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Article
Serum magnesium in diabetic retinopathy: relation to glycated haemoglobin and lipid profile

Author: Amjad H. Al- Naemi امجد النعيمي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy المجلة العراقية للصيدلة ISSN: 16802594 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 & 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-67
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate serum magnesium status in diabetic retinopathy and to investigate its relation to serum lipid profile and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) as a marker for long- term metabolic control in diabetes. The current case control study has enrolled 25 type 2 diabetics without retinopathy (Group 1), 25 diabetics with retinopathy (Group 2) and 21 apparently healthy non- diabetic control subjects (Group 3). Overnight fasting serum magnesium, lipid profile and HbA1c concentration were analyzed for all subjects. The mean serum magnesium level was significantly lower in Group (2) compared to that of Group 1 (p< 0.001). The mean serum triglycerides (TGs) and HbA1c levels were significantly higher in Group 2 (p< 0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noticed comparing the mean serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in both groups 1 and 2 (p> 0.05). The study revealed a significant negative correlation between serum magnesium on one hand and serum TGs, TC, LDL- cholesterol and HbA1c on the other hand where r= - 0.646, - 0.47, - 0.335, and - 0.825 respectively. Meanwhile serum magnesium was significantly and positively correlated with HDL- cholesterol levels (r= 0.395, p> 0.001). Using Forward Stepwise Multiple Regression analysis, the study revealed that hypomagnesaemia, poor glycaemic control and increasing duration of diabetes are the most important contributors to the cumulative risk for the development of diabetic retinopathy (Odds ratios 16.65, 566 and 7.36 respectively). In conclusion, magnesium depletion is a significant risk factor for, and a frequent finding in, diabetic retinopathy beside poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia (mainly hypertriglyceridaemia), and increasing duration of uncontrolled diabetes. The significant association between hypomagnesaemia and high fasting serum levels of TGs, TC, LDL-cholesterol and HbA1c would rather support the suggested role for magnesium depletion in the metabolic derangements associated with retinopathy in diabetic patients. Further studies on the effects of magnesium supplementation for diabetic patients are necessary to investigate the spectrum of metabolic improvements following magnesium therapy and the degree to which the risk of diabetic retinopathy might be reduced.

