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Article
Morphological and phylogenetic study of Hyalomma anatolicum in Al-Najaf, Iraq
دراسة مظهرية والنشوء والتطور للـ Hyalomma anatolicum في النجف العراق

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Abstract

Studies had been previously conducted to genetically identify species of ticks in Iraq. Therefore, the current investigational study was conducted to recognize the species of 50 ticks collected from infested skin of cattle. The current study defined the ticks to be from Hyalomma genus depending on their morphological features. Using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit  (Cox) gene, 16 ticks were further confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two PCR products were subjected to DNA sequencing to name the species of the ticks and compare them to some other known ticks in neighbor and world countries. The sequencing results identified the ticks to be Hyalomma anatolicum. One isolate is closely similar to Indian and Iranian isolates, and the other isolate is clustered alone by itself. The results indicated that H. anatolicum is one of the wide-spread ticks that affect cattle in Al Najaf province, Iraq.

دراسات قليلة قد اجريت سابقا لتحديد انواع القراد في العراق جينيا. لذلك, اجريت الدراسة التحرية الحالية لتمييز انواع 50 قرادة مجموعة من جلد ماشية مصاب. الدراسة الحالية عرفت القراد ليكون من جنس Hyalomma اعتمادا على السمات المظهرية. باستخدام الانزيم الفرعي المؤكسد السيتوكرومي التابع لبيوت الطاقة (Cox1), 16 قرادة اثبتت اكثر باستخدام اختبار تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل (PCR). اثنان من نواتج الـ PCR عرضت لاختبار معرفة تسلسل الـ DNA لتسمية انواع القراد ومقارنتهم مع بعض انواع القراد المعروفة الاخرى في بلدان الجوار والعالم. حددت نتائج اختبار معرفة تسلسل الـ DNA القراد على انها Hyalomma anatolicum. عزلة واحدة كانت مشابهة بشكل كبير لعزلات هندية وايرانية, ووقعت العزلة الاخرى لوحدها وبنفسها في فرع واحد في الشجرة. تشير النتائج على ان الـ H. anatolicum نوع من القراد المنتشر والذي يؤثر على الابقار في محافظة النجف, العراق.


Article
Genotyping of Brucella melitensis isolated from human and sheep in Iraq

Author: Khetam Qaid M. AL-Hamdawee
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences مجلة القادسية لعلوم الطب البيطري ISSN: 18185746 23134429 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 87-92
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Brucellosis is a widespread endemic zoonotic disease as well as significant impact on human health together with ruminant’s manifests as abortions or other reproductive problems in different animal’s species. A specific sensitive PCR and DNA sequencing technique employed in this study to provide the first Iraqi profile about B. melitensis in Genebank to overcome the determinates posed by the others accurate diagnostic methods like isolation and serotyping. In Women's Maternity and Children Hospital, and Gynecology Outdoor Patient (OPD) in the city One hundred twenty two (122) samples (107 serum and 15 aborted fetus) collected from a women have a history of abortion and either aborted fetus, serum tested directly with rose Bengal while aborted fetus submitted to culturing. Seventy four (74) blood samples collected from different ewes with abortion history tested with Rose Bengal test conducted the positive cases to PCR then DNA sequencing. Out of 196 samples 6 samples (2 human and 4 sheep) were positive for PCR technique, while only 3 partial gene sequenced samples were identified as B. melitensis revealed three different biovars available under accession number (KX793714.1, KX793715.1, and KX793716.1) in Genebank A1, A2 strains isolated from sheep and A3 human strain. B. melitensis was the only species detected, ensuring its highest zoonotic potential in Brucella genus. A1 and A2 Sheep isolate were shown closed related to NCBI-Blast Brucella melitensis biovar 3 (DQ086122.1). Whereas, the Brucella spp. A3 Human isolate was shown closed relation to NCBI-Blast Brucella melitensis biovar 1 (DQ086119.1) and ( DQ086121.1).


