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Article
Assessment of Patient's Knowledge and Practice Regarding their Diabetic Foot in Chamchamal District (AL- Slemani City)
تقييم معارف وممارسات المرضى تجاه قدمهم السكري في قضاء جمجمال( مدينة السليمانية)

Authors: Samir Y. Lafi --- Hawar Mardan Mohammad
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 211-218
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Diabetic foot is common in the diabetic population; it is one of the most incapacitating chronic Complications resulting from poor disease management. Objective: The study aims to assess knowledge and practice of Diabetic patients, for their foot, and to find out the relationship between knowledge and practice with some Sociodemographic characteristics such as (Age, gender, level of education. Marital Status, monthly income, residential area). Methodology: Descriptive study was carried out at Chamchamal District, from the outpatient of Chamchamal evening Public Clinic and Chronic Disease Control Center, for the period of 15th November 2013 up to 10th of October 2014. To reach the objectives of the present study, a non-probability (purposive) sample of (75) patients with diabetic foot who attend the above center. For the purpose of data collection, a questionnaire was designed of (47) items. To measure the validity of instrument the researcher exposed the instruments to (16) experts. A pilot study was carried out to check the reliability of the questionnaire. Data were collected through the use of interview, and were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistics. Results: Results of the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between Knowledge and practice by level of education and monthly income and there was also a significant relationship between practices by Occupation. Conclusions: Diabetic patient's knowledge was deferent level in education and monthly income, and diabetes practice was deferent level in level of education, occupation, and monthly income in a statistically significant manner. Recommendations: The study recommended that Patients with diabetic foot need ongoing educational programs in order to increase their knowledge and understanding in addition to regular evaluation of self-care skills by the diabetes educator. Formal diabetes education programs, generally conducted by diabetes nurses and nutrition specialists, are often very effective and training nursing personnel regarding management of physical and psychological problems of patients is essential to increase their knowledge and practices skills.

خلفية البحث: مرض القدم السكري من الامراض الشائعة بين مرضى السكر ويعتبرأهم المضاعفات المزمنة المؤدية الى العجز الناتج عن قلة العناية بالمرض. الهدف: تهدف الدراسة الى تقييم المعارف والممارسات الذاتية لمرضى القدم السكري, بالاضافة الى ايجاد العلاقة بين المعارف والممارسات الذاتية من جهة وبعض الصفات الديموغرافية مثل (العمر, الجنس, المستوى الثقافي, الحالة الزوجية, الدخل الشهري, ومحل السكن) من جهة أخرى.المنهجية: اجريت دراسة وصفية بتصميم كمي في العيادة الخارجية للعيادة الشعبية المسائية ومركز السيطرة على الامراض المزمنة في قضاء جمجمال للمدة من 15 تشرين الثاني من عام 2013 وحتى العاشر من شهرتشرين الاول من عام 2014 ولتحقيق اهداف الدراسة, اختيرت عينة غرضية (غير إحتمالية) مكونة من (75) مريض مصابين بالقدم السكري من الذين يراجعون المركز المذكور في أعلاه. ولغرض جمع العينة , صممت استمارة استبيان مكونة من (47) فقرة. عرضت الاستبانة على (16) خبير لتحديد الصدق, وباستخدام الدراسة الاستطلاعية تم تحديد ثبات الاستبانة, وبطريقة المقابلة الشخصية مع عينة البحث تم جمع المعلومات المطلوبة. تم تحليل البيانات من خلال استخدام التحليل الوصفي والتحليل الاستنتاجي.النتائج: أشارت الدراسة الى وجود علاقة ذودلالة احصائية بين معلومات المرضى والممارسات الذاتية مع المستوى الثقافي والدخل الشهري للمرضى, ووجود علاقة احصائية بين الممارسات الذاتية والمهنة.الاستنتاجات: أستنتج الباحث بأن معارف مرضى السكر مختلفة بين المرضى في المستوى الثقافي والدخل الشهري, كذلك بالنسبة للممارسات الذاتية فهي مختلفة بين المرضى في المستوى الثقافي والمهنة والدخل الشهري.التوصيات: اوصت الدراسة بأن المرضى الذين يعانون من القدم السكري يجب ان يتعرضون الى برامج ثقافية لزيادة معلوماتهم حول العناية بالقدم السكري وتقييم العناية بواسطة المعنيين بذلك. كذلك إقامة برامج ثقافية رسمية بواسطة ممرضين مختصين في مراكز السكر وكذلك من المختصين بالتغذية وذلك لأهميتها في حل المشاكل الجسمية والنفسية لمرضى القدم السكري وزيادة معارفهم حول العناية بالقدم السكري.

