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Article
THE PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AMONG 6 -12 YEARS-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SHARIA CAMP
أنتشار نسبة التسوس ببين اطفال النازحين التي تتراوح أعمارهم 6-12 سنة في مخيم شاريا

Authors: ANEES MAHMOOD MUDHIR أنيس محمود مراد --- MIRZA MURAD KHUDEDA ميرزا مراد خديدا
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2018 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 55-62
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Risk of dental caries is high among the IDP children. Therefore for control andprevention of this problem we need data provides key information. There is no national oralsurvey has been carried out to determine the prevalence of oral health problems in this grouppeople (Singar people).Subject and Methods: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity ofdental caries in 6-12 year old children in Sharia camp of refugees from Singar.Material and methods: Thecross section study was carried out in elementary school children,which were randomly selected fromSharia camp of IDP Singar people in Kurdistan of Iraq.Results: Results showed the mean dmft and DMFT scores were (2.45 2.606) and(0.927±1.583), respectively. Also, 23.4% of the students were caries-free.Conclusions: It was concluded that the present study findings for dmft and DMFT scores in6-12 year old elementary school children are higher than global standards according to theWorld Health Organization (WHO).

الخلفية والأهداف: انتشار تسوس الأسنان خاصة عند للأطفال عالي لذلك للسيطرة على هذه المشاكل يتطلب منا أن يكون لدينا الإحصائيات تكون مفتاح المعلومات عن هذه المشاكل ،ولاختيار برنامج وقائية والعلاجية في تسوس الأسنان. لا يوجد لدينا إحصائيات واضحة عن مدى انتشار أمراض الفم وخاصة تسوس الأسنان في ‏هذه المنطقة (منطقةسنجار).الهدف من هذا البحث لتقدير مدى انتشار مرض تسوس الأسنان بين الأطفال عمر ستة 6- 12 سنة في كمب شاريا ‏للمهاجرين من أهل سنجار.طرق البحث: اجرية هذا البحث بتاريخ 2015 على 740 طالب في المرحلة الابتدائية بعمر 6-12 في مخيم شاريا لللاجئي شنكال حيث تم اختيارهم كعينة عشوائية.النتائج: اظهرت النتائج ان نسبة انتشار تسوس الاسنان بمؤشر dmft,DMFT(45.2±606.2) (583.1±927.0) بالتسلسل ونسبه الاطفال غير المصابين بتسوس الاسنان هى23%.الاستنتاجات: استنتج من هذا البحث ان نسبة انتشار تسوس الاسنان عند الاطفال عمر 6-12 سنة في المدارس الابتدائية اعلى من المعيار العالمي الصادر عن منظمة الصحة العالمية.

Keywords

Dental caries --- prevalence --- DMFT --- DMFS --- dmft --- dmfs


Article
Correlation between caries related bacteria in plaque and saliva in different age group children

Authors: Zainab J. Ja’far زينب جعفر --- Yasameen A.A. Al-Bayati ياسمين البياتي --- Ghada I. Taha غادة طه
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 140-144
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dental plaque contains bacteria that are both acidogenic and acidoduric. Different types ofstreptococci were identified in saliva. Although many bacterial subspecies have been shown to be associated withcaries, streptococcus mutans is still believed to be the most important bacterium in the initiation of this disease whilelactobacillus is correlated with the active caries episode. This study was conducted in order to estimate thecorrelation between caries related bacteria in plaque and saliva in different age group children.Materials and methods: Fifty three children aged 3-10 years old were chosen for this study. Recording of dental carieswas carried out by the dmfs index for primary teeth and DMFS index for the permanent teeth according to thecriteria suggested by the WHO. One ml of unstimulated (resting) whole saliva was collected from the children usingspitting method then diluted and applied on the surface of agar media specific for streptococcus mutans andlactobacilli growth. Dental plaque sample was taken from the buccal surface of the maxillary second primary molarby a clean toothpick and store in Epindorf tube which contain 1 ml. normal saline then inoculated in the samegrowth media that were used with the salivary samples. Colonies of the bacteria were counted with the aid ofdissection microscope (15 X) on the basis of their characteristic morphology.Results: Strong positive significant correlation was found between dmfs and ds components of the primary teeth,Positive results was found when correlating dmfs or ds with streptococcus mutans in dental plague while a negativecorrelation was found with lactobacilli. Negative correlation was found when correlating dmfs with streptococcusmutans in saliva while the relation is positive with lactobacilli. In dental plaque and in saliva there was a strongpositive highly significant correlation between the DMF and the DS. Correlation coefficient between DMFS with thebacterial counts of the caries related microorganisms (streptococci and lactobacilli) in the dental plaque and insaliva revealed weak, negative not significant correlations.Conclusion: The relation is not significant between the caries related microorganisms with each other in differentmedia; either the dental plaque or saliva


