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Article
Environmental Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Atmospheric Air at Daura Refinery
التقييم البيئي لتركيز الهيدروكربونات العطرية متعددة الحلقات في الهواء الجوي لمصفى الدورة

Authors: Muthna A.A.Shanshal مثنى عبد الجبار شنشل --- Adnan H. Afaj عدنان حسن عفج --- , Israa M. H. Almousawi اسراء محمد حسين الموسوي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 3A Pages: 932-942
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in aerosol from air samples, which collected for the period from April 2012 to February 2013, in Baghdad city, at Daura Refinery. Aerosol samples were collected on cellulose fiber filters for 1.5 h in each site for the morning and evening time. These aerosol samples undergone soxhlet extraction. After the extraction, 49 samples were analyzed by GC-MS in order to determin 16 PAH compounds. The parameters temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were measured during the measurement period. The PAH concentrations were different for location inside and outside Daura refinery. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH detected in all points at the site sampling for all seasons. There is strong correlation between total suspended particles (TSP) and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) (0.897, 0.966, 0.800) for spring, summer and autumn respectively. There was positive correlation between the total PAH concentrations and the relative humidity in the spring, autumn and winter seasons.

قيست تراكيز الهيدروكربونات العطرية متعددة الحلقات في عينات الهواء التي جمعت في الفترة من ابريل عام 2012 إلى فبراير عام 2013 , في مصفى الدورة لمدينة بغداد. جمعت عينات الهواء على مرشحات ألياف السليلوز لمدة ساعة ونصف للموقع ولفترتي الصباح والمساءو ثم استخلصت باستخدام جهاز السوكسليت. حلل 49 نموذج مستخلص بوساطة كروماتوغرافيا الغاز – مطيافية الكتلة (GC- MS) لتحديد 16مركب حلقي عطري (PAH) , وقيست معلمات الأرصاد الجوية مثل درجة الحرارة والرطوبة النسبية وسرعة الرياح خلال فترة القياس. تفاوتت تراكيز هذه المركبات PAH بين الموقع الداخلي والخارجي لمصفى الدورة. لوحظ تركيز النفالثين الاكثر وفرة في جميع المواقع ولجميع الفصول. وجدت علاقة قوية بين تركيز الدقائق العالقة (TSP) و التركيز الكلي لمركبات العطرية الحلقية(TPAH) (0.897، 0.966، 0.800 ) لفصول الربيع والصيف والخريف على التوالي, و علاقة ايجابية بين التركيز الكلي للهيدروكربونات العطرية متعددة الحلقات والرطوبة النسبية في فصول الربيع، والخريف والشتاء.


Article
Kinetic study and Modeling of heavy Naphtha Catalytic Reforming process in AL-Daura Refinery

Authors: Mohammad Fadhil Abid --- Haider Majeed Khother
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 15 Pages: 1-27
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

In the present work, kinetics and modeling of heavy naphtha catalytic reforming process in Al-Daura refinery-Midland refineries Company were studied. A proposed reaction scheme involving (15 pseudo components) connected together by a network of 30 reactions for components in the C6-C8+ range have been modeled. In the present work, kinetics and modeling of heavy naphtha catalytic reforming process in AL-Daura refinery-Midland refineries Company were studied. A proposed reaction scheme involving (15 pseudo components) connected together by a network of 30 reactions for components in the C6-C8+ range have been modeled. The proposed model has been solved numerically using the 4th order Runge–Kutta approach. Alteration of components and temperature, with time and reactor length was evaluated. Results showed that the rate of formation of aromatics is becoming slower as the reactants proceed to the third reactor. The catalytic reaction rates in the reformer are well represented by the Hougen-Watson Langmur-Hinshelwood (HWLH) type form. The deactivation of catalyst causes the reactor behavior to continue changing over a longer period of time. This clearly seems to pay off in the scenario where coke deposition plays such a major role. It was also found that the rate of coke formation increases with the progress from first to the last bed, so keeping a decreasing inlet temperature profile from first to the last bed would lead to more uniform coke content in each bed. The production rate of reformate has a negative impact on the octane number. Temperature drop across the first reactor (~ 45oC) is larger than the temperature drops across the other two reactors (10-12oC). This could be related to the endothermic reaction rate which is faster in the first reactor. The results show that perfect agreement of temperatures, compositions, and fractions molar flow rate at the exit of the third reactor is obtained between predicted values and industrial values.This confirmed the reliability of the present model.


Article
EVALUATING AND COMPARING THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM THE PRODUCTION OF DIESL AND LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS, AL-DAURA REFINERY, BAGHDAD, IRAQ

Authors: Mohammad Ali Alanbari --- Israa Rahman Ghanem
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (part-6) Pages: 131-140
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Petroleum is the main source of energy in the world, plays an important role in human life, but also its have many environmental impacts. Various software's are designed to focus on the environmental impacts of Petroleum production and accomplish the assessment, one of these software's is SimaPro software package which is designed to make a valuable contribution. It is an essential tool for analyzing the environmental impact of products during their whole life cycle. A huge amount of knowledge about the environment is built into the program and database, enabling to analyze a product with a minimum of specialized knowledge. In this study, SimaPro7 is used to analyze and evaluate the impacts for AL-Daura refinery for the Diesel and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) fuel production .The results of LCA are not mostly straightforward in favor of material design over the alternative one. The IMPACT2002+ methodology is used for evaluating the products. This method has proved to be a powerful tool for designers to aggregate LCA results in easily and understandable form. The results of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) show that Diesel has an impact and damage on the environment (single score) of the order of 0.300302 point for each 1 cubic meter producing from Diesel fuel while LPG has a single score of 0.191243, (The "Single Score" variable is measured in units of points (Pt), which indicates the potential number of people affected by the environmental impacts taken into consideration a period of one year).

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