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Article
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: History, Diagnosis and Pathogenesis: A Review Article
اضطراب ما بعد الصدمة: تاريخه وتشخيصه وإمراضيته: مقالة مرجعية

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Abstract

After 2003, there is almost no day without an explosion or terrorist attacks in Iraq. The effects of repeated explosions extended to cover all aspects of life and places, where the negative effects of destruction, devastation and death continue. Consequently, the psychological and social effects are one of the most important negative effects which remain for long periods as a result of these traumatic experiences, as well as, the experiences of severe psychological stress had an evident impact on most individuals who have experienced such traumatic events. Usually, our communities have no sufficient interest in psychological care for disaster survivor, despite the fact that the psychological effects of disasters have often more impact than organic effects [1].This review article highlights to the history, diagnosis and pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

يكاد لا يمر يوم في العراق بعد عام 2003 دون حصول انفجار أو هجمة ارهابية. ان آثار الانفجارات المتكررة يمتد ليشمل جميع مناحي الحياة، حيث تستمر الآثار السلبية المترتبة على الدمار والخراب والموت. وبالتالي، فإن الآثار النفسية والاجتماعية هي واحدة من اهم الآثار السلبية التي تبقى لفترات طويلة نتيجة لهذه الخبرات الصادمة. وكذلك، كان هنالك تأثير واضح لخبرات الإجهاد النفسي الشديد على معظم الأفراد الذين عانوا من مثل هذه الأحداث الصادمة. وعادة فان مجتمعاتنا لا تهتم بشكل كافي في مجال الرعاية النفسية للناجين من الكوارث، على الرغم من أن الآثار النفسية للكوارث في كثير من الأحيان تكون أكثر تأثيرا من الآثار الجسدية.يسلط هذا المقال الضوء تاريخ وتشخيص وإمراضيه اضطراب ما بعد الصدمة.


Article
Use of Ascetic Fluid Cholesterol as a Marker to Differentiate between Types of Ascetic Fluid

Authors: Dr. Hamed S. Mahdi --- Dr. Hasan Ali AlKhersan --- Dr. Sadiq Jabar Ali
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 83-90
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:- Cholesterol is high in ascetic fluid due to malignancy and other causes of exudates.
Objective:-To use cholesterol as a marker to differentiate between exudative and transudative ascetic fluid and to compare that with other routine parameters.
Methods:-Twenty eight patients were included in this study 17 females with mean age of 41.9 years, 11 males with mean age of 48.2 years. The patients were divided in group I suspected transudate, and group II suspected exudate according to history and clinical examination.
Ascetic fluid samples were sent for total protein, albumin, and cholesterol measurement blood samples were sent for serum protein and albumin measurement.
Results:-In this study ascetic fluid cholesterol was fit with history and clinical examination to differentiate between exudative and transudative ascetic fluid.
Cholesterol was a good marker when compared with ascetic fluid total protein and ascetic serum protein ratio in group I, but not in the others.
Conclusion: - cholesterol can be used as a marker for the diagnosis of a cites cases but a large number of patients is important for accurate results
Key word:-Ascites, exudate, transudate, cholesterol


Article
Rate of Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms amongNewly Diagnosed Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: Twana A. Rahim --- Abdul-Rasoul Al-Yasiri
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 83-90
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Schneiderian first rank symptoms are considered highly valuable in the diagnosis of schneideria.
They are more evident in the acute phase of the disorder and fading gradually with time. Many studies have shown that the rate of these symptoms are variable in different countries and are colored by cultural beliefs and values.
Objectives: To find out the rate of Schneiderian first rank symptoms among newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients, to assess which symptom(s) might predominate in those patients, and to find out if there is/are any correlation(s) between the occurrence of these symptoms and the sex of the patients.
Methods: Out of twenty-four patients with no past psychiatric history and whom were diagnosed as Schizophrenia for their first time depending on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-4th Edition-Text Revised criteria for diagnosis were evaluated for the presence of Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms by using a semi-structured interview schedule.
Results: Out of twenty -three patients (54.7%) had present with one or more Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms.' Third person Hallucinatory Voices", "running Commentary Hallucinatory Voices', and " Somatic Passivity" were present more frequently than other symptoms.
The study revealed no sex differences in regard of the occurrences of the Schneiderian (FRS). More than 82% of those who had the symptoms showed more than one symptom.
Conclusions: Many factors influence the presence or absence of Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms among schizophrenic patients including the criteria selected for the diagnosis of the disorder, the tools adopted for the detection of these symptoms, the duration of the illness, and probably patient's cultural background.
Although there are individual differences of First Rank Symptoms among different cultures, still we expect certain symptoms to be present more than others. The influence of cultural factors in altering the basic symptoms of psychiatric illnesses is of great importance.
Key Words: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-4th Edition-ext Revised (DSM-IV-TR), First Rank Symptoms (SFRS), American Psychiatric Association (APA), International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia (IPSS), International Classification of Diseases (ICD).


