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Article
ISOLATION OF CYSTEINE AND METHIONINE
عزل طافرات العوز الغذائي الامينين والسستين والميثويين في بكتريا السينورايزوممليلوتي

Author: BASIL A. ABBAS باسل عبد الزهرة عباس
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 7-12
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Random 'l‘n5 mutagenesis produced 2l cysteine/methionine and 13 methionineau.'otrophic mutants of‘ Sinorliiznbimn me/1'/or/' strain Rmd20l. Linkage of Tn5 toauxotroph indicated that each mutant had a single 'l‘n5 insertion. All auxotrophshowed spontaneous reversion to prototrophy and they resembled the parental strainin production ofcell surface molecule and utilization of sugars and dicarboxylic acid.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity Study of some New Thiazolidine Derivatives
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لبعض مشتقات الثايازوليدين

Author: Ahmed A. Majed and Dawood S. Abid احمد عبدالهادي داود عبد
Journal: basrah journal of science البصرة للعلوم ISSN: 18140343 Year: 2015 Volume: 33 Issue: 1C Pages: 101-117
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The study included the preparation of compound 2,2'-(1,4-phenylene) dithiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T) which were prepared from the reaction of Terphthaldehyde with cysteine under slightly conditions, This reaction afforded product as a mixture of diastereomers, Cis-(2R,4R) and Trans-(2S,2R), which could not be separated, An equilibrium resulting from epimerization at C(2) occurs between two isomers, The Cis/Trans ratios were strongly dependent on the nature of the solvent.Thiazolidine(T) react with acetic anhydride for the preparation of compound 2,2'-(1,4-phenylene) bis (N-acetyl thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) (AT) and which represents reaction protection for a amine group, then reacts compound (AT) with some aromatic amines to obtaincompound thiazolidine-4-carboxylic amide. The new synthesized compound were identified by melting points and FT-IR,1HNMR, 13CNMR and Mass Spectrum. The biological activity of some preparation compound were studied against two types of bacteria one of them were gram negative (E.coil) and other were gram positive (S.aureus ) .

تضمنت هذه الدراسة تحضير المركب ((T والمحضر من تفاعل الحامض الاميني السيستاين مع الترفثالدهايد تحت ظروف معينة, هذا التفاعل ينتج مزيج من الايزومرين السس (2R,4R) والترانس (2S,4R),التي تكون صعبة الفصل و في حالة توازن و الايبمر ينتج من ذرة الكاربون 2 بين كلا الايزومرين, نسبة الايزومرين السس والترانس تعتمد على طبيعة المذيب.الثايزولدين ((T يتفاعل مع انهدريد الخليك لتحضير المركب (AT) والذي يمثل تفاعل حماية لمجموعة الامين, ثم يتفاعل المركب ((AT مع بعض الامينات الاروماتية للحصول على مركبات الثايزولدين-4- كاربوكسيلك امايد. تم تشخيص المركبات المحضرة بقياس درجات الانصهار وقياس اطياف تحت الحمراء واطياف الكتلة واطياف الرنين النووي المغناطيسي البروتوني والكاربوني 13. درست الفعالية البايولوجية لبعض المركبات المحضرة اتجاه نوعين من البكتريا احدهما سالبة لصبغة كرام ( E.coil) والاخرى موجبة لصبغة كرام ((S.aureus


Article
Effect of Plant extract of Nigilla Sativa on the effectiveness of the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica in Patients from Al-Hammar Marsh Iraq .Al-Nasiriyah.