تهدف ھﺫه الدراسة الى تقييم مستويات المغنيسيوم في مصل الدم لدى المرضى السكريين المصابين باعتلال شبكية العين و تفحص علاقتها مع واجهة الشحوم بمصل الدم و خضاب الدم المسكر. لقد اشتملت الدراسة على عينة من (25) مريضا سكريا غير مصابين باعتلال الشبكية (المجموعة الأولى) و (25) سكريا آخرين مصابين باعتلال الشبكية ( المجموعة الثانية) بالإضافة إلى مجموعة الضبط ( المجموعة الثالثة) و المؤلفة من (21) شخصا غير سكريين. تم قياس مستويات المغنيسيوم و مستويات الشحوم في مصل الدم حال الصوم و قياس خضاب الدم المسكر للجميع.أظهرت الدراسة انخفاضا معنويا في متوسط مستويات المغنيسيوم لدى المجموعة الثانية مقارنة بالأولى (ب < 0.001). كان متوسطا ثلاثي الكليسيرايد و خضاب الدم المسكر في المجموعة (2) أعلى من قرينيهما في المجموعة (1) ، ب < 0.0001. لم تظهر الدراسة فروقا معنوية عند مقارنة متوسطي (إجمالي الكوليستيرول) و (الكوليستيرول ضمن البروتين الشحمي قليل الكثافة) لمصل الدم لدى المجموعتين 1 و 2 حيث ب > 0.05. أظهرت الدراسة وجود ترابط معتد سالب بين مستويات المغنيسيوم بمصل الدم من ناحية و ثلاثي الكليسيرايد، إجمالي الكوليستيرول لمصل الدم ، الكوليستيرول ضمن البروتين الشحمي قليل الكثافة و خضاب الدم المسكر من ناحية أخرى (ر= -0.646، -0.47، -0.335، -0.825 بالتعاقب)، بينما أظهرت ترابطا معتدا ايجابيا بين مستويات المغنيسيوم و الكوليستيرول ضمن البروتين الشحمي عالي الكثافة (ر= 0.395، ب0.001 ). لقد أظهرت الدراسة أن انخفاض المغنيسيوم بمصل الدم، ارتفاع متوسط خضاب الدم المسكر و تقادم داء السكري لدى المصاب به هي أكثر العوامل التي تمت دراستها إسهاماً في الخطورة المتراكمة و المفضية إلى الإصابة باعتلال الشبكية لدى عينة البحث. تستنتج الدراسة إن انخفاض المغنيسيوم بمصل الدم يعد عامل خطورة هام و من التغيرات الكيماوية الحيوية الملحوظة عند اعتلال شبكية العين جراء داء السكري إلى جانب كل من ارتفاع متوسط خضاب الدم المسكر، خلل الشحمانية (و لاسيما فرط ثلاثي الكليسيرايد) وتقادم المرض لدى المصاب. إن الترابطات المعتدة الهامة لانخفاض المغنيسيوم بمصل الدم مع كل من فرط ثلاثي الكليسيرايد، فرط إجمالي الكوليستيرول، فرط الكوليستيرول ضمن البروتين الشحمي قليل الكثافة و كذلك فرط خضاب الدم المسكر تشكل دعما للدور الافتراضي لانخفاض المغنيسيوم بمصل الدم في الاضطرابات الايضية المرتبطة باعتلال الشبكية لدى مرضى النوع الثاني من داء السكري، مما يبرز الحاجة إلى إجراء دراسات مستفيضة حول تأثيرات إعطاء المغنيسيوم لمرضى السكري و اختبار طيف التغيرات الايضية الايجابية المتوقعة مع دراسة مدى الانخفاض المحتمل لاحتمالية الإصابة باعتلال الشبكية.


Article
Serum Tnfα Levels Are Inversely Associated With Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetic Retinopathy Patients

Authors: Shaymaa Zahraw Nada --- Zahraa Saad Hatef --- Hassan Murtadha Alkutubi --- Ali Mansoor Jasim --- et al.
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 3857-3862
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Diabetic retinopathy is the most important microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and the inflammation have potent role in the pathogenesis and development of the disease .Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a prominent proinflammatory cytokine that mediated in all inflammatory process so it has unwanted role in diabetic complication, retina inflammation and endothelia disturbance. So the prediction of the TNFα role in the retinopathy will help to find the major treatment approach.Objective: this study conducted to evaluate the effect of TNFα in diabetic retinopathy and to find the association between TNFα and insulin sensitivity.Material & method: this study involved 120 persons were 40 healthy control subjects and 80 diabetic patients which divided into 40 type2 diabetic patients with retinopathy and 40 type2 diabetic patients without retinopathy .The serum level of TNFα ,insulin and lipid profile was measured for all patients and controls and used the SPSS program for the statistic calculation.Results: The serum level of TNFα was significantly higher in diabetic retinopathy patients in comparison to diabetic only patients and control subjects. Also there was negative correlation between TNFα and insulin sensitivity, the lipid profile was significantly higher in diabetic patient compared to control subject and the LDL cholesterol was significantly high in diabetic retinopathy patients in comparison to diabetic only and control subjects.Discussion: The inflammation play prominent role in the development of diabetic complication. TNFα is the most important inflammatory marker that present in the serum of diabetic patients. The TNFα affect mainly on the glucose and lipid metabolism and it worsen the insulin resistance and it correlate inversely with insulin sensitivity and due to this effect it will lead to develop of diabetic complication.Conclusion: The serum TNFα level was elevated in type2 diabetic patients and it may have role in developed the complication of diabetes and it was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity.


