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Article
The Clash of Cultures and the Search for Security: between global power and violent extremes

Author: Prof.Dr.Geoffrey P. Nash
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 18-56
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

The pursuit for international security has occupied statesmen eversince the First World War ended almost a hundred years ago, buteven with the best intentions, efforts to bring about order and stabilityin the world have still not achieved a decisive breakthrough.Peace and security – in spite of the international organizations builtup after the twentieth century’s two world wars – continue to eludeus. Previously, in the nineteenth century, world affairs were governedby the Powers (i.e. the major European States), who notionallydepended on a ‘concert’ or balance of power to maintain internationalorder within Europe, but who spread their imperial powerthrough the rest of the world according to their own devices. In thetwentieth century, the two Superpowers prevailed allowing theirproxies to engage in wars and disturbances beyond their agreedspheres of influence. Today we live in a multi-polar world, which isno longer held in check by the receding hegemony of the remainingSuperpower, and where the resultant vacuum has resulted inthe break up of nations and the ascendancy of insurrectionary andstate terror.How should we view future prospects, and what hope is there thatthe present world powers will reach an agreement that might yieldthe peace and security that we all desire? Realistically, as long aspresent circumstances prevail, we cannot expect that what in 1991President George H. W. Bush called ‘the new world order’ will beimminently established. So, according to the terminology of internationalrelations theory, we might attempt to understand internationalaffairs according to the ‘pragmatic’, ‘realist’, ‘idealist’, etc.labels used to categorize the foreign policies of states; however, theassumptions on which these terms are based rely on past experienceand we cannot assume that leaders will continue to behave asthey did over the last one hundred and fifty years, as exemplified bythe the present incumbent of the oval office.


Article
Cyber Security, Cultural Security and the Cyber Gap: Lessons from Middle Eastern Policy Makers Cultural Security: Concepts and Applications

Author: Prof. Dr. Brian Brivat
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 58-81
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

States face ever increasing ethical, legal and rights challengesthrown up by cyber security issues both in terms of national security,the protection of cultural norms and in terms of privacy andcommercial activity. These challenges interface with greater demandsfor online human rights across a broad spectrum from thedefence of IP to the protection of identity and the limits of surveillance.There are significant variations in the level and quality ofpolicy frameworks that respond to increasing economic reliance oninternet based activity. The link between the effective operation ofa national cyber security plan and the promotion and defence ofonline human rights in terms of national, regional or global humanrights norms in what will be an ever more complex and disputedarea, requires a platform for training and sharing of best practice.There have been a range of initiatives from the international donorcommunity to engage with individual countries and to set globalstandards. There has been little specific and sustained focus on theinterface between security and rights because different departmentstend to focus on these issues. In turn, different states havewidely differing conceptions of freedom of expression and culturalnorms that should be allowed.This paper builds on a three year multi-country project that hasestablished a network of cyber policy experts across the MiddleEast. It explores the need to manage the trade-off between publicexpectations of privacy, cultural difference and the need for statesurveillance in cyber space. It presents the preliminary conclusionsof a group of policy makers who took part in a multi-stage Fellowshipprogramme. This group pulled back from considering somekey issues, accepted profound differences of approach on other issuesand devised an agenda of collaboration in spaces that they feltprogress could be made on. The paper concludes on the needs tomore Fellowship style network policy making and presents a broadertheory of change model for developing policy responses to thechallenges of cyber-crime.


Article
Multiple Versions of Islamic Source Texts: A Suggestion for Achieving Cultural Security

Author: Asst.Prof.Muhammad-Reza FakhrRohani
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 84-94
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

Security, and particularly cultural security, are of utmost significancefor sustaining the cultural capital of any nation. Althoughvarious nations may take pride in their dissimilar cultural capitals,all depending on their cultural values and heritage, the same principleof safeguarding our cultural capitals proves of conspicuoussignificance for our posterity and the future any nation may desireto construct. The present paper pays attention to ways of achievingcultural security vis-a-vis multiple versions of Husayni texts forour posterity and the threats and opportunities that may appear.Here Husayni literature, in its various manifestations, is regarded asa precious capital worthy of careful safeguarding for our future generations.It is here that various types of translation and annotation,when applied to Husayni literature, prove of utmost significance.


