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Article
Integration of NMR, Conventional Logs and Core Data to Improve Formation Evaluation of a Gas Reservoir in Kangan and Dalan Formation, Iran

Authors: Ghafor Karimi --- Mohammad Mohammadnia --- Ali Mohammad Bagheri
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2014 Volume: 377 Issue: 10th Pages: 154-168
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Conventional log based reservoir characterization of a gas reservoir in the Kangan and Dalan formations have recently been improved by application of the nuclear magnetic resonance log (NMR). Important reservoir properties such as permeability pore size distribution and capillary pressure curves can be estimated from NMR. These parameters are simulated directly in the laboratory on core samples recovered from the reservoir. Due to high cost associated with coring and some technical problems, few wells in any given field are cored. The only problem of NMR measurements in gas reservoirs is that in gas-bearing zones, total NMR porosity read much less than actual porosity due to low hydrogen index of the gas. This problem was solved by integration of NMR porosity with conventional well logs such as density and sonic and compared with core porosity. Improved porosity calculation lead to better core independent permeability estimation on the wells logged with NMR. NMR T2 distribution was calibrated with laboratory derived pore size distribution in 7 samples and a constant scaling factor was derived for each rock type to predict a pseudo pore size distribution from NMR.Logarithmic mean of pore size distribution in 4 wells with NMR was integrated with conventional logs in an artificial neural network to predict a pseudo pore size distribution logarithmic mean (PPSDLM) in the wells without NMR. PPSDLM and conventional well logs were involved to an electrofacies modeling to predict electrofacies in the reservoir for characterization of heterogeneity of the reservoir in 3D geological model. NMR permeability was also imported to the model as an associated log to predict facies base permeability. To test the permeability prediction, estimated permeability was compared with core derived permeability on 2 cored wells to see how well, estimated permeability fitted the actual core permeability.


Article
Miniaturized Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using Multilayered Dual-Mode Resonator

Authors: Dhuha G. Hammood ضحى غازي حمود --- Raaed T. Hammed رائد ثعبان حميد
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-11
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

This paper presents a miniaturized dual-band bandpass filter using two coupled dual-mode resonators (DMRs). The dual-mode resonator is a short-circuited stub loaded square loop resonator. The concept of miniaturization achieved using multilayered technology. Therefore, the filter circuits are achieved in three layers. On the first layer, two coupled dual-mode resonators are designed and shorted to a ground layer to specify the required passbands. Next, a second layer employs two shorted quarter wavelength stubs coupled through one via hole are capacitively coupled to the first layer circuit to achieve the filtering response. For our demonstration, a multi-band bandpass filter is designed to serve a multifunctional wireless system has centre frequencies of 1.9 GHz GSM and 3.5 GHz WiMax systems. The filter is implemented and simulated using the momentum simulator of the Advanced Design System (ADS) software package. The filter response has two second-order passbands with four transmission zeros leads to a high skirt selectivity. The filter circuit area is very small, less than 37 mm2 terminating the feeding ports.

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