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Article
Naphtha desulfurization by prepare Cu-Ni-zeolite adsorbent

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Abstract

For desulfurization of naphtha, NaY zeolite was prepared from Dewekhala kaolin clay (Al-Anbar region). For the prepared zeolite adsorbent, x-ray diffraction, sodium content, silica to alumina ratio, surface area, bulk density and crushing strength were determined. From the x-ray diffraction of the prepared NaY zeolite and by a comparison with the standard NaY zeolite, it was found that the prepared adsorbent in this work has approximately the same crystal structure as the standard. Adsorption process was done in a laboratory unit at 25 ᵒC and 4.1 h-1 LHSV. The experimental results show that the promoted adsorbent gives higher percentage of sulfur removal (82.15%) after 10 minute and reaching 40.15% after 120 minute. The adsorption capacity is equal 0.167 mmole "S"/ g after 10 minute while it reached up to 0.77 and 0.98 mmole "S"/g at 50 and 120 minute, respectively


Article
Sulfur Reduction in Naphtha produced from Al-Qayarah Refinery Units by the Simplest Possible and Economically Feasible Methods

Authors: Asaad Owayez Rabet --- Zeinab Talib Abdulwahab --- Yazan Munaf Ali --- Nada Sadoon Ahmed zeki
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2016 Volume: 272 Issue: 13 Pages: 38-58
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Production of low sulfur content of untreated naphtha from Al -Qayarah Refinery units has been studied in this research by using oxidation, oxidation-adsorption, and adsorption methods. The influence of time, temperature, sorbent type on sulfur reduction was investigated. The results showed that oxidation- adsorption was an efficient method for the desulfurization of naphtha where high removal efficiencies of about 93% were obtained. Also, it was concluded that by increasing temperature (up to 60C), and time (up to 5 hr) led to decreasing sulfur content from 1194ppm to about 76ppm. The results indicated that the best sequence of sulfur removal on sorbent materials were as follow: Ni/AC˃ AC ˃ Ni/γAl2O3˃ γAl2O3.


Article
Desulfurization of gas oil using a solar photocatalytic microreactor

Author: Mohammad Fadhil Abid
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 49-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present work is devoted to investigate the performance of a homemade Y-shape catalytic microreactor for degradation of dibenzothiophene (DBT), as a model of sulphur compounds including in gas oil, utilizing solar incident energy. The microchannel was coated with TiO2 nanoparticles which were used as a photocatalyst. Performance of the microreactor was investigated using different conditions (e.g., DBT concentration, LHSV, operating temperature, and (H2O2/DBT) ratio). Our experiments show that, in the absence of UV light, no reaction takes place. The results revealed that outlet concentration of DBT decreases as the mean residence time in the microreactor increases. Also, it was noted that operating temperature showed a positive impact on the degradation rate of DBT while LHSV showed a different image. The results reported an optimum (H2O2/DBT) ratio which gave maximum conversion of DBT which vary with initial concentration. Kinetic study was carried out which confirmed that desulfurization of DBT followed a pseudo-first order reaction at 30 and 50oC, respectively. However deviation from linearity was observed at 60oC. Comparison between microreactor´s performance and performance of batch reactors from published literature were illustrated. The Comparison confirmed the unique characteristics of the microreactor.


Article
Adsorptive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Using Na-Bentonite Adsorbents

Author: Fatma Dheif Ali
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 248-252
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

In this work, model fuel (Thiophene in hexane) was treated for sulfur removal by adsorptive desulfurization method using modified bentonite with sodium (Na-B) adsorbent. Batch and continuous mode were used in this study. Several operating parameters such as initial thiophene concentration of 250 to 2000 mg/L , adsorbent dose 0.1 to 0.8g/ml were studied for sulfur removal %. Also a comparison between raw and modified bentonite was performed in this study. In continuous mode, a packed bed of Na-B adsorbent column was used at constant initial thiophene concentration and liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) to study the breakthrough curve of thiophene. The results showed that Na-B adsorbent was better than raw bentonite in removal of sulfur components. The removal percentages was 67,75,87,and 91% for 500 mg/L initial thiophene concentration using adsorbent dose o.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8g/ml respectively , and 87.75, 57, and 53% for adsorbent dose of 0.2 g/ml using initial thiophene concentration of 250, 500. 1000, and 2000 mg/L respectively. It was concluded that when increase the dose of adsorbent, the removal of sulfur increase , and when increase the initial concentrationthe removal decrease.