Article
Moral Language Endangerment

Author: Lec.Dr. Ramia Fu'ad Abdulazeez (Ph.D.)
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 109-124
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

This paper is concerned with the concept of moral languageendangerment by which is meant the unnoticed danger that a languageis exposed to in what makes its identity at stake. It comes asan offspring of certain mechanisms the unfolding of which is themain concern of this work. Thus, the paper starts with defining theconcept of physical language endangerment and showing its strategies,then defining its counterpart, i.e. moral language endangermentby comparing it to the former spotting Arabic as a case underscrutiny. Finally, a number of conclusions and recommendations arelisted.


Article
Cultural Security: Stagnation or Safety?

Author: Asst. Lectu. Sophia Butt
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 142-160
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

When reflecting on the concept of cultural security, it is important tobe mindful of its multi-faceted existenceand its far-reaching impacton individuals across the world,and,ifpondered from a theologicalperspective, in thehereafter, too. Definitions of the term ‘culture’are largely demographic in nature,premised on the idiosyncrasiesof a nation. They commonly focus on heritage and both the conservationand celebration of diversity in architecture, art, clothes, cuisine,language, literature, music, religion, tradition, and much more.Culture is, therefore,the manifestation of a multi-layered reality, atool through which individuals craft their identity and their pathsthrough life. Thus, it is no surprise that the preservation of culturesis of paramount importance to anthropologists, sociologists andsome theologians, and naturally, individuals whopossessan innatedesire to seek comfort in the familiar. However, in recent years, theterm cultural security has also taken on meanings other than thoseassociated exclusively with nations and individuals.


Article
Charity, Tenderness-Based Moral Education and Cultural Security

Author: Asst.Prof.Dr.Ahmad Deylami
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 96-107
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

Explosion-like access of information, communications, and socialmedia have brought about instant cultural exchanges. In itself ofa tool-like nature, it can potentially be in the service of the good orevil. Availability of harmful data, represented by tempting appearancethat instigate people to follow carnal desires, and sharpen andkindle more sagacious people’s desires, it urges people, and especiallythe religious people, to find cures for this unfavorable massphenomenon.Hence, the question: What is the easiest and most accessibleway for prevention, cure, and providing cultural security for the humanand spiritual resources and capitals? The present paper focuseson the notion of moral education based on tenderness and charityas the fastest and firmest ways for achieving cultural security, particularlybased on the Quranic and Ahl al-Bayt legacies. This methodnever contradicts the minimal legal and state-based requirements;however, these requirements should be designed and practiced accordingto charity/ tenderness-based moral education strategies.


Article
Cultural Insecurity: Where Lies the Threat?

Author: Asst.Lec.Hasan Shikoh
Journal: AL-AMEED JOURNAL مجلة العميد ISSN: 22270345 23119152 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 162-170
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

In Cultural Security conferences and tea party drawing room discussions,there seems to be much concern about two particular issueson the subject: the articulation of an accurate definition of ‘culture’,and identifying the external threats to the same.Extremely complicateddefinitions are obsessed over, and thus, much time and effortis expended on what seems to be an endless pursuit.The United Nations may defineculture in a particular way, dictionariesin anotherand learned professors in their way, but in the wakeof this intellectual wrestling, the bottom line isthat whatever it mayentail, culture is, simply put, a way of life.Then, in the twists and turns of the intellectual jousting regardingwhat aspects of the human existence may be includedin or excludedfrom it, the issue of security is considered, and the defaultstress seems toprimarily be placed on the ‘external’ forces as beingthe greatest threat.It is rare for one to hear participants and otherswho are concerned about their cultural security, to lay equal,let alonegreater, stress on the factors of theinternal threat to theirculture.

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