Keywords

Diabetic foot --- Knowledge --- Practice


Article
Predictive values of risk factors in management of diabetic foot

Authors: Safa M..Al-Obaidi صفاء العبيدي --- Amine Mohammed Bakkour --- Salah Mahdi Tajer
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 37-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Outcome of management of patients with diabetic foot is difficult to predict. Assessmentof variables in history , examination and investigations were analyzed with outcome of management andwhether can be assigned as prognostic factors .Methods: prospective study of 300 patients with diabetic foot in Baghdad teaching hospital duringthe period from April 2000 to March 2004,certain criteria was taken in history and examination, thesewere investigated and treated either by conservative procedure or amputation.Results: most common age group was 50-59 years ( 33.3%). The male to female ratio was 2:1.Conservative debridement was performed in ( 60%) of patients while amputation was employed in(40%). amputation was performed in 604 in patient above 60 years and in(75%) of patients who haddiabetic foot lesions for > 2 weeks,and in 90% of smokers for 10 years or more. Amputation wasneeded in (71%) in those who had history of previous ulceration and 72.5% of patients who hadpositive history of previous amputation. Amputation was needed in (88%) of those who had theirtemperature >38°C. in (91%) of patients who had diabetic foot lesion of Wagner grade>III and 91%.patients with X-ray findings of osteomyelitis.Conclusions: Highly significant association was found between amputation with following variable ,smokers > 10 years, patients with a temperature of > 38°C, Hypertension > 140/90 mmHg Wagnergrade > III, white blood cell count of > 20,000/cc and positive foot X-ray findings. Slightsignificant association of amputation and the following variables: Age >60 years, duration of footlesion >2 weeks, history of previous amputation, previous ulceration, negative pedal pulses, deformedfeet and patients who had impaired normal vision.


Article
Measurements of HbA1c for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Foot Ulceration

Authors: Aqeel S. Mahmood --- Mayada M. Moustafa --- Mohammed A.Taher محمد عباس طاهر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2011 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 19-24
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

People with diabetes can develop different foot problems. In the blood stream glucose reacts with hemoglobin to make a glycosylated hemoglobin molecule called hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c, the more glucose in the blood the more hemoglobin A1c will be present in the blood. The HbAlc test is currently one of the best ways to check diabetes to be under control. The aim of study is to compare between the blood investigations which includes the fasting blood sugar and HbAlC (glycosylated hemoglobin), and to evaluate the benefit of HbAlc (measurement for diabetic patients with foot ulcer, to be a good indicator for controlling blood glucose). Sixty patients with type2 diabetes mellitus from the outpatient clinic of Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Medical City over the period from Nov. 2006 to Nov. 2008, were included in the study. Follow up was done only to 30 patients with diabetic foot ulcer. Twenty (66.66%) were males and 10(33.33%) were females their age range from (23-75) years (mean age of 52years), and 21 normal subjects as control. A (Glycohemoglobin HbAl-Test/fast lon-Exchange Resin Separation Method) kit was used. The data finding that there is a greater association between HbAlc level and foot ulceration healing. There is a relationship between the age of the patients and the HbAlc level. The patients who used (Glibenclamide+Metformin) have the lower range of HbAlC, while those who use (Metformin) have the higher level of HbAlc. HbAlc (glycosylated hemoglobin) is most accurate test to determine actual reading over the past 2-3 months, and to evaluating the risk of glycemic damage to the tissues. So, we recommend the HbAlc testing, but it can't be used to monitor day-to-day blood glucose concentration because it's not influenced by fluctuation in blood concentration.