Article
The Relationship between Diabetic Retinopathy and Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitu

Author: Ikhlas Khalid Hammed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-68
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in both the developing and developed countries.The “metabolic syndrome” (MetS) is the clustering of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and elevated blood pressure and is associated with other comorbiditiesincluding the prothrombotic, and proinflammatory state, MetSis clearly associated with macrovascular complications, but its association with microvascular disease as retinopathy is unclear.OBJECTIVE: To find out the possible association between DR and MetS.SUBJECTS AND METHOD:Four hundred thirty one diabetic patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for this study The metabolic syndrome was definedfollowing the national cholesterol education program-Adult. treatment panel III guidelines.the ophthalmologic examinations wereperformedbyophthalmologiststoconfirmorexcluderetinopathy.Height,weight,waist circumference and blood pressure were obtained from all participants. Fasting venous blood samples were collected from all the subjects, HbA1c was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography,the serum wasused for analyzing Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) andTriglycerides (TG). Statisticalanalysis of data was performed using statistically package for social science (SPSS) version 17.0RESULTS:The DR prevalence differedsignificantlybetween diabetics with and without metabolic syndrome (20.8% vs. 6.08%)the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the whole studied sample was 72.6 %. Diabetics with DR hadsignificantlylonger duration of diabetes, had wider WC,higherFBG,higher HbA1c,higher systolic BP,are more likelyto be female,older, have a higher prevalence of MetS, and nonsignificant lower HDL-C and TG.Patients with concomitant MetSand DR hadsignificantly higher FBG, HbA1C, SBP, TG, WC and lower HDL than diabetics with MetS but without DR.theprevalence of DR increased as the numbers of metabolic syndrome components increased.CONCLUSION:Diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome are at higher risk to develop retinopathy. The prevalence of DR increased as the numbers of metabolic syndrome components increased


Article
Edge detection for Diabetic Retinopathy using fuzzy logic
كشف الحافة لأعتلال الشبيكة السكري باستخدام المنطق الضبابي

Author: Mohammed Y. Kamil محمد يوسف كامل
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 3B Pages: 1395-1401
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy is an eye disease, because of pressure in eye nerve fiber. It is a major cause of blindness in middle as well as older age groups; therefore it is essential to diagnose it earlier. Some of the challenges are in the diagnosis of the disease is detection edges of the image, may be some important edges are missed outcome the noise around the corners. Wherefore, in order to reduce these effects in this paper, we proposed a new technique for edge detection using traditional operators in combination with fuzzy logic based on fuzzy inference system. The results show that the proposed fuzzy edge detection technique better than of traditional techniques, where vascular are markedly detected over the original.

إعتلال الشبيكة السكري هو مرض يصيب العين نتيجة ارتفاع الضغط في الالياف العصبية ، لذا يعتبر من الاسباب الرئيسية للعمى للفئات العمرية المتوسطة أو الأكبر عمرا ، وبالتالي لا بد من تشخيصه في وقت مبكر. بعض التحديات في تشخيص هذا المرض هي الكشف عن حواف الصورة، ربما نفقد بعض الحافات المهمة نتيجة الضوضاء حول الزوايا. لذلك، من أجل الحد من هذه التأثيرات في هذه الورقة، اقترحنا تقنية جديدة للكشف عن الحافات باستخدام المؤثرات التقليدية بالاشتراك مع المنطق الضبابي بالاعتماد على نظام الأستدلال الضبابي. اظهرت النتائج ان تقنية كشف الحافات المضببة أفضل من التقنيات التقليدية ، إذ تم الكشف عن الاوعية الدموية بشكل واضح بالنسبة للأصل.