Article
The Effect of Various Surface Treatment Adhesives and Composite Materials on Repair Strength of Composite Resin

Author: Nadia H Hasan
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 23 Pages: 126-134
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aimsof the study:The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a flowable composite and total etch adhesive on shear bond strength of repaired composite with a different types of tooth colored res-torations (microhybrid, nanohybrid, and ormocer). Materials and Methods Ninety Teflon mold (4 mm ×2mm), of Tetric® Ceram prepared then divided into two main groups 1st control ( without etch-ing ), 2 ed etched with 37 phosphoric acid. Both groups were divided into three subgroups according to a type of adhesiveapplied, 1st control, 2 ed the Excite® and in 3ed the tgflow appliedThe second split of Teflon mold (4mm×1mm)placed onto the prepared specimenEach subgroup (1st control, 2 ed the Excite® and in 3rd the tgflow) were farther divided into three subgroups which entrain filled as fallow: 1st split filled with a Tetric® Ceram, in 2 ed split filled with Tetric NCeram, and in 3 rd. split filled with Admira. Shear bond strength was measured by using Universal Testing Machine, and mode of failure examined by a stereomicroscope. Results: No significant difference in the surface treatment groups. For the adhesive, Tgflow showed superior shear value (3248 MPa) comparing to other adhe-sives while for the composite materials, The Tetric NCeram composite showed superior value of shear strength (2821MPa) comparing to other materialsConclusions: Phosphoric acid has no effect on shear value of repaired composite while Tgflow and Tetric NCeram give an improvement in its shear valueAll composites exhibited cohesive and adhesive type of failure.


Article
Evaluation of Dental Caries Prevalence among Children in Mosul City Center Using Significant Caries Index

Authors: Karam H Jazrawi --- Ghada D Al-Sayagh --- Saher S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 23 Pages: 191-197
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims of the study: To evaluate the prevalence of dental caries among children aged 9-10 years in Mo-sul City Center and to compare between traditional index and significant caries index of these students. Materials and Methods: The study sample was obtained from third and fourth class students from eight randomly selected primary schools in Mosul City Center. Sample size was 363 students, 225 fe-males and 138 males. Students' ages were 9 and 10 years. All primary and permanent teeth were ex-amined for the presence of decay, missing or filling teeth/surfaces. Mean DMFT, DMFS, dmft and dmfs were calculated for the students together and separately for each sex. The mean Significant Caries Index (SiC) was also calculated as the mean DMFT and DMFS of the one third of the students with the highest caries scores. Results: The SiC index was significantly higher in all comparisons with tradi-tional DMF index (p < 0.000). A comparison between the two indices indicated that there is a large children subgroup presented with a high caries rate. Conclusions: The mean DMF values did not accu-rately reflect the skewed distribution of dental caries leading to incorrect conclusions that the caries rate of the statewide population is under control. It is better to use SiC index instead of the traditional index.


Article
Caries-preventive effect of topical APF gel with three different frequencies of application in 9-11 years old school children in Ninevah

Authors: Karam H JAZRAWI --- Tarik Y KHAMRCO
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: SpIss Pages: S201-S214
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This is the first study carried out in Iraq that aimed at evaluating the effect on dental caries of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF) gel applied topically with different frequencies (once per year vs. twice per year vs. four times a year).A sample of (235) school children [116 (49.36%) males and 119 (50.64%) females) initially in the fourth grade (aged 9-11 years) were collected from (4) primary schools in Mosul city Centre. The children were allocated randomly to (3) experimental groups and one control group. The first group received (0.49%) APF gel four times a year for (4) minutes. The second group received (0.4%) APF gel once per year for (4) minutes; whereas the third group received (0.4%) APF gel twice per year for (4) minutes.Two examinations were done using DMFT and DMIFS indices: one before fluoride application and the other after one year.The results showed a reduction in dental caries (with respect to DMFT index, and in comparison with the control group) of (112.8%) for the first group,(35.9%) for the second group, and (80.4%) regarding the third group. With respect to DMFS index, and in comparison with the control group, the reduction in dental caries was (97.3%),(32.8%), and (72.6%), respectively.The best benefit from using topically applied APF gel was, therefore, achieved from applying (0.4%) gel four times a year for (4) minutes.