المصابين بداء السكري من الممكن ان تتطور لديهم الحالة المرضية الى الاصابة بتقرحات في القدم . في مجرى الدم جزيئاتوكلما كانت كمية الكلوكوز HbA1c او A1c الكلوكوز تلتصق بالهيموغلوبين لتكوين كلايكوسيلايتد هيموغلوبين وتدعى هيموغلوبينواحد من HbA1c اكثر . لقد وجد في الاونة الاخيرة بان الاستعانة باختبار مستوى A1c في الدم اكثر كلما كانت كمية الهيموغلوبينافضل الطرق للتحقق من مرض السكري الواقع تحت السيطرة . الغاية من هذه الدراسة للمقارنة بين الطرق المتبعة والمعتمد عليها فيالسيطرة على نسبة السكر لدى المرضى السكري من النوع الثاني ٬ مثل اختبار السكري في حالة الصيام ومقارنته باختبار مستوىالكلايكوسيلايتد هيموغلوبين . اجريت الدراسة على 60 شخص مصابين بمرض السكري من النوع الثاني واستمرت الدراسة على 30. (%33.33) 66.66 %) والاناث 10 ) 75 سنة وكان عدد الذكور 20 شخصمنهم مصاب بتقرحات في القدم وبمعدل عمري من 23كما استعين ب 21 شخص سليم غير مصاب بداء السكري وليس لديه تقرحات (مجموعة سيطرة) وقد وجدنا نتيجة هذه الدراسة بانوشفاء تقرحات القدم. كما وجدنا هناك علاقة بين عمر HbA1c النتائج المستحصل عليها تفيد بان هناك علاقة كبيرة بين مستوىالمريض ونسبة الكلايكوسيلايتد هيموغلوبين في الدم ٬ كذلك وجدنا من خلال هذه الدراسة بان المرضى المعالجين بمجموعة الادويةالمخفضة للسكر (ميتفورمين + كليبينكلامايد) قد انخفض مستوى الكلايكوسيلايتد هيموغلوبين اكثر من مجموعة المرضى الذيناستعملوا (الميتفورمين) فقط حيث كان مستوى الكلايكوسيلايتد هيموغلوبين اعلى . تستنتج الدراسة بان الكلايكوسيلايتد هيموغلوبين هو3 اشهر سابقة ولتقدير الخطورة التي يتعرض لها المصاب . لذلك نوصي باستعمال – اصح اختبار لتعيين القيمة الحقيقية للسكر بمدة 2اختبار الكلايكوسيلايتد هيموغلوبين حتى وان كان لايعطينا قيمة السكر المتغيرة يوميا.


Article
Assessment of Personal Hygiene for Adults with Diabetic Foot

Author: Hussein H. Atia
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2008 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract:Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the personal hygiene of adult patients with diabetic foot.Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out in Baghdad teaching hospital, Al-Karama teaching hospital and Al-Kindey teaching hospital for the period of 10/1/2006 to 1/9/2006. A purposive "non probability" sample of (100) patient.Questionnaire was constructed for achieving the purpose of the study. Data were collected through the application of the questionnaire and interview technique. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistical approach (frequency & percentage) and inferential statistical approach (chi-square & correlation) by using of SPSS.Results: The study results indicated that the range of age was between (56-60) year and most of them was male, married, read and write and the majority was smoking since (15) year ago and there is effect from personal hygiene on diabetic foot.Recommendation: The study recommended that educational programs should be constructed or designed for personal hygiene of patient newly diagnosed with diabetes, need for specialized nurses in the diabetic center and quit or reduce smoking.

الخلاصــة الهـدف: تهدف الدراسة لتقييم النظافة الشخصية للبالغين المصابين بالقدم السكرية. المنهجيـة: دراسة وصفية أقيمت في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي مستشفى الكرامة التعليمي ومستشفى الكندي التعليمي واستغرقت الدراسة الفترة من 10/1/2006 إلى 1/9/2006 وشملت عينة البحث (100) مريضاً، أختيرت بطريقة غرضية (غير احتمالية). صممت استبانة البحث لغرض تحقيق أهداف الدراسة، وجمعت المعلومات من خلال هذه الاستبانة وبطريقة المقابلة وتمّ تحليل البيانات من خلال تطبيق أسلوب الإحصاء الوصفي (التكرار، النسبة المئوية) والأسلوب الإحصائي الاستنتاجي (معامل الارتباط ومربع كاي) باستخدام حقيبة التحليل الإحصائي ( (SPSS 10.0. النتائـج: أظهرت الدراسة أنّ معدل العمر يتراوح بين (56-60) سنة وأغلبهم من الذكور المتزوجين، يقرؤون ويكتبون ويدخنون منذ (15) سنة وهناك تأثير للنظافة الشخصية على مرضى سكر القدم.التوصيـات: أوصت الدراسة بتصميم أو بناء برامج تثقيفية في النظافة الشخصية للمرضى المشخصين حديثاً بالسكري والحاجة إلى ممرض/ ممرضة اختصاص في مراكز مرضى السكري والإقلاع عن أو تقليل التدخين إن أمكن.


Article
Determination of health care awareness at the patients toward diabetic foot in Al-Hila teaching hospital.