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Abstract

Stool samples from people which were suffering from acute diarrhea had been chosen At Al-Hammar Marsh and from reviewers of a clinic in the city of Al-Nasiriyah Chibaach during the month of June 2009 .Stool examination results showed that the proportion of total parasite infection was 49% Entamoeba histolytica Infections were higher in Males ,reaching 54,8 % compared with 54,2 % for females .To investigate the possibility of parasitic Amoeba growth Semi Solid Medium was very successful as a good media for that purpose .Using the oily extract of the black seed had an a good effect on amoebic Parasite killing for a short period in compare with Metronidazole drug ,especially with the dose of (0.04) ml ,results from using a mixture of a black seed oil and the enzyme of Cystein proteinase, Metronidazole and Tinodazole showed a great inhibition for the parasite enzymic activity to (34,48,50)ml, respectively. As a conclusion the results showed that black seed oil extract and these three drugs were very effective factors on the trophozoits phases of Entamoeba histolytica Parasite and the most effectiveness can be gaine from the black seed oil extract.

تم اختيار اشخاص يعانون حالات الاسهال الحاد من مجتمع هور الحمار والمراجعين لمستوصف الجبايش في مدينة الناصرية خلال شهر حزيران 2009 فحصت عينات البراز وأظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن نسبة الإصابة الكلية بطفيلي بلغت 49.5% Entamoeba histolytica ..وكانت أعلى في الذكور حيث بلغت 54.8% مقابل 45.2% للإناث. وللتحري عن امكانية تنمية هذا الطفيلي في وسط زرعي مناسب والمدة التي يبقى فيها الطفيلي حياً في هذا الوسط تم معاملة إنزيم السستائين بروتينيز المقيد بالمستخلص الزيتي لنبات الحبة السوداء و المترونيدازول والتنيدازول فوجد من خلال النتائج تثبيط الفعالية الإنزيمية إلى (34، 62، 55 و 60) وحدة/مل على التوالي.واثبت ان الوسط semi solid medium for parasitic amoebae)) نجاحه في انماء الطفيلي اثبت استخدام المستخلص الزيتي للحبة السوداء نجاحه في قتل الطفيلي المستنبت في الوسط الزرعي في مدة قصيرة .ونجاحه كعلاج للزحار الاميبي مقارنة بعقار(Metronidazole ) خاصة عند استخدامه بجرعة قدرها (0.04) مل درس تأثير المستخلص النباتي والعقاقير الطبية في الأطوار المتغذية لطفيلي histolytica E. في الوسط الزرعي، فوجد إن المستخلص المائي للحبة السوداء وعقاري المترونيدازول والتنيدازول قد أثرا على الأطوار المتغذية لطفيلي histolytica E. نستنتج من هذه الدراسة استعمال مستخلص النبات كعقار لمعالجة حالات الإسهال الناتجة عن الإصابة بطفيلي histolytica E.


Article
Real-Time PCR For Detection CP1 & CP5 Virulence Factors Of Entamoeba Histolytica In Patients Stool Samples In Al - Najaf Al- Ashraf Province
التحري عن عوامل الضراوة CP5,CP1 للاميبا الحالة للنسيج في محافظة النجف الاشرف بتقنية التفاعل التسلسلي لإنزيم البلمرة.

Authors: Zainab Ali Hussein --- Haiytham Mohamed Hamady
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 3 Pages: 190-196
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective: It aims to determine the genes characterization of CP1 and CP5 pathogenic factors of E.histolytica parasitic in stool samples of patients in AL- Najaf Al Ashraf Province Methodology: This study was carried out for 6 months from the first of December 2012 till the end of June 2013The samples collected from Al-Sadar teaching hospital, AL-Zahra maternity and children hospital, AL-abasia hospital, AL-Forat hospital ,AL-Hakime hospital ,AL-Manathera hospital and private clinic in Al- Najaf governorate.Results: To detect the major virulence factors (V.F.) cysteine proteinase1(Cp1), cysteine proteinase5(CP5) of E.histolytica, Real -Time PCR technique was conducted, by using specific primers for E.histolytica, the results showed that 40 samples out of 162 were positive, out of these positive samples, there were 16 samples positive for C P1, 24 samples were positive for CP5. Conclusion: CP1 & CP5 is one of the most important virulence factors in E.histolytica such as toxin like activity. Recommendation: further study development of molecular diagnosis such as real time PCR for other non-pathogenic Entamoeba species which found in human, such as E.moskoviskii in comparison with E.histolytica, because the RT-PCR quantitative and qualitative improved method for the specific diagnosis of E.histolytica infection.