Article
Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from Dust

Author: Lara Q. Hamzam1,*, Laith Abdulhassan M. Jawad1
Journal: Almuthanna Journal of Pure Science (MJPS) مجلة المثنى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 22263284 Year: 2017 Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

Dust includes many microorganisms such as airborne bacteria. Most types of these bacteria are harmful to humansand causing severe problems. Klebsiella pneumoniae considered as serious nosocomial pathogen that cause pneumonia,UTIs, wound and liver abscesses. One hundred fifty samples isolated randomly from different indoor and outdoor areasduring the period November 2014- February 2015. In the indoor isolates bacterium K. pneumoniae was the commonestpathogen (36.70%) followed by S. aureus (22.78%), S. epidermidis (12.65%), Bacillus spp. (10.12%), P. aeruginosa(5.06%), E. cloacae (5.06%), Streptococcus spp.(2.53%), Citrobacter spp.(1.26%) and Pantoea spp.(1.26%). While S.aureus comprises the majority of outdoor bacteria in (41.66%). Using PCR method for detection of Uge gene and followedwith direct DNA Sequencing. The multiple sequence alignment (MSA) showed highly conserved area in all studied strains.However, some variants were observed at different positions (24, 124, 152, 163, 165, 185, 199, 200, 207, 209, 248, 279, 284,291). Also there were changes in a functional whole areas at the studied gene such as (GGCTGG) at the positions (212-217),(ATCCCG) at positions (226-231), (GCCC) at (233-236), (ACCG) at positions (242-245), (GATT) at (263-266), (TCAA) at(269-272). These differences in the gene sequence may indicates special characterizations for the isolated strain.


Article
Using DNA Sequencing to Detect and Verify Genetically Modified Maize (Zea mays L.) in Iraq.
استخدام تحديد تتابع DNA في الكشف عن وتشخيص الذرة الصفراء (Zea mays L.) المحورة وراثياً في العراق

Author: Gaith L. Arif Ayoub O. Alfalahi** غيث لطفي
Journal: Journal of university of Anbar for Pure science مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 19918941 Year: 2013 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Abstract: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect genetically modified maize. The results revealed that 10 out of 72 maize DNA samples were genetically modified. Verification of PCR ampliconse indicated that all GM maize were of MON810 type engineered with cryIAb gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus P35S promoter and NOS terminator. Direct DNA sequencing for three out of the ten detected GM maize confirm the presence of P35S promoter and NOS terminator. Also, the constructed alignment of both genetic elements in comparison with their respective sequence in the NCBI database, indicated complete identity level for P35S, whereas nucleotide mismatches was detected in two sites of NOS118 terminator both on the forward strand. Meanwhile one site was corrected by the reverse strand, the other site may be resulted from Tag polymerase mismatches. These results approved the highly conservativeness of both detected elements and the completely absence of single nucleotide mutations. Results revealed clearly that nonauthorized GM maize was entered the national agriculture sector without authorities permission, which maximize risks of spreading GM maize all around the country and need to act immediately by setting strict legislation and monitoring system.

