الدراسة بأنھ یوجد فرق معنوي ملحوظ في قیاسات الوجة العمودیة بین الاشخاص ,(S.A.G و مجموع PP-MP,Occ-MP ,Sn-MP)ٍ معلمة الا في اربع معلمات زاویةالاعتیادیین والاشخاص ذوي تراكب السني المتأخر للفك السفلي, وھذا الفرق یجب ان یأخذ بعین الاعتبارأثناء التشخیص ووضع الخطة العلاجیة للحصول على افضل النتائج التقویمیة المستقرةالطویلة الامد في علاج تقویم الاسنان


Article
Crowding Factor Effect to Solve Multiplexer Problems

Author: Lubna Zaglul Bashir
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS,COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING المجلة العراقية لهندسة الحاسبات والاتصالات والسيطرة والنظم ISSN: 18119212 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 40-54
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Abstract –Adaptive systems include a vast range of living natural and artificialsystems. Reinforcement learning systems are one form of adaptive systems. The currentwork will focus on a particular kind of reinforcement learning system: the classifiersystem. A classifier system has the ability to categorize its environment and create rulesdynamically, thus making it able to adapt to differing circumstances. This workinvestigates the effect of crowding factor on the classifier system to solve six-bit andeleven-bit multiplexer problems. The six bit multiplexer problem is defined as six signallines that come into the multiplexer. The signals on the first two lines (the address or Alines)are decoded as an assigned binary number. This address value is then used toindicate which of the four remaining signals (on the data or D-lines) is to be passedthrough the multiplexer output. The eleven bit multiplexer problem is defined as elevensignal lines that come into the multiplexer. The signals on the first three lines (theaddress or A-lines) are decoded as an assigned binary number. This address value isthen used to indicate which of the eight remaining signals (on the data or D-lines) is tobe passed through the multiplexer output. This work Investigates the classifier systemrule learning with no crowding and normal crowding settings by comparing andcontrasting the effectiveness of the rule sets learned and their composition in two cases.Experiment results show that the run using classifiers without crowding replacement isunable to perform as well as the run with crowding replacement. The time needed tomatch the signal is shorter when using classifiers with crowding replacement and we aremore likely to achieve good results quickly.


Article
The Relationship of the Lower third Molar to the Anterior Dental Crowding

Authors: Emad H. Abdulla --- Maha I. Abdulazeez --- Labeed S. Hasan
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 29-32
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Introduction: The role of the lower third molars in the lower incisors crowding has been debated for more thana century. Significant disagreement exists among practitioners, including both orthodontists and oral and maxillofacialsurgeons whether the third molar causes mandibular anterior crowding.Aim of study: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether the lower third molars can contribute to the occurrenceor aggravation of crowding.Materials and methods: A sample of 131voluneteer (67 males and 64 females) aged 18-25 years were includedin the 1st ,2nd, ,3rd ,4th and 5th stage of college of dentistry /Tikrit University was chosen, the sample wasdivided into three main groups consisted subjects who had mandibular third molars that were either impacted,erupted into function or agenesis.Results: The study showed that 70(53.4%) volunteer s out of the 131 have impacted lower 3rd molar, 52(39.7%)volunteers have erupted lower 3rd molar, while 9(7.6%) volunteer have agenesis of the 3rd molar.Conclusion: The crowded group revealed a higher percentage of impacted third molar while lowest percentageof third molar agenesis.


Article
Irregularity Index With Gender Differences Using (Exocad) System

Authors: Nidhal Hussein Ghaib --- Haraa Sabah Mohammed-Salih --- Hayder Saed Al-Atabi --- Ahmed Ismaiel Alali
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 885 -895
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This study was conducted to detect the greater amount of anterior crowding whether in the upper or lower dental arch in either male or female in different malocclusion using exocad system on digital model.Sample of 30 subjects (15 male, 15 female) with age range (14-18) years old, study model for each subject for upper and lower arch scanned by using MeditIdentica Blue Scanners after Exocad software used to measure intermolar (IMD), intercanine (ICD) and little's irregularity index (LII) in present study. Shows wide range of variation in IMD, ICD and LII, female sample shows wider arch in molar and canine region in cl III malocclusion at both upper and lower dental arches (49.45mm and 45.63mm respectively), whereas male data showed greater IMD found in CLI malocclusion (56.54mm) in the upper arch. Results indicating LII in female group with CLI malocclusion severe anterior crowding was found in the lower arch (13.13mm), whereas the least amount of anterior crowding was found in the upper arch of CLII malocclusion (3.59 mm), while in the lower arch well aligned anterior teeth with minimal crowding was found in CLIII malocclusion (3.14mm), with highly significant differences between groups for both dental arches (P> 0.01). In male group, the results of LII were different as the most anterior crowding was found in CLII malocclusion in both upper and lower dental arches (11.7mm and 9.36mm respectively), whereas the minimal anterior crowding was found in CLIII in the lower and upper dental arches (3.74mm and 8.57mm respectively), with significant differences (P> 0.01).Finding establish that the crooking of incisors its dominant character in female male group in the mandibular arch with the CL I malocclusion, while In male group severe crowding exist in the maxillary arch of CL II malocclusion patients.

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