Article
Psychiatric Comorbidity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Najaf Province

Author: Arafat H. Al-Dujaily عرفات الدجيلي
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 20 Pages: 74-84
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

خلفية الدراسة: مقارنآ مع العديد من اضطرابات الطفولة المزمنة الأخرى، اضطراب طيف التوحد (ASD) هي مجموعة خطيرة ومعيقة من الاضطرابات العصبية النمائية. وقد أعطيت اهتماما قليلا نسبيا وخاصة فيالعالم العربي في الكشف المبكر عنها والاضطرابات النفسية المرضية المصاحبه لها .الأهداف : الهدف الرئيسي للدراسة الحالية هو تحديد الاضطرابات النفسية المشتركة لدى الأطفال الذين يعانونمن اضطرابات طيف التوحد ( ASD ) ومعرفة الخصائص الديموغرافية المرتبطة بهذا الاضطراب .المنهجية : أجريت الدراسة خلال الفترة من 1 كانون الثاني 3112 إلى 21 كانون الاول 3112 .المشاركون فيالدراسة هم الأطفال المراجعين الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 13 2 سنة )العدد الكلي = 111 ( في وحدة الطب -النفسي لمستشفى الحكيم العام في النجف الاشرف. شملت الدراسه استبيان شبه منظم لمختلف الخصائصالديموغرافية والأكاديمية بما في ذلك العمر والجنس والتحصيل الدراسي للوالدين والمهنة الخ. استخدمتتصنيفات الطبعة الرابعة للدليل التشخيصي الإحصائي (DSM –IV) كتشخيص ااولي لاضطراب طيف التوحد ،في حين تم تقييم الاضطرابات النفسية المشتركة باستخدام المقابلة التشخيصية المنظمه، المقابلة السريريةالمنظمه للدليل التشخيصي الإحصائي الطبعة الرابعة - DSM- IV) ، الخاصة بالاطفال . (KID – SCID) تمإجراء التحليل الإحصائي بواسطة الحزمة الإحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية. (SPSS)النتائج : اظهرت الدراسه الحالية ان الغالبية العظمى من المرضى تتراوح اعمارهم مابين 11 5 سنوات. كما -بينت الدراسة ان نسبة ذات دلالة إحصائية من الأطفال الذين يعانون من اضطراب طيف التوحد هم من الذكورالذين يعيشون في المدينة ، ودخل أسرهم يكفي لسد الحاجة مع حجم أسرهم صغيرة ، كما أن المستوى التعليميللابوين جيدا ولكن والدتهم ربة منزل . تسعة وخمسون طفلا من الاطفال الذين يعانون من اضطراب طيفالتوحد) 55 %( صنفوا على ان لديهم واحدة على الاقل من الاضطرابات النفسيه المصاحبة لاضراب طيفالتوحد. ومع ذلك، كان الأطفال الذين يعانون من اضطراب طيف التوحد لديهم أكثرنسبه من الاضطرابات النفسيةالاستيعابية)الداخلية( ) 25 ٪( مقارنة بالاضطرابات النفسية الخارجية )اضطراب المعارضة و/ أو اضطرابالسلوك ( .)31%( وبشكل أكثر تحديدا ، كان الأطفال الذين يعانون من اضطراب طيف التوحد لديهم ارتفاعمعدلات اضطرابات القلق ) 21 ٪ ( اكثر من اضطرابات المزاج .الاستنتاجات :أكدت الدراسة الحالية ان الكثير من مرضى اضطراب طيف التوحد يعانون من اضطرابات نفسيةأخرى ، لذلك لابد من الأطباء المعرفة والبحث عن الاضطرابات المشتركه ، والنظر في العلاج لمثل هذهالاضطرابات المرضية . بالإضافة إلى ذلك، هناك حاجة ماسه إلى المزيد من الأبحاث حول وبائيات ومألالاضطرابات الطبية والنفسية المرتبطة بالتوحد .

Background:Compared with several other chronic childhood disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious and disabling group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Relatively little attention has been given to its early identification and comorbid psychiatric disorders especially in the Arab world.Objectives: The present study was conducted with the main aim to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to find out the sociodemographic factors in relation to ASD.Methods: The study was conducted from 1st January 2013 to 30th December 2013. Participants were clinically referred children aged 3–12 years (n = 100) at psychiatric unit of AL Hakeem General Hospital in Najaf. A semi-structured questionnaire included the various demographic and academic characteristics including age, gender, parental educational and occupational status etc. DSM-IV classifications were used47for the primary diagnosis (ASD), while comorbid psychiatric disorders were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview, the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, childhood diagnoses (KID-SCID). Statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).Results: The majority of the patients were aged 5–10 years. Statistically significant proportion of children diagnosed with an ASD was male who live in an urban area and had satisfactory family income with small family size, they also had well educated parents but their mother was housewife. Fifty-nine children with ASD (59%) were classified as having at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. However, children with ASD had more comorbid internalizing disorders (39%) compared to comorbid externalizing disorders (ODD and/or CD) (20%). More specifically, children with ASD had higher rates of anxiety disorders (31%), but not mood disorders.Conclusions: This study confirms the frequent co-occurrence of ASD with other psychiatric disorders, so it is important for clinicians to always be aware of, and screen for, comorbidity, and to consider treatment for these comorbid disorders. In addition, more research is needed on the epidemiology of autism-related medical and psychiatric disorders and outcome

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