استخدم تفاعل إنزيم البوليميريز المتسلسل (PCR) لتشخيص الذرة الصفراء المحورة وراثيا. أشارت النتائج إلى ان 10 من مجموع 72 عينة شملتها الدراسة كانت محورة وراثيا. تبين لدى التحقق من نواتج تفاعل PCR أن جميع عينات الذرة الصفراء المحورة وراثيا هي من نوع MON810 حورت وراثيا باستخدام جين cryIAb الخاضع لسيطرة محفز فايروس موزائيك القرنابيط P35S والناهي NOS. أكدت نتائج تحديد تتابع نكلوتايدات DNA لثلاث من العينات العشر المشخصة على أنها محورة وراثياً وجود كلا من المحفز P35S والناهي NOS هذا من جهة، ومن جهة أخرى أشارت نتائج المصفوفة الناتجة من المقارنة بين تتابع نكلوتايدات كلاً من المحفز والناهي للعينات المدروسة مع تتابعاتهما الموجودة في بيانات NCBI إلى أن هناك تطابقا كاملا في عينات المحفز، في حين وجدت حالة عدم تطابق في موقعين في تتابع الناهي كلاهما على الشريط الأمامي، وبينما صححت إحداهما من خلال تتابع الشريط المعاكس، يمكن أن تكون حالة عدم التطابق الأخرى ناتجة عن خطأ في عملية الاستنساخ بواسطة إنزيم البوليميريز. أثبتت هذه النتائج محافظة عالية للعناصر الوراثية المشخصة على تتابعاتها، وغياب تام للطفرة في القواعد المفردة. أوضحت نتائج التشخيص دخول الذرة الصفراء المحورة وراثياً غير المرخصة إلى القطاع الزراعي الوطني بدون إذن السلطات المختصة مما يزيد من خطر انتشار الذرة المحورة وراثيا في جميع أنحاء البلد مما يستدعي التحرك السريع لإرساء نظام رقابي وتشريعي صارم.


Article
Molecular and bioinformitic analysis of ITS1 region of three Eimeria species in Kerbala and Babylon provinces, Iraq

Authors: Dhamiaa Make Hamza --- Hadi Rasol Hasan Al-Massodi --- Zuhair Muhammad Ali Jeddoa
Journal: Albahir journal مجلة الباهر ISSN: 23125721 Year: 2015 Volume: 1 Issue: 1,2 Pages: 13-26
Publisher: Shiite Endowment ديوان الوقف الشيعي

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Abstract

Abstract Global production of chickens has trebled in the past two decades and they are now the most important source of dietary animal protein worldwidE.Chickens are subject to many infectious diseases that reduce their performance and productivity. Coccidiosis, caused by apicomplexan protozoa of the genus Eimeria, is one of the most important poultry diseases. Understanding the biology of Eimeria parasites underpins development of new drugs and vaccines needed to improve global food security. A Fifteen of DNA samples (five samples for each one of three species) of Eimeria has been sequenced and analyzed in which multiple sequence alignment online based analysis for the ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacer 1) region that previously amplified by polymerase chain reaction, A comparison between the sequences of bases of local isolates of Eimeria with global isolates that recorded in Gens Bank and the comparative molecular screening of the present study results revealed the Validity and accuracy of diagnosis of three Eimerian species. Phylogenetic tree analysis using the program (MEGA 6) were adopted to determine genetic tree of the species analysis to compare the three of local species with global strains of Eimeria and found the Homology sequence identity of Eimeria tenella local isolates in comparison with NCBI-Gen bank Eimeria tenella (JX853830). Using NCBI-BLAST the results showed 98% and 99%, while the Homology sequence identity of Eimeria necatrix of local isolates in comparison with NCBIGenbank Eimeria necatrix (JX853832.1) were 91% and 100 % and the Homology sequence identity of Eimeria maxima of local isolates to NCBI-Genbank Eimeria maxima (JX853828.1) was 98%.

ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﲔ, ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻻﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻻﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﻭﺗﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺎ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ. ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺒﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻴﺎﺕ Coccidiosisﺍﻻﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺠﻬﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ، ﻣﺮﺽ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻫﻢ ﺍﻻﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ. ﺍﻥ ﻓﻬﻢ Eimeria ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﱃ ﺟﻨﺲ apicomplexan protozoa ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﰐ ﻳﻌﺰﺯ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻟﻘﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﱃ ﲢﺴﲔ Eimeriaﻃﻔﻴﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝ ﺍﻻﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ. ﺗﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ Eimeria ﺑﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﲬﺲ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻣﻦ DNAﲬﺴﻪ ﻋﴩ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱰﻭﺟﻴﻨﻴﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﲈﺩﺍ ﻋﲆ ﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻀﺨﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻧﺰﻳﻢ ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacer 1)ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺠﲔ ﺍﳌﺤﺪﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ Eimeriaﺍﻟﺒﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﲇ , ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱰﻭﺟﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺰﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻝ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻠﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻭﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ Gene bankﻭﺍﳌﻮﺛﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﳉﻴﻨﺎﺕ (MEGA6) ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺏ phylogenetic tree ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﻳﺔ Eimeriaﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻻﺕ Genetic treeﺗﻢ ﺍﻋﺘﲈﺩﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﺛﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻨ ﻚ ﺍﳉﻴﻨﺎﺕ Eimeria tenella ﻭﺟﺪ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﻌﺰﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻞ Eimeriaﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻞ 98%، 99% ﺍﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ NCBI-BLASTE ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻝ NCBI-Gene bank Eimeria tenella (JX853830) NCBI-Gene ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺰﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﳉﻴﻨﺎﺕEimeria necatrixﺑﻴﻨﲈ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﻌﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ Eimeria ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻼﺕ ﻟﻠﻌﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ 91%، 100%ﻛﺎﻧﺖ bank Eimeria necatrix (JX83832.1) .98% ﻛﺎﻧﺖ NCBI-Gene bank Eimeria maxima (JX853828.1) ﺍﱃ ﻋﺰﻟﺔ ﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﳉﻴﻨﺎﺕ maxim


Article
Identification of an unknown person using Y-chromosome markers and mitochondrial dna typing
تحديد هوية الشخص المجهول باستخدام معلمات الكروموسوم Y و الحمض النووي للمايتوكوندريا

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Abstract

Background: The present article is concerned within the scope of Forensic Medicine, specifically Forensic Genetics. The case was taken care of in the Genetic-Molecular Laboratory of the Odessa Regional Bureau of Forensic-Medical Examinations, in Ukraine, during January and February of 2014.Objectives: The aim of our work was to identify an unknown person, using the techniques: Y-chromosome markers and mitochondrial DNA typing. Materials and methods: The materials available for our procedure were: pieces of tissue in paraffin blocks, saved from the corpse of the unknown person; blood from a living male subject, who claimed to be the grandfather, and from two females, allegedly the sisters. From all of them we extracted nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) respectively, that was analyzed to compare and draw the proper conclusions. Results: The analyzed genetic materials confirmed the kinship.Conclusion: Using Y-chromosome markers we were able to establish the correspondence of the subject to his paternal line, and by mitochondrial DNA typing we could establish his relation to the proper maternal line.Keywords: Forensic Genetics, genetic markers, Y-chromosome markers, mitochondrial DNA sequencing, identification of a corpse.

خلفية الموضوع: هذا المقال يدخل في نطاق الطب الشرعي، في علم الوراثة العدلية على وجه التحديد. درست هذه القضية في مختبر الوراثة في مركز الطب الشرعي في اوديسا-اوكرانياالهدف: الهدف من عملنا هو تحديد شخص مجهول، وذلك باستخدام التقنيات: فحص و تحديد كروموسوم Yو الحمض النووي للمايتوكوندريا. المواد و النظرية: قُطع من الأنسجة الجثة الشخص المجهول حُفظت في علب خاصة لحفظ الانسجة ، واُخذ الدم من شخص معروف، الذي ادعى أنه الجد ومن أنثيين، و يدعين انهن الأخوات للشخص المجهول، اخذت العينات لاستخراج المادة الوراثية, وذلك بعد فحص المادة الوراثية لكل منهم نستنتج النتائج الصحيحة. النتائج: أكدت نتائج الفحص ان العينات الوراثية تطابقت مع صلة القرابة.استنتاج: استخدام معلمات كروموسوم Y-تمكننا من تحديد انتماء الشخص المجهول عن طريق جهة الاباء, و عن طريق الحمض النووي للمايتوكوندريا حددنا هويته عن طريق جهة الام.الكلمات المفتاحية: علم الوراثة الشرعي، معلمات وراثية، معلمات كروموسوم Y-، الحمض النووي للمايتوكوندريا، التعرف على جثة مجهولة الهوية.

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