Article
Oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized autistic children and adolescents in Baghdad city, Iraq

Authors: Ali Hadi F. Al-Fatlawi --- Nada Jafer MH. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 117-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a wide range of symptoms, including difficulty with social interaction and communication skills. Controversial thinking about oral health of children with ASD, in general may have a lower hygiene level than healthy individuals, low caries rate and high body weight in comparison to healthy children. This study was conducted to assess the oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized autistic children and adolescents.Materials and methods: From 12 institutes in Baghdad, the study group contained 364 child and adolescent with ASD (Male= 294, Female=70), while control group included 441 normal child and adolescent (Male=357, Female=84) from primary and secondary schools. The age range (6-15) years old categorized to two age groups, children age group (6-10) years and adolescents age group (11-15) years. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (dmfs, DMFS), plaque (PlI), Gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices were used to measure oral health status for both groups. Assessment of nutritional status performed by using BMI for age z-score value. The data of current study was analyzed using SPSS version 21.Results: Mean rank values of (dmfs, DMFS) were lower in study group than control group with high significant differences. The mean rank values of PlI, GI, and CI in study group were found to be higher than control group with high significant differences. A moderate positive high significant correlation was found between ds, dmfs, DS, DMFS and PlI, GI, CI in both groups. The mean rank values of body mass index (BMI) for age z-score were higher in study group than control group. Very weak negative high significant correlation between BMI for age z-score and ds, dmfs, DS, DMFS in study group.Conclusion: Dental caries severity, oral hygiene and gingival health were lower in ASD group than control group. Dental caries severity was related to oral health status in both groups. Possible of overweight, overweight and obesity were most common in children and adolescents with ASD than control group. Body weight of autistic children was related to dental caries severity.


Article
Evaluation of salivary calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase level in children (4-6 years) with nursing caries in Erbil City
تقييم مستوى الكالسيوم واللعاب والفوسفات القلوي اللعابي عند الأطفال (4-6 سنوات) مع تسوس الرضاعة في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Baydaa Adnan Khoshnaw --- Zana Qadir Omer
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 1943-1952
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Nursing caries is a complex and severe form of tooth decay that affects a child’s teeth and leads to severe pain, teeth loss, and psychological problems. This type of decay is caused by primary factors (host, cariogenic bacteria, fermentable carbohydrate and the time) and other secondary factors. Besides, the dental caries influence by the role of saliva as a defense system. These defense systems include clearance, buffering, antimicrobial agents, and calcium and phosphate delivery for remineralization. This study aimed to find out the relationship between calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase of unstimulated saliva in children with nursing caries.Methods: The sample included 374 children aged 4-6 years; 324 were the study group (with nursing caries) while 50 were control group (caries-free). The case sheet and questionnaire included the child's feeding habits and oral hygiene. A 1.5-2 ml of saliva was collected from the selected children using spitting technique. The method included dental examination for the recording of the dmft and dmfs indices, and saliva analysis to determine the level of salivary calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in control and study groups.


Article
Effect of the number of pregnancy in the dental health status of mothers.

Authors: Khawla m. saleh B.D.S., M.SC. د.خولة صالح --- Tarik y.khamrco B.D.S.,DDPH (RCS) M,SC د.طارق خمركو
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The aim of study was to evaluate the effect ofthe number of pregnancy inthe dental health of iraqi women .Three hundred ninety nine pregnant women were included in this study, withan age range of 18-39 years old. They were attending to the Maternal and ChildHealth Care Center (MCHCC) for their monthly periodic checkup with differentpregnancy stages. The sample of the study was randomly selected from four out of 16MCHCCs in the center of Mosul city .Caries experience were diagnosed and recorded according to the criteriasuggested by WHO 1997 using CPI probe. The (DMFS) index was used to assess thedecayed, missing and filled surfaces .The periodontal health status of pregnant women was performed using thefollowing clinical parameters (gingival index, plaque index and calculus index .)To evaluate the effective of number of pregnancy on dental health status, thesample divided into three group (1-3) according to the number of pregnancy (1-3, 4-6 ,)75 respectively .The result indicated an increase in the mean of DMF S score with an increasein the number of pregnancy; also the study indicates a significant increase in the meanof periodontal parameters with an increase in the number of pregnancy


Article
The role of smoking with some salivary parameters, dental caries and gingivitis