Article
Deep Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel by Guard Bed Adsorption of Activated Carbon and Locally Prepared Cu-Y Zeolite
ازالة كبيرة للمركبات الكبريتيه من وقود الديزل باستخدام عمود امتزاز مكون من كاربون منشط و Cu-Y zeolite محضر محليا

Authors: Nada Mustafa Hadi ندى مصطفى هادي --- Sarmad Abdul-Razzaq Rashid سرمد عبد الرزاق رشيد --- Suheila abdalreda سهيلة عبد الرضا
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2014 Volume: 20 Issue: 5 Pages: 146-159
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Desulfurization of a simulated diesel fuel by different adsorbents was studied in a fixed-bed adsorption process operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three different adsorption beds were used, commercial activated carbon, Cu-Y zeolite, and layered bed of 15wt% activated carbon followed by Cu-Y zeolite.Initially Y-zeolite was prepared from Iraqi rice husk and then impregnated with copper.In general, the adsorbents tested for total sulfur adsorption capacity at break through followed the order Ac/Cu-Y zeolite>Cu-Y zeolite>Ac. The best adsorbent, Ac/Cu-Y zeolite is capable of producing more than 30 cm3 of simulated diesel fuel per gram of adsorbent with a weighted average content of 5 ppm-S, while Cu-Y zeolite producing of about 20 cm3 of diesel fuel per gram of adsorbent with a weighted average content of 2ppm-S. Activated carbon breaks through almost immediately.

تمت دراسة ازاله المركبات الكبريتية من وقود الديزل باستخدام العمود الثابت لعمليه الامتزاز تحت ظروف اعتياديه من درجه حراره وضغط. تمت العمليه باستخدام ثلاثه انواع من الاعمدة المحشوة بالمواد الممتزة وهي الكاربون المنشط (Ac) والنحاس المحمل على الزيولات Cu-Y zeolite وعمود مزدوج من 15% وزنا كاربون منشط والنحاس المحمل على الزيولايت تم تحضير الزيولايت Y من قشور الرز العراقي. اظهرت الدراسه ان سعة الامتزاز للمواد الممتزة كانت على الترتيبAc/Cu-Y zeolite>Cu-Y zeolite>Ac حيث استطاع العمود الافضل , Ac/Cu-Y zeolite من انتاج اكثر من 30 سم مكعب من وقود الديزل الخالي من المركبات الكبريتيه لكل غرام من المادة الممتزة وبمعدل وزني للمركبات الكبريتية بحدود 5 ملغم/لتر. بينما كان انتاج المادة الممتزة Cu-Y zeolite من وقود الديزل الخالي من المركبات الكبريتية بحدود 20 سم مكعب لكل غرام من المادة الممتزة وبمعدل وزني للمركبات الكبريتية بحدود 2 ملغم/لتر.بينما لم يتمكن العمود المحشو بالكاربون المنشط من انتاج وقود الديزل خالي من المركبات الكبريتية


Article
Modeling and Simulation of Flue Gas Desulfurization Using Slurry of Fine Activated Carbon Particles
النمذجة والمحاكاة لعملية ازالة الكبريت من الغاز العادم بأستخدام مفاعل ثلاثي الأطوار

Authors: Asmaa I. Eliass --- Neran K. Ibrahim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 12 Pages: 2294-2307
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The main objective of the present work is to investigate thefeasibility of using a slurry of fine activated carbon particles,dp<1mm, in a fixed bed reactor for the removal of sulfur dioxidefrom simulated flue gas (air, SO2) stream. A mathematical modelgoverning the desulfurization process was proposed. The partialdifferential equations which describe the adsorption of SO2 from amoving gas stream to the sorbent bed were solved using a finitedifference method. The kinetic parameters of the mathematicalmodel were obtained from a series of experimental desulfurizationruns carried out at isothermal conditions and different operatingconditions; bed temperature (333K-373K), initial SO2 concentration(500ppm-2000ppm) and static bed height (10cm-24cm). The resultsshowed that the use of fine activated carbon particles improved theremoval efficiency to about 97%. The verification of the simulationand experimental results showed that the proposed model gave agood description of the desulfurization process with 95% confidencelevel