Article
Serum Levels of Interlukin-6, C-Reactive Protein in Diabetic Patients and Their Relation To Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Hasanain M. Ahmed --- Qasim K. Frhood
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 719-728
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Objective: To determine the relationship of serum level changes of IL-6, C-RP with retinopathy in two groups of type 2 diabetic patients (with and without retinopathy) in addition to control groups.Method and material: The study was conducted from December2012 to March 2013. On well controlled thirty five patients of type 2 diabetic retinopathy (group one) (23 male and 12 female) with age range (41-75) years. Thirty patients of diabetes without clinical retinopathy (group two) (15 male and 15 female) with age range from (40-75) years were included in this study; duration of diabetes is more than five years in both groups. Disposable syringes and needles were used for blood collection. Blood samples (5ml) were obtained from diabetic patients and control groups by vein puncture. About one ml of whole blood put in EDTA tube for estimation of HbA1c, the remaining blood samples were allowed to clot at room temperature, and then centrifuged at 3000 Xg for 10 minutes. Sera were transferred carefully and stored at -17ºC until analysis time in suitable serum tubes.Statistical analysis: The results were analyzed using Anova and student`s t–test .Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 10). A p value less than or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: The mean sera level of IL-6 was found to be significantly elevated (p< 0.05) in DR as compared with the control group. On the other hand, no significant variations were detected in the levels of the IL-6 in the group of DNR with respect to the control group. C-RP level was found significantly elevated (p< 0.01) in patients with DR when compared with control individual, while there was no significant variation of the serum levels of C-RP in DNR (p = N. S.) and control group. Conclusion:Patients with increase serum levels of IL-6 and C-RP need more intensive ophthalmological examination to detect early retinal changes in aim of providing early management of diabetic retinopathy.

الهدف: لتحديد العلاقة بين تغيرات مستوى انتر ليكين -6 وسي ريئكتف بروتين مع التغيرات الحاصلة في الشبكية لدى مجموعتين من مرضى السكري النوع الثاني ( مجموعة مرضى سكري مع تغيرات في الشبكية ومجموعة اخرى بلا تغيرات في الشبكية )طريقة العمل: استمرت الدراسة من تشرين الثاني 2012 الى اذار 2013 . قسم المرضى الى مجموعتين , المجموعة الاولى تكونت من 35 مريض مصاب بالسكري مع وجود تغيرات في الشبكية وكانو 23 رجل و12 امراة ومعدل الاعمار كان 41-75 سنةالمجموعة الثانية وتتالف من 30 مريض ، 15 رجل و15 امراة معدل الاعمار كان 40-75 سنة وبدون تغيرات في الشبكية . فترة الاصابة بالسكري كانت اكثر من خمسة سنوات ، تم اخذ 5 مل من عينات الدم من المرضى لتحديد نسبة السكر في الدم ولاجراء بقية التحاليلالنتائج: اظهرت النتائج ان مستوى انترليكين 6 في الدم كان مرتفعا بدرجة مهمة عند مرضى السكري والذين لديهم تغيرات فى الشبكية ، بينما لم يكن هناك تغيرات مهمة بمستوى الانترليكين 6 عند مرضى السكري الذين لديهم شبكية طبيعية. كما اظهرت النتائج ان مستوى السي ريئكتف بروتين كان مرتفعا بنسبة مهمة عند مرضى السكري الذين لديهم تغيرات في الشبكية مقارنة بمجموعة المرضى الذين لديهم شبكية طبيعية الاستنتاج: مرضى السكري الذين لديهم ارتفاع في مستوى النترليكين 6 والسي ريئكتف بروتين في الدم يحتاجون الى فحص دوري مكثف لاكتشاف اى تغيرات جديدة في الشبكية حتى يتم معالجتها مبكرا.


Article
The Role of Advanced Glycated End Products and Microalbuminuria on Developing Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Thanaa Mohammed Juda --- Ahmed Mousa Issa --- Haider Kamil Zaidan
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 152-161
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Diabetic retinopathy is a frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus . We analyzed the association of serum level of major advanced glycated end product mainly Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine with prevalence of developing of diabetic retinopathy in Type 2 diabetic patients , a case control study were confirmed on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus whom were examined by an ophthalmologist at AL- Hilla Teaching Hospital and patients classified into proliferative and non proliferative diabetic retinopathy and the level of Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine were 2.2±0.45 and2.9±0.24 among NPDRP and PDRP respectively and the level among control diabetic patients without retinopathy 1.2±0.2 and the statistical analysis were revealed that were significant difference between patients and control at p value <0.05 Estimation of microalbuminuria among diabetic patients revealed that prevalence of microalbuminuria among patients with NPDRP is (68%) ,and among patients with PDRP are (80%) ,while prevalence among diabetic patients without retinopathy are (33%). The odd ratio for association between microalbuminuria and diabetic retinopathy is calculated and the results is 2.5 which indicate that patients with positive microalbuminuria is at higher risk for developing retinopathy and microalbuminuria is considered risk marker for developing diabetic retinopathy.