Author: Amean A. Yasir
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2012 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 21-28
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract:Objective: - The aim of the study is to determine health care awareness at the patients toward diabetic foot.Methodology: - A descriptive study was carried out in Al- Hila teaching hospital for the period of 272010 to 27/2011. A purposive (non probability) sample of (200) patients.Questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of the study. Data were collected through the application of the questionnaire and interview technique. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistical approach (frequency & percentage) and inferential statistical approach (Pearson correlation and mean of score) by using of SPSS version 16.0.Results: The study results indicated that the range of age was between (47-56) year and most of them were male, married and employed, secondary graduate they live in urban, barely sufficient of monthly income and the majority were smoking. There is moderate health care awareness of diabetic complications toward diabetic foot.Recommendation:-The study recommended that educational programs should be constructed or designed for patients toward health care awareness for newly diagnosis with diabetic, need for specialized nurses in the diabetic center and stops or reduce smoking and periodic foot exam in diabetic patient and healthy people .

الخلاصة:الهدف:- تهدف الدراسة لتحديد الوعي الصحي للمرضى المصابين بداء القدم السكري المنهجية:- دراسة وصفية اقيمت في مستشفى الحله التعليمي , والعياده الاستشايه في المستشفى واستغرقت الدراسة الفترة من 272010الى 272011 وشملت عينة البحث (200) مريض, اختيرت بطريقة غرضية (غير احتمالية). صممت استبانة البحث لغرض تحقيق أهداف الدراسة, وجمعت المعلومات من خلال هذه الاستبانة وبطريقة المقابلة وتم تحليل البيانات من خلال تطبيق أسلوب الإحصاء الوصفي (التكرار, النسبة المئوية) والاسلوب الاحصائي الاستنتاجي (معامل الارتباط بيرسن والوسط الحسابي الموزون) باستخدام حقيبة التحليل الإحصائي ( (SPSS 16.0. النتائج:-أظهرت الدراسة إن معدل العمر يتراوح بين (47-56) سنة وأغلبهم من الذكور المتزوجين العاملون وغالبيتهم من خريجي الاعدادية يسكنون المدينة ودخلهم الشهري يكفي نوع ما والغالبية يدخنون. وهناك وعي صحي متوسط اتجاة مضاعفات داء السكر على القدم السكري.التوصيات:- أوصت الدراسة بتصميم أو بناء برامج تثقيفية لزيادة الوعي الصحي لمرضى السكر باتجاة القدم السكري وخاصة المشخصين حديثا بالسكر والحاجة الى ممرض ممرضة اختصاص في مراكزمرضى السكر وايقاف او تقليل التدخين ان امكن مع الفحص الدوري للقدم لمرضى السكر والاصحاء.


Article
A Study of Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Relation to Depth , Location of the Ulcer and Patient's, Age and Sex.

Author: Ryath S.AL-Hemedawi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 418-421
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Over a nine months period, extending from October, 2002 through July 2003, microorganisms were isolated and identified from foot ulcer infections of diabetic patients. The foot ulcers were clinically identified as superficial (dry, wet) or deep ,the depth of both superficial (wet, dry) and deep foot ulcers in relation to location, patient age and sex were studied from 60 patients of surgical wards.METHODS:The depth of different diabetic foot ulcers were measured by sterile cotton tip applicator inserted from the surface to the deepest point of the ulcer base.RESULTS:It was demonstrated that the superficial ulcers were mostly wet, the site of the ulcers were mainly in the right foot more than in left foot, mostly the toes. The incidence of deep ulcers were mostly in males, while the prevalence of both superficial and deep ulcers increase with advancing age.CONCLUSION:The present study showed a different classification of foot ulcers (superficial &deep) from past literature studies.