ي تضمنا لبحث دراسة جدوىا ستخدام الفحما لمنشطا لرطب ذوا قطار دقائقلاتتعدى ال 1 ملم في مفاعل ذو حشوة ثابتة لازالة غازث نائيا وكسيدال كبريت منتما قتراح موديل .(SO مجرى غازي محاكيل مجرىا لغازاتا لعادمة (هواء , 2رياضيي صف عمليةا لأزالة.ال معادلاتال تفاضليةا لجزئية والتيت صف عمليةا متزازمن مجرى غازي الى سطحا لمادةا لممتزة تم حلهاب استخدام طريقةال فروقات SO ال 2المحددة.ال معاملاتا لحركيةل لموديلال رياضي تم استنتاجها من سلسلة م ا نل تجارب373- اجريت في درجات حرارة ثابتة. وظروف عمل مختلفة: حرارةال مفاعل ( 3332000 جزء منا لمليون) وارتفاعا لحشو ة -500 )SO كلفن),ا لتركيزا لبدائي لل 224-10 سم).ا لنتائجا ظهرت انا ستخدامد قائ ا قل كاربونا لمنشط ذاتا لاقطار )الى مايقارب ال 97 %. عندم قارنةن تائج SO الصغيرة ادت الى زيادة كفاءة ا زالة ال 2الموديلال رياضي الذي تما قتراحه معا لنتائجا لعمليةا ظهرتال مقارنة انا لموديل.% وبدرجة ثقة 95 SO المقترحأ عطىت فسيرا جيدال عمليةا زالة ال 2


Article
Desulfurization and Kinetic Study of Diesel Fuel by Batch Adsorption on Activated Carbon
ازالة الكبريت ودراسة الحركية لوقود الديزل بعملية الامتزاز ذو الوجبة بأستخدام الكاربون المنشط

Author: Neran K. Ibrahim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2015 Volume: 33 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1901-1916
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The present research studied a batch adsorption desulfurization process for diesel fuel containing 580ppm sulfur, based on physical adsorption of refractory sulfur compounds on activated carbon (AC). The effects of time, temperature, diesel to AC ratio, AC particle size, mixing velocity, and initial sulfur concentration in commercial diesel fuel on the desulfurization efficiency were studied. The residual sulfur concentration in diesel fuel was decreased from 580 to 247ppm, corresponding to a desulfurization efficiency of 57%, at best conditions of 2.5 hours contact time, 50°C, 2ml diesel/gm AC, 0.8 mm AC particle size, and 1000rpm mixing velocity.Different kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. The results showed that the pseudo-second order model has succeeded in predicting the equilibrium sorption capacitywithcorrelation coefficient, R2=0.995. The experimental adsorption isotherms were correlated by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The results indicated that Freundlich isotherm exhibits the best fits for the adsorptive desulfurization of diesel fuel (R2= 0.989) as compared with the Langmuir model (R^2=0.947). The adsorption intensity as estimated from the Freundlich isotherm is larger than one which is indicative of physical adsorption.

درس البحث عملية إزالة الكبريت بطريقة الوجبات من وقود الديزل ذو المحتوى الكبريتي 580 جزئ بالمليون , بالاعتماد على عملية الامتزاز الفيزيائي لمركبات الكبريت صعبة الإزالة على سطع الكربون المنشط.تم دراسة تأثير كل من الزمن , درجة الحرارة , نسبة وقود الديزل إلى الكربون المنشط , حجم دقائق الكربون , سرعة الخلط و التركيز الأولي للكبريت في وقود الديزلعلى كفاءة إزالة الكبريت . تم خفض تركيز الكبريت في وقود الديزل من 580 إلى 247 جزء بالمليون , والتي تقابل كفاءة إزالة 57% عند استخدام أفضلالظروف (2.5 ساعة , 50°م , 2 مل ديزل لكل غم من الكربون المنشط , 0.8 ملم حجم جسيمات الكربون المنشط و 1000 دورة بالدقيقة سرعة خلط) . نماذج حركية مختلفة تم تطبيقها لتتناسب مع البيانات التجريبية. لقد أظهرت نتائج التحليل الحركي أن تطبيق نظام شبه الدرجة الثانية نجح في التنبؤ عن قدرة التوازن لعملية الامتزاز) معامل ارتباط=0.995(. تم تطبيق موديل لانجمير وفرندليتش على النتائج التجريبة و أشارت النتائج إلى أن موديل فرندليتش عرض أفضل تطابق لعملية إزالة الكبريت من وقود الديزل بالإمتزاز بمعامل ارتباط مقداره0.989 مقارنة بموديل لانجمير الذي اعطى معامل ارتباطمقداره 0.947. شدة الامتزاز كما اظهرها موديل فرندليتش هي اكبر من واحد ممايدل على ان الامتزاز فيزيائي.