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Back ground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of smoking on oral health including the caries rate and gingival conditions, and salivary parameters.Materials and Methods: This study done on 50 healthy volunteers, 25 smokers and 25-non-smokers. Dental caries was recorded using DMFS (Decayed, Missed, and Filled) surfaces index teeth and gingival parameter recorded by G.I (gingival index). Stimulated saliva was collected before clinical measurement then salivary pH estimated by using pH meter.Results: The statistical analysis for the DMFS in both smokers and non smokers groups showed no significant difference in mean 0.48 (P>0.05). This is corresponds with the salivary pH and flow rate in both smokers and non- smokers groups 0.75, 0.91 respectively (P>0.05) and similar to the result of GI between both groups 0.37 (P>0.05).Conclusion: the long term use of the tobacco smoking have not any effect on the dental caries and not cause any changes in the salivary flow rate and salivary pH, and not give rise to any remarkable gingival changes.


Article
Some salivary parameters in relation to dental caries - experiences
علاقة بعض العوامل المتغيرة في اللعاب مع تسوس الاسنان

Author: Sulafa K. Banoosh سلافة خيرالدين بنوش
Journal: kirkuk university journal for scientific studies مجلة جامعة كركوك - الدراسات العلمية ISSN: 19920849 / 26166801 Year: 2015 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 292-302
Publisher: Kirkuk University جامعة كركوك

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Back ground: The aim of this study is to estimate the relation of salivary sodium, potassium, pH, and flow rate with dental caries - experiences.Materials and Methods: In this study; 40 healthy- looking subjects were participated, their ages were (18-25) years old included (18) females and (22) males. Dental caries was recorded using DMFS (Decayed, Missed, and Filled) surfaces index teeth and. stimulated saliva was collected before clinical measurement and chemically analyzed to determine the concentrations of sodium, potassium Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer then salivary pH estimated by using pH meter, and flow rate (ml/min) was estimated by dividing saliva volume (ml) by the fixed collected time (min), All data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.Results: The statistical analysis for the salivary sodium, potassium in both study (with caries) and control (free from caries) groups showed no significant difference in mean 0.9, 0.67 respectively (P>0.05). This is corresponds with the salivary pH and flow rate in both study (with caries) and control (free from caries) groups 0.98, 0.61 respectively (P>0.05).Conclusion: There are no relation between salivary sodium, potassium, pH, and flow rate with dental caries experience

إن الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو تقدير علاقة الصوديوم اللعابي، والبوتاسيوم اللعابي، ودرجة الحموضة، ومعدل تدفق اللعاب مع تسوس الأسنان. شارك في هذه الدراسة (40) متبرع تتراوح أعمارهم بين (18-25) سنة منهم (18) إناث و (22) من الذكور. وقد تم فحص جميع المتبرعين وتم تسجيل تسوس الأسنان باستخدام (DMFS) المؤشر العالمي لقياس نسبة تسوس الاسنان وكذلك تم جمع عينات اللعاب وتحليلها كيميائيا لتحديد تركيز كلا من الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم فيه فضلا عن قياس درجة الحموضة ومعدل تدفق اللعاب وقد تم تحليل العينات باستخدام مقياس الطيف الضوئي للامتصاص وكذلك قياس درجة الحموضة اللعابية باستخدام جهاز تحديد الرقم الهيدروجيني ، اما معدل التدفق (مل / دقيقة) فيتم قياسه بقسمة حجم اللعاب (مل) الذي تم جمعه من المتبرع على الوقت التي تم جمعه فيها والذي يكون ثابتة ( خمسة دقائق)، وقد تم تحليل جميع البيانات باستخدام SPSS النسخة 13. وأظهرت التحليلات الإحصائية للصوديوم اللعابي والبوتاسيوم في كل من مجموعة الدراسة (مع تسوس) ومجموعة التحكم (خالية من التسوس) وقد وجد انه لا يوجد فرق كبير في متوسط النتائج (0.9، 0.67) على التوالي حيث ان ال (P> 0.05) وكذلك الحال بالنسبة الى الرقم الهيدروجيني اللعابي ومعدل التدفق في كل من مجموعة الدراسة (مع تسوس) ومجموعة التحكم (خالية من التسوس) 0.98، 0.61 على التوالي (P> 0.05).الخلاصة: ليس هناك علاقة بين الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم اللعابي، ودرجة الحموضة، ومعدل التدفق اللعابي مع تسوس الأسنان.

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