Article
HbA1c in Patients with Diabetic Foot: A Prognostic Index

Author: Hasanain Hashim Al-Yasiri
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 204-208
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common worldwide disease; which if poorly controlled, would be associated with high risk of complications, and diabetic foot is one of them.Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is an important control index of DM, and nowadays it is used as a diagnostic test.OBJECTIVE:To assess the benefit of HbA1c as a prognostic index in patients presented with diabetic foot.PATIENTS AND METHODS:This study included 176 patients presented to Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital with diabetic foot during a period of 38 months from 1st March 2007 to 1st May 2010.HbA1c was measured for all patients at time of enrollment which is mostly day of presentation. Level of 8 was considered a separation control point between good and bad control, and patients were classified into two groups; good control group (GCG) where HbA1c levels < 8, and bad control group (BCG) where levels ≥ 8.The end points for the study were determined as death, amputation, surgical wound excision without amputation, improvement on medical treatment only. Death and amputation were considered bad prognosis group (BPG), while others were considered good prognosis group (GPG).Statistical analysis was done using means, independent t-test and F-test.RESULTS:One hundred seventy six patients were studied with age range of 35-76 years, 60.15% (107/176) of them were males.At the end of follow up; 47.7% (84/176) of patients were found in BPG and 52.3% (92/176) in GPG as the following: death (11 patients), amputation (73 patients), wound excision without amputation (52 patients) and medical treatment only (40 patients); while 64.2% (113/176) of patients were found in BCG (HbA1c ≥ 8) and 35.8% (63/176) in GCG (HbA1c ˂ 8).61.1% (69/113) of BCG patients had bad prognosis; whereas only 23.8% (15/63) of GCG patients had bad prognosis, a statistically significant difference (P-value 0.001);Higher HbA1c levels were seen in patients with bad prognosis as mean HbA1c was 8.97 in BPG and 7.79 in GPG; a difference that is statistically significant (P-value ˂ 0.001)CONCLUSION:HbA1c is a significant prognostic index in patients presented with diabetic foot. Levels greater than 8 were associated with poor prognosis and longer hospitalization. So; diabetic control is a very important factor in preventing and alleviating diabetic complication


Article
PREPARATION OF VACCINE FOR DIABETIC FOOT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA USING LOW LEVEL DIODE LASER
تحضير لقاح مضاد للبكتريا المرضية المسببة لإلتهاب القذم السكري بإستخذام التشعيع بالليزر

Author: Zainab Awad Radi زينب عواد راضي
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 189-196
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Since the invention of laser in 1960, lasers have been developed and approved in many fields. Lasers can now be regarded as practical tools with unique properties that have been utilized effectively in several applications in fields of medical and biological sciences. six bacterial isolates were isolated from human samples of diabetic foot infections, which used for preparation of vaccines. The experiment was conducted on fifteen adult male rabbits, they were divided into three groups with 5 rabbits each. After irradiation of the bacterial suspensions with the diode laser for different exposure times and different frequencies, and the wavelengths used were (660, 820, 915 ) nm, the growth of bacterial isolates decreased until killed of bacteria at ( 40) min. The aim of the current study was to preparation of vaccines (live attenuated and killed) by irradiation of the bacteria by the low level diode laser. Wavelength (660) nm was more effective in killing the bacteria, and the variations were not significant between the live attenuated and the killed vaccine


Article
Preparation of Vaccine against Diabetic Foot Pathogenic Bacteria Using Low Level Diode Laser

Author: Zainab Awad Radi (M.Sc) a Ihsan F. Rostum (M.Sc, PhD) b *Sadiq Abbas Al-Mukhtar (FICMS) c
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 29-31
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Since the invention of laser in 1960, lasers have been developed and approved in many fields. Lasers can now be regarded as practical tools with unique properties that have been utilized effectively in several applications in fields of medical and biological sciences.Objectives: The aim of the current study was to preparation of vaccines (live attenuated and killed) by irradiation of the bacteria by the low level diode laser.Methods: six bacterial isolates were isolated from human samples of diabetic foot infections, which used for preparation of vaccines. The experiment was conducted on fifteen adult male rabbits; they were divided into three groups with 5 rabbits each. Blood samples were collected from the marginal ear vein of the rabbits after one month of the vaccination, for the purpose of measuring the concentration of the immunoglobulins which present in their serum, using Radial Immunodiffusion (RID) method by specialized kits (LTA-Italy).Results: After irradiation of the bacterial suspensions with the diode laser for different exposure times and different frequencies, and the wavelengths used were (660, 820, 915) nm, the growth of bacterial isolates decreased until killed of bacteria at 40 min. The results of IgA concentrations for the three groups were highly significant (P < 0.01) when comparing the attenuated with control group, while were significant (P < 0.05) between the killed vaccine and control groups, and not significant variations between the attenuated and killed groups,Conclusions: Wavelength (660) nm was more effective in killing the bacteria, and the variations were not significant between the live attenuated and the killed vaccine.