اعتلال الشبكية السكري من مضاعفات الأوعية الدموية الدقيقة لداء السكري.تمت دراسة مدى الترابط بين مستوى متراكمات التسكر ا لمتقدمة مثل كاربوكسي مثللايسين مع تطور مرض اعتلال الشبكية السكري .هذه الدراسة تمت في مستشفى الحلة التعليمي لمرضى السكري النوع الثاني تم تشخيص مرض اعتلال الشبكية السكري من قبل أخصائي العيون وتم تصنيف المرض إلى اعتلال الشبكية السكري المتكاثر و غير المتكاثر.كان مستوى كاربوكسي مثللايسين في النوع غير المتكاثر0.45± 2.2وفي النوع المتكاثر 0.24±2.9 وفي مجموعة السيطرة0.2 ±1.2. p <0.05 عند مستوى التحليل الإحصائي أوضح بان هناك فرق معنوي بين المرضى و مجموعة لسيطرة بيلة الألبومين الزهيدة تم تقديرها وكانت نسبتها عند مرضى اعتلال الشبكي السكري المتكاثر(%80) و(%68) في النوع غير متكاثر ومستواه عند مجموعة السيطرة( % 33)وكانت نسبة الخطورة بين بيلةالالبومين الزهيدة وتطور اعتلال الشبكية السكري هو ( 2.5) وهذا يؤكد إن بيلة الألبومين الزهيدة تعتبر علامة خطر لتطور مرض اعتلال الشبكية السكري.


Article
The prevalence of diabetic optic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus
انتشار الاعتلال العصبي البصري السكري في داء السكري من النوع 2

Author: Ali A. Taqi Al-Saffar
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 1915-1921
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Background and objective: As diabetes mellitus a common health problem, it is well known that it can lead to optic neuropathy that affects the optic nerve functions. It is important to monitor the effect of this metabolic disease on the optic nerve that can lead ultimately to decrease visual acuity that can be irreversible. This study aimed to find out the prevalence of diabetic optic nerve diseases and to evaluate the patient characteristics and fundus findings.Methods: Screening examination was done for 2213 patients with type 2 diabetic patients presented to the diabetic center from October 2007 to September 2009. The examination includes visual acuity test using conventional E chart, slit lamp exam, followed by installing short acting Mydriatics (tropicamide 1%) eye drops for fundoscopy examination using +76.D or +90 D.Results: Eighty eight patients (approximately 4%) had optic nerve problems; 50 females and 38 males. The mean age was 59 years. A total of 58 (116 eyes) patients were bilaterally affected, 42 patients with optic papillopathy, 8 patients with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and profound loss of vision, 8 with glaucomatous cupping and pallor and 30 patients with end stage optic atrophy. A total of 63 (71.5%) patients had poor metabolic control.Conclusions: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have 4% prevalence of diabetic optic neuropathy.


Article
Long Term Complications of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Young Adults