Article
Adsorption Kinetic and Isotherms Studies of Thiophene Removal from Model Fuel on Activated Carbon Supported Copper Oxide

Authors: Saad H. Ammar --- Sama Ali Jaafar سما علي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2017 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 83-93
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study, activated carbon supported metal oxides was prepared for thiophene removal from model fuel (Thiophene in n-hexane) using adsorptive desulfurization technique. Commercial activated carbon was loaded individually with copper oxide in the form of Cu2O/AC. A comparison of the kinetic and isotherm models of the sorption of thiophene from model fuel was made at different operating conditions including adsorbent dose, initial thiophene concentration and contact time. Various adsorption rate constants and isotherm parameters were calculated. Results indicated that the desulfurization was enhanced when copper was loaded onto activated carbon surface. The highest desulfurization percent for Cu2O/AC and origin AC at initial thiophene concentration of 500 ppm, adsorbent dose of 0.01 g/ml and equilibrium time of 5 hr were 87.4% and 53.4% respectively, for outlet concentration of 63 mg/L for copper oxide and 236 mg/L for original AC. Generally, the percent removal of thiophene increases with the increase in adsorbent dose and decrease with increase in initial thiophene concentration. The present study was mainly focusing on the kinetics and adsorption isotherms aspect; adsorption kinetics of thiophene onto activated carbon supported Cu2O adsorbent was closely represented by the second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherms well represented the equilibrium adsorption of thiophene from model fuel.


Article
Reactive Adsorption Desulfurization by Nanocrystalline ZnO/Zeolite A Molecular Sieves
ازالة الكبريت بواسطة الامتزاز التفاعلي باستخدام المناخل الجزيئية الزيولايتAالنانوي/ اوكسيد الخارصين

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Abstract

Nanocrystalline ZnO/Zeolite type A composite was prepared by simple method of operation by the precipitation of zinc oxide and loading on zeolite 5A in one step. Characterization was made by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence(XRF), N2 adsorption- desorption for BET surface area, and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed that zinc oxide was loaded on zeolite as noticed by the characteristic peaks and was of nano scale having an average diameter of 88.57nm. The percentage loading of ZnO on zeolite A was 28.37% and the surface area was 222m2/g. The activity of the prepared catalyst was examined in the desulfurization of double hydrogenated diesel fuel. The process was investigated in a controlled autoclave with temperature range studied 100-220oC. Results indicated an oxidation of thiophenic compounds on the surface of the catalyst coupled with adsorption. About 35% reduction was obtained and the capacity was 10.56 mg S/g catalyst.

تم تحضير الزيولايت النانوي المركب مع اوكسيد الخارصين بطريقة بسيطة. تم التشخيص بواسطةتقنيات XRD, AFM, XRFوقياس المساحة السطحية. اختبرت فعالية العامل المساعد المحضر في ازالة الكبريت لوقود ديزل مهدرج مرتين. وتمت العملية في مفاعل الاوتوكليف بمدى درجات حرارة100-220 oC. ودلت النتائج على اكسدة المركبات الثايوفينية على سطح العامل المساعد مع الامتزاز. كانت اعلى ازالة %35 وقابلية استيعاب العامل المساعد 10.56mg/g.


Article
Adsorptive Desulfurization of Gas Oil Over Cu2O/AC, ZnO/AC and NiO/AC Adsorbents

Authors: S.H. Ammar --- S.A. Jaffar
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 856-863
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In the present work, Iraqi gasoil fraction was treated by using three prepared metal-impregnated activated carbon adsorbents for sulfur removal using adsorptive desulfurization method. In the first experimental section, commercial activated carbon was loaded individually with copper, zinc and nickel oxides and reaches the form of Cu2O, ZnO and NiO respectively. XRD, BET, surface area and metal content were determined for the three prepared adsorbents. The three prepared metal loaded adsorbents were tested for sulfur removal from Iraqi gasoil fuel via batch mode and continuous mode. In continuous operation, fixed bed adsorber packed individually with the three prepared adsorbents was used and breakthrough curves were generated. The results of the present study indicate that the desulfurization enhanced when metals zinc, copper and nickel were loaded onto activated carbon surface. Sulfur adsorption uptake by the three adsorbents followed the order Cu2O > ZnO > NiO (the highest desulfurization percent obtained via continuous mode for Cu2O, ZnO and NiO were 69.7%, 67.47% and 60.7% respectively). Moreover, it was exhibited that for batch mode experiments by increasing the adsorbent's concentration enhanced the sulfur removal by a noticeable amount. Whilst for the continuous mode experiments, it dealt mainly with contact time; thereby the maximum desulfurization percentage was obtained at the first 15 minutes.

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