Article
A Review of The Risk Factors For Diabetic Foot Ulceration
مراجعة عوامل الخطر لتقرح القدم السكري

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Abstract

Background: The incidence of ulceration of foot in diabetic patients ranges from 4-13%. The financial burden is also very high. The cost of treating a single foot ulcer in the United States approach 28000$ over a period of two years. The main risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers include sensory neuropathy, lower limb ischemia, and trauma. However, these risk factors are to some degree preventable. Objective: To know the risk factors for the development of diabetic foot ulcers.Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study done in Baquba teaching hospital over a period of one year (August 2016 – August 2017). One hundred patients complaining from diabetic foot ulcer (with or without infection and/or gangrene) admitted to Baquba teaching hospital. A forma containing a list of risk factors, both local and general made for each patient and the risk factors documented. The forma used in the study mention the name of the patient, gender, age, and the local and general risk factors for the development of the diabetic foot ulcer. The percentage of occurrence of each of the risk factors calculated. Such risk factors include are local risk factors as, peripheral sensory neuropathy, vascular insufficiency, history foot ulcer/amputation, limited joint mobility, presence of callus, structural foot deformity, trauma and improperly fitted shoes. General risk factors include as impaired vision, poor glycemic control, peripheral vascular disease, renal impairment, and older age. Ages older than sixty years is considered as older age group. Results: The study revealed that the main two factors are peripheral sensory neuropathy (94%) and poor glycemic control (78%). These are followed by three common risk factors which are history of foot ulcer/amputation (66%), impaired vision (60%), and older age (57%). Other risk factors in order of frequency of occurrence are trauma and improperly fitted shoes (56%), prolonged elevated pressure (50%), presence of callus (36%), structural foot deformity (24%), vascular insufficiency (20%), and renal impairment (11%). Conclusion: Most of the risk factors are preventable by good glycemic control and awaring the patient of these factors to avoid lower limb amputation. Therefore early identification of risk factors for the development of ulceration of diabetic foot and initiation of appropriate treatment decrease the occurrence of complications, including the need for amputation. Also, knowing the risk factors for foot ulceration in diabetic patient is of utmost importance for early and better treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. There is an evolved need to educate and make awareness of diabetes and its associated complications, especially among populations living in the rural areas.

خلفية الدراسة: ان نسبة حدوث تقرحات القدم السكري تتراوح بين 4-13% وهكذا نسبة تحمل المريض والمستشفى ثقل مادي كبير, حيث تصل كلفة علاج قرحة قدم سكري واحدة في الولايات المتحدة ولمدة سنتين الى 28000 دولار. ان من اهم العوامل التي تزيد من نسبة الأصابة بتقرح القدم عند المصابين بداء السكري هي انعدام الأحساس وقصور الشرايين في الأطراف السفلى والتعرض الى الجروح والشدة الخارجية. مع ذلك فأن بعض هذه العوامل ممكن تجنبها.اهداف الدراسة: هدفت هذه الدراسة الى التعرف على اهم العوامل التي تؤدي الى الأصابة بالقدم السكري.المرضى والطرائق: هذه دراسة مقطعية لمائة مريض أجريت في مستشفى بعقوبة التعليمي ولمدة سنة ( اب 2016-اب2017). جميع المرضى المتضمنين بالبحث مصابين بتقرحات القدم السكري بوجود وبعدم وجود الهاب جرثومي او الغنغرينا. تم ادخال المرضى الى مستشفى بعقوبة التعليمي لأغراض العلاج. تم تأشير العوامل الموضعية والعامة في ورقة الأستبيان المخصصة لأجراء البحث وتم توثيقها.النتائج: أظهرت الدراسة أن اهم عاملين مسببين لتقرحات القدم السكري هما اعتلال الأعصاب المحيطية (94%) وعدم السيطرة على بصورة جيدة على مستوى السكر في الدم(78%). العوامل الأخرى تتضمن تاريخ مرضي بتقرح القدم او بتر صغير او كبير (66%) وكذلك ضعف البصر (60%) ,كون عمر المريض يتجاوز الستين عاما (57%). اضهرت الدراسة عوامل اخرى للأصابة بالقدم السكري كلبس الأحذية الغير مناسبة (56%) ووجود تشوهات مكتسبة في القدم (24%) واخيرا عجز الكلية (11%).الاستنتاجات : معظم العوامل التي تؤدي الى الأصبة بتقرحات القدم عند مرضى السكري ممكن تجنبها بالسيطرة على نسبة السكر في الدم وتثقيف المريض بالعوامل التي يمكن تجنبها لتجنب الأصابة بتقرات القدم وبالنهاية يمكن تجنب عمليات البتر.

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