Authors: Munib Ahmed Alzubaidi --- Esraa Majid Mutashar --- Numan Nafie Hameed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-24
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic syndrome characterized by impaired metabolism of glucose; morbidity and mortality come from acute metabolic derangement and from long term complications that affect small and large vessels.OBJECTIVE:The assessment of the long term complications of diabetes mellitus in children and young adultsPATIENTS AND METHODS:The study included 150 patients with type1 diabetes mellitus attending the diabetic clinic of Children Welfare Teaching Hospital who were assessed for the presence of long term complications of diabetes mellitus.RESULTS:The total number of the sample was 150 patients with male to female ratio of 1:1.2 with median age of 12.2 years.Long term complications occurred in 26.7% of patients; (75%) of them had diabetes for more than 5 years. These complications include eye complications (retinopathy and cataract) 12.6%, Renal complications (albuminuria, oedema, and hypertension) 10.6%, peripheral neuropathy 4.6%, limited joint mobility 6.6%, and short stature 17.3%.CONCLUSION:Long term complications were found in significant number of patients with type I diabetes mellitus which can occur in children with short duration of diabetes, and their frequency increases significantly with increasing duration of diabetes.


Article
Correlation between Serum Sialic Acid Level and frequent risk factors of Diabetic Retinopathy

Author: Nada F. Rashid ندى فيصل
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 4 Pages: 449-452
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Diabetic retinopathy is an important complication of diabetes mellitus. It is supposed that elevated sialic acid in diabetes mellitus plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy. This study investigated serum total sialic acid levels related to glycemic control, blood pressure, retinopathy, and serum lipid level in diabetic retinopathy patients.Patients & Methods: Type 2 diabetic patients aged (56.47±10.68) years were recruited for the study. Fasting venous blood samples were collected from 132 diabetic subjects of whom 79 without retinopathy and 53 were diabetic with retinopathy. All the blood samples were processed for serum total sialic acid (TSA), fasting serum glucose (FSG), HbA1c, and lipid profile. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded by standard mercury sphygmomanometer.Results: Serum (TSA), FSG, HbA1c, triglycerides (TG), and LDL-cholesterol were increased significantly (P<0.01 for TSA, FSG, HbA1c; P<0.05 for TG, and LDL) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) compared to diabetics without retinopathy. Duration of diabetes and blood pressure were also significantly higher in DR patient compared to those without retinopathy. Correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between serum TSA and several risk factors of diabetic retinopathy: diabetic duration, FSG, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure SBP, diastolic blood pressure DBP, and LDL in diabetic patients with retinopathy.Conclusion: It is concluded that elevated serum total sialic acid level is strongly associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy, a microvascular complication of diabetes. Increasing concentration of sialic acid is clinically correlated with several risk factors of diabetic retinopathy including glycemic control (blood sugar and HbA1c), hypertension, and duration of diabetes, triglycerides, and LDL. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that the increase in serum sialic acid is early manifestation of diabetic retinal disease.Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, sialic acid, diabetic retinopathy, risk factors


Article
Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Diabetic Retinopathy
العامل المستمد من ظهارة الصباغ وعامل النمو البطاني الوعائي في اعتلال الشبكية السكري

Author: Seenaa Badr Al-Awadi1 Salwa Jaber Al-Awadi2 Abdulhussein Alwan Algenabi3
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2-2 Pages: 48-57
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major mediator of vascular permeability and angiogenesis and also an important mediator of retinal ischemia-associated intraocular neovascularization. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a strong inhibitor of angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the correlation between VEGF and PEDF in DR. A total of 117 subjects (healthy, diabetic without retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy) were studied. Serum VEGF and PEDF were measured. Result revealed a significant positive correlation between PEDF and VEGF (OR=0.820, p<0.01) in all subjects so the concentrations of PEDF and VEGF predict adverse outcomes, and their measurement may facilitate risk estimation, and PEDF-based interventions might be considered.

اعتلال الشبكية السكري (DR) هي المضاعفات الأكثر شيوعا للأوعية الدموية الدقيقة في داء السكري. عامل النمو البطاني الوعائي (VEGF) هو الوسيط الرئيسي لنفاذية الأوعية الدموية وأيضا وسيط مهم في شبكية العين المرتبط نقص التروية العين اتساع الأوعية الدموية. عامل المستمدة من ظهارة الصباغ (PEDF) هو المانع القوي لنمو الأوعية الدموية. ان الهدف من هذه الدراسة لإثبات العلاقة بين VEGF وPEDF في DR. تمت دراسة 117 شