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Article
Prevalence of "White Spots" Around Orthodontic Brackets: A Clinical Study

Authors: Ahmad A Abdulmawjood --- Mahmood Kh Ahmed --- Ne’am R. Al- Saleem
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 24 Pages: 371-377
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aim: To determine the prevalence of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients treated with fixed or-thodontic appliances at different treatment periods and to reveal the teeth most commonly affected by white spot lesions. Materials and Methods: Forty eight patients (31 females and 17 males) treated with fixed orthodontic appliance were included in this study. The patients were examined for the pres-ence of white spot before insertion of the appliance and after its removal using visual examination. Results: This study showed that there was a significant increase in the formation of white spot lesions along with the increase in treatment duration in male group, while females showed no significant dif-ference in white spots at different durations. The first molars were the most affected teeth by white spots followed by canines and second premolars. Conclusion: This clinical study showed that the teeth in buccal segment were affected by white spots more than incisors and the prevalence of white spots increased when the duration of treatment increased.


Article
The effect of ER: YAG laser on enamel resistance to caries during orthodontic treatment: An in vitro study

Authors: Noor M.H. Garma نور محمد حسن --- Esraa S. Jasim
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 182-188
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: One common undesirable side effect of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is thedevelopment of incipient caries lesions around brackets, particularly in patients with poor oral hygiene. Differentmethods have been used to prevent demineralization; the recent effort to improve the resistance against thedemineralization is by the application of lasers.Materials and method: Thirty human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were used to test the effect of twoenergy level of ER-YAG laser on enamel resistance to demineralization. The brackets were bonded on the teeth andall the labial surface excluding 2 mm area gingival to the brackets were painted with acid resistance varnish. Threegroups were generated. The first group was the control group (A) with no treatment was performed. In the second(group B) and third (group C) groups; teeth were irradiated by ER-YAG laser of 200, 60 mj energy respectively. All theteeth were individually subjected to acid challenge cycle for 30 days. After debonding longitudinal sections weretaken and examined under stereomicroscope. The enamel demineralization evaluation was done by taking theaverage of three depths at the centre of the artificial lesion. Also the enamel surface was classified by anexperienced investigator according to acid etch pattern. Comparisons of the average depth values of the groupswere performed with ANOVA and LSD tests. The statistical significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05.Results: The results revealed that average lesion depth was significantly deeper at the control group than the lasergroups, and it was significantly deeper in group (B) with 200 mj than in group (C) with 60 mj. Enamel surfaces showeddeeper pits and craters than in control group.Conclusions: The decrease in artificial caries lesion depth associated with use of the two laser energy level supportthe ER-YAG laser as a tool to increase enamel resistance to demineralization and white spot lesion prevention

Keywords

Demineralization --- ER-YAG --- laser


Article
Comparative Assessment of In Vitro Effect of Three Fluoride Releasing Agents on Enamel Demineralization around Orthodontic Brackets

Authors: Esraa S. Jasim اسراء جاسم --- Noor M.H. Garma نور محمد حسن --- Samer Aun Thyab سامر عون ذياب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 126-133
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: White spot lesion considered as irreversible tooth demineralization presenting challenge to orthodontistsduring treatment schedules, fluoride was the most successfully used measure to overcome this challenge.Materials and method: A total of forty sound human permanent premolars were used in the present study andcategorized into four groups, in one group the teeth were bonded with stainless steel brackets using Resin-modifiedglass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and the other three groups the teeth were bonded with light cured compositeResilience® (Ortho technology Co., USA). Group A; Acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) topical gel (Mfg by DEEPAKPRODUCTS, INC, USA), fluoride ion 1.23% applied on examine area for four minute. Group B; RMGIC (GC Fuji OrthoLC, GC Corporation/Japan) used as bracket adhesive. Group C; Stannous and sodium phosphate fluoride gelyielding 0.72% fluoride ion (Mfg. for: dental resources DS-8) (0.4% Stannous fluoride, 1% sodium fluoride), was applieddaily through the experimental study. D; the control group represents the conventional bonding procedure with nopreventive method. The entire labial surfaces except 2 mm gingival to the bracket were isolated by acid resistancevarnish. All the teeth were subjected individually during 30 days in to acid challenge cycle. After longitudinalsectioning of the teeth by using a hard-tissue microtome, the depth of the artificial lesion was estimated by takingthe average of three penetration depths at the lesion centre under stereomicroscope. Also the enamel surface wasclassified according to acid etch pattern. Comparisons of the average caries penetration of the groups weresubmitted to ANOVA and LSD tests. The statistical significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05.Results: The results revealed that there were statistically significant differences among the tested groups. Withdifferent caries reduction abilities, APF group showed 14%, RMGIC Group 49%, group Stannous and sodiumphosphate fluoride 39% depth reduction compared to the control group.Conclusions: While all the groups showed caries reduction by different fluoride agents used in this study, the lessaverage lesion depth was found at group B making the RMGIG the best caries fighting fluoride measure


Article
Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the microhardness and microscopic features of the sound enamel and initial caries-like lesion of permanent teeth, compared to fluoridated agents

Authors: Ali H. Fahad علي فهد --- Athraa' M. Al-Weheb عذراء الوهب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 114-120
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate derived from the milk protein casein. The aimsof this study were to investigate the efficacy of CPP-ACP on the microhardness of the sound and artificially caries-likelesion of outer enamel surface in comparison to sodium fluoride 0.05%, stannous fluoride 0.4%, and de-ionized water.Materials and methods: Sixty five maxillary first premolars, two teeth were used for sound and caries- like lesionenamel ground section preparation, while other teeth were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. Group A wasconsisted of 42 teeth were randomly assigned to five study groups and one control group. After production of initialcaries-like lesion of outer enamel surface, the teeth were treated by the selected agents for four minutes separately(CPP-ACP, CPP-ACP+NaF, CPP-ACP+SnF2, NaF 0.05%, and SnF2 0.4%). While Group B consisted of 21 teeth wererandomly divided to three study groups, teeth treated with (CPP-ACP, CPP- ACP+NaF, CPP- ACP+SnF2) beforedemineralization by pH cycling procedure.Results: In both groups showed that agents of study groups were statistically highly significant in elevation of themicrohardness values, CPP-ACP+NaF caused highest change in the microhardness (207.21%) for Group A and(19.22%) for Group B, while the lowest change with SnF2 0.4% (74.32%) for Group A and CPP-ACP (8.2%) for Group B.Conclusions: CPP-ACP agents were effective in remineralization of the outer enamel caries-like lesions and the higherremineralizing potential when applied with fluoridated agents; which was reflected by increase in enamelmicrohardness values.

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