الهدف: اجريت هذه الدراسة للكشف عن عوامل الفوعة الرئيسية , CP1 CP5 لطفيلي الاميبا الحالة للنسيج المعوي Entamoeba histolytica وتشخيصها باستخدام تقنية التفاعل السلسلي لانزيم البلمرة Real-Time- PCR)).المنهجية: اجريت هذه الدراسة على 678 من المرضى الوافدين وثلاثين من الافراد الاصحاء كمجموعة سيطرة الذين زاروا مستشفى مدينة الصدر الطبية ،مستشفى الزهراء التعليمي ،مستشفى السجاد، مستشفى الفرات ،مستشفى الحكيم ومستشفى المناذرة وكذللك المختبرات الاهلية في محافظة النجف الاشرف خلال الفترة من كانون الاول 2012 ولغاية نهاية شهر حزيران 2013.النتائج: أظهرت نتائج الكشف عن العوامل الممرضة الرئيسية وهي السيستين بروتينيز1 (CP1) السيستين بروتينيز5 (CP5) لطفيلي الاميبا الحالة للنسيج بأجراء تقنية التفاعل السلسلي لانزيم البلمرة Real-Time- PCR)) وباستخدام بادئات محددة لطفيلي الاميبا الحالة للنسيج واظهرت النتائج ان 40 عينة من اصل 162 عينة كانت ايجابية الفحص ومن هذه العينات الايجابية الفحص كانت 16 عينة ايجابية الفحص للسيستين بروتينيز1 (CP1) و 24 عينة كانت ايجابية الفحص للسيستين بروتينيز5 (CP5) . الاستنتاجات : من اهم عوامل الفوعة الرئيسية لطفيلي الاميبا الحالة للنسيج المعوي هي السيستين بروتينيز1 (CP1) السيستين بروتينيز5 (CP5).التوصيات: اجراء دراسات اضافية للتشخيص الجزيئي بواسطة تقنية التفاعل السلسلي لانزيم البلمرة Real-Time- PCR)) لانواع الاميبا الغير ممرضة في الانسان .


Article
The Neuroprotective Effect of L-Cysteine Towards Cadmium or Nickel Neurotoxicity on Adult Rat Brain Antioxidant Status and Acetylcholinesterase Activity

Author: Hussam W. Al-Humadi
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 2043-2048
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni), as heavy metals, are the major environmental and industrial contaminant ions which can exert serious oxidative and neurotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of the antioxidant property of L-cysteine (Cys) on the adult rat brain total antioxidant status (TAS) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity induced by Cd or Ni administration.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: A (saline-treated negative control), B (Cys-positive control, 7 mg/kg), C (Cd, 3CdSO4. 8H2O, 1 mg/kg), D (Ni, NiCl2, 13 mg/kg), E (Cd+Cys) and F (Ni+Cys). All rats were treated once daily for 7 days with intraperitoneal injections of the tested compounds. Rats were killed by decapitation and mentioned parameters were measured spectrophotometrically.Results: The rat brain AChE activity was significantly increased by Cd, Ni and Cys (P<0.001 vs control for all), while it was adjusted into control levels by the co-administration of Cys with Cd (P<0.001 vs control, P<0.05 vs Cys) or with Ni (non-significant vs control, P<0.001 vs Cys). Moreover, the treatment with Cd or Ni alone was exhibited a significant reduction in brain TAS (P<0.001 and P<0.01 respectively vs control) that was statistically significant reversed near to control by Cys co-administration (P<0.05 vs Cd or Ni); Cys group alone had mild effect on TAS.Conclusion: The exposure to Cd in vivo causes a more statistically significant decrease in the rat brain TAS and an increase in AChE activity than the exposure to Ni. Both effects can be, significantly reversed into the control levels by Cys co-administration but Cys could be considered more neuroprotective agent against chronic exposure to Cd than Ni regarding the above parameters.


Article
6.EFFECTS OF N-ACETYL-CYSTEINE (NAC) ADMINISTRATION ON GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS PARAMETERS IN PREDIABETIC PATIENTS

Authors: Ahmed R. Abu Raghif احمد رحمة ابو رغيف --- Yaseen A. Yaseen ياسين عبيد ياسين --- Muntadher H. Dawood منتظر حنون داود
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 393-399
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Prediabetes is determined on the bases of glycemic parameters, which are above normal but below diabetic thresholds. Prediabetes is associated with the presence of insulin resistance and β-cells dysfunction. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), as a safe and inexpensive medication, is commercially accessible since long-time ago. This drug is not found in natural sources, although cysteine is present in some meals like chicken and turkey meats, garlic, yogurt, and eggs. NAC prevents apoptosis and oxygen related genotoxicity in endothelial cells by increasing intracellular levels of glutathione and decreasing mitochondrial membrane depolarization reaction.Objective: To evaluate the effects of NAC administration on glucose homeostasis parameters in prediabetic patients.Methods: This study included, 25 patients treated with dietary control and life style modifications for 12 weeks, 25 patients treated with NAC (600 mg) oral tablets twice daily plus dietary control and life style modifications for 12 weeks. Other 20 in addition to 50 patients to have an idea about the normal values of study parameters and in order to assess how much the drug used in the study were able to normalize the abnormal parameters.Results: NAC demonstrated a significant decrease in the fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, fasting Insulin and insulin resistance at the end of 12 weeks (P<0.05) compared with baseline measurements.Conclusion: The results of the study showed that N-acetyl cysteine has an effective effect on glycemic control.Keywords: Prediabetes , N-acetyl cysteine , glycemic controlCitation: Abu Raghif AR, Yaseen YA, Dawood MH. Effects of N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) administration on glucose homeostasis parameters in prediabetic patients. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(4): 393-399. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.4.6


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of 2,2َ-(Terephthaloyl) bis (azanediyl) bis (3-mercapto propanoic acid) and its Complexes with some Metal Ions
تحضير وتشخيص 2-2( تيرفثالويل) ثنائي (ازانيديل ) ثنائي (3-مركبتو حامض البروبانويك ) ومعقداته مع بعض الايونات الفلزية

Author: Asia Hameed Abed اسيا حميد عبد
Journal: Iraqi National Journal Of Chemistry المجلة العراقية الوطنية لعلوم الكيمياء ISSN: 22236686 Year: 2013 Issue: 52 Pages: 430-439
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Abstract The ligand 2,2َ-(Terephthaloyl) bis (azanediyl) bis (3-mercapto propanoic acid) (TAMPA) was synthesized from the reaction of terephthaloyl chloride with cysteine, it has been characterized and its structure was elucidated depending upon elemental analysis (CHNS) and spectral data (IR , UV-Vis) . Series of metal complexes of the deprotenated ligand with ions such as Mn(II) , Co(II) , Ni(II) , Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized and characterized by (FT-IR) , (UV-Vis) spectroscopy , flame atomic absorption technique, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. The following general formula were suggested [M2(TAMPA)(H2O)4] .

الخلاصة حضر الليكاند من تفاعل تيرفثالويل كلورايد مع السستاين ,ثم شخص وتم اقتراح تركيبه الكيميائي باعتماد التحليل الدقيق للعناصر , التحاليل الطيفية (طيف الاشعة تحت الحمراء وطيف الاشعة فوق البنفسجية والمرئية) , حضرت سلسلة من المعقدات الفلزية لليكاند مع الايونات الفلزية مثل Zn(II) , Cu (II) , Ni (II) , Co (II) , Mn (II), تم تشخيصها باستخدام طيف الاشعة تحت الحمراء وطيف الاشعة فوق البنفسجية والمرئية , تقنية الامتصاص الذري اللهبي للعناصر اضافة الى قياسات الحساسية المغناطيسية والتوصيلية المولارية , وقد تم اقتراح التراكيب العامة التالية استنادا الى نتائج هذه التحاليل [M2(TAMPA)(H2O)4] .


Article
Effect of foliar application of two amino acids "arginine and cysteine" and potassium nitrate on the growth and yield of the tomato plants grown in plastic houses

Authors: Awatif N. Jerry --- Talib M. M. AL-Jarah
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2015 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 16-35
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted during the winter growing season of 2013/2014 inunheated plastic house conditions belonging to tomato development project in Khor Al-Zubair / Agriculture Directorate of Basrah. The aim was to study the effect of foliarspraying of the aim was to study the effect of foliar spraying of two amino acids (arginineand cysteine) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) on s growth and yield of tomatoLycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivar" Wogdan". The study included fifteen treatmentswhich were the combinations of five treatments [i.e. Amino acids arginine and cysteineat (75 and 150) mg. l-1 of each of them in addition to the control treatment (used wateronly)] and KNO3, at three concentrations (0 ,1.0 and 1.5) g. l-1 applied by spraying fourtimes at 15-day intervals started three weeks after transplanting.Results showed that spraying with arginine at both concentrations and cysteine at75 mg. l-1 significantly increased leaf area per plant as compared with control treatment.Spraying with arginine at 150 mg. l-1 gave the highest values for nitrogen, potassiumconcentrations, whereas spraying with arginine at 75 mg. l-1 gave the highest value forphosphorus concentration in the leaves. Spraying with arginine at both concentrations andcysteine at 75 mg. l-1 significantly increased total soluble carbohydrate in the leavesspraying with arginine and cysteine at 75 mg .l-1 of each of them increased fruit settingpercentage as compared with control treatment. Spraying with arginine and cysteine at 75mg .l-1 of each of them increased early yield per plant as much as 11.12 and 10.31%, andtotal yield per plant as much as 13.12 and 11.87 % as compared with the controltreatment, respectively.Spraying with KNO3 at 1 and 1.5 g. l-1 significantly increased all parameter studies ascompared with control. The most effective treatment was 1.5 g. l-1 KNO3.


Article
The protective role of N-Acetyl Cysteine and vitamin C against atrazine-Induced Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in N27 Cells

Authors: Sabah Hassain Enayah --- Ahmed k. Al Atya --- Afrah A. Maktoof
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 54-61
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Background: Atrazine (ATZ)has been associated with its capability to interact and damage DNA in neuronal cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of ATZ are not fully understood. In vitro and In vivo studies indicated that atrazine induces cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human and animals. This study sought to determine the role of two antioxidants against the toxic impact of atrazine. Main Methods: N27 cell line pretreated to N-acetyl Cysteine NAC or Ascorbic acid AA alone or in combination before 24h atrazine exposure. Multiple intercellular antioxidant parameters measured such as (GSH, GSSG, MDA). Genotoxicity represented by single gel electrophoreses assay (comet assay). Results: the outcomes of this work demonstrated that higher protection against atrazine exposure at combination of NAC and AA comparing to the single exposure to each. The antioxidant acted in synergistic way to rescue cells from reactive oxygen species generated from atrazine exposure. DNA breaking or damage also prepared in better way in combination exposure comparing to the single exposure. Conclusion: the evidence of atrazine increase the oxidative damage have been approved by enhancing defense system to increase cell availability and DNA repair. While antioxidant (NAC&AA) prevent oxidative damage that causes by atrazine via increase cell viabilities and DNA fix.


Article
Synthesis ,characterization and kinetic studies of the formation of a new chromium( III) complex of mixed ligands L-cysteine and picolinic acid.

Authors: M.A.Abdullah محمد علي عبد الله --- Diary I. Tofiq دياري توفيق
Journal: Iraqi National Journal Of Chemistry المجلة العراقية الوطنية لعلوم الكيمياء ISSN: 22236686 Year: 2010 Issue: 38 Pages: 265-278
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Abstract A new Cr(III) complex of mixed ligands of picolinic acid (Hpic) and L-cysteine has been synthesized from acid catalyzed hydrolysis of the blue colored solution of sodium salt of bis L-cysteinato(N,O,S) chromateIII complex with solution of Hpic restrictive acidic media of pH=3-4 with gentle heating. The red-brown color product complex of sodium bis L- cysteinato(N,O) monohydroxy picolinato(N)chromateIII have been characterized by element analysis ,electronic and i.r spectroscopy comparison to the properties of some well known related Cr(III) complexes leads to the conclusion that Hpic binds to Cr(III) center via its nitrogen donor atom. The kinetics and mechanism of the formation of this complex, from the acid catalyzed cleavage of Cr—S bond and subsequent Hpic substitution, have been studied spectrophotometrically in a limited pH 3-4.5 range, which was adjusted by HClO4 (μ =0.2M).The rate of the production shows two reaction paths ;one for mono protic thiol,[ Cr(III) (L-cysH)(L-cysN,O,S) (H2O)] and other for diprotic both thiol, [Cr (L-CysH)2 (H2O)2]+2,with Hpic ligand substitution on Cr(III) through N atom.The speices of monoprotic reacts faster with an acid dependent than the diprotic species reaction .The pseudo first order rate constant equation is of the form; k = k1Ka2 [H+]-1 + k2 (where k1 represents the rate constant for first step, k2 for second step reactions and Ka2 is acid dissociation constant for diprotic species) was obtained with ΔH# and ΔS# for both paths are 67.195 kJ mol-1,- 25.41JK-1mol-1 and 68.96 kJ mol-1,-93.64 JK-1 mol-1 respectively.

الخلاصةتم تحضير و تكوين معقد جديد ال Na[Cr(L-CysH)2(Hpic)(H2O)] للكروم (III) مع الليكندات المختلطة لحامض البيكولينيك (Hpic) مع سيستين من عملية التحلل المائى التحفيزى الحامضى للمعقد الازرق اللون: {Na [Cr (L-cys) 2]. 2H2O} مع محلول الليكاندات (Hipc) فى وسط حامضى (pH =3 - 4.5) مع التسخين الهادىء . المعقد الناتج القهوائى المحمر اللون (Na[Cr(L-CysH)2(Hpic)(H2O)]) تم تشخيصها بالتحليل الدقيق للعناصر والاطياف الالكترونية وتحت الحمراء وكروموتوغرافيا التبادل الايونى وبواسطة مقارنة صفاتهم مع معقدات كروم (III) المعروفة. تبين من تشخيص ناتج التفاعل ان حامض البيكولينيك مرتبطة باصرة تناسقية مع الكروم فى المركز من خلال النايتروجين الواهب للالكترونات .ان ميكانيكية وحركية تكوين المعقد من التفكك الحامضى للاصرة (Cr-S) والحامض بيكولينيك المرتبط, قد تم دراستها فى وسط الحامضى =pH 3-4.5 التي تم ضبطه بالحامض HClO4 وكذلك الشدة الايونية (µ=0.2M NaClO4) .تم ايجاد ثابت سرعة التفاعل من الدرجة الاولى الكاذبة وفق المعادلة: k = k1Ka2[H+]-1+ k2 حيث k1 يمثل ثابت سرعة التفاعل للخطوة الاولى و k2 يمثل ثابت سرعة التفاعل للخطوة الثانية ، اما Ka2 يمثل ثابت تحلل الحامض البيكولينك .H2pic باراميترات المنشطة المحصل عليها كانت لتكوين المعقد في الخطوتين كالاتى :( , ( ∆H*=68.96 kJ mol-1 ( 93.64JK-1mol-1 (∆S*=- و) (∆H*=67kJ mol -1 و (∆S*=-25.41JK-1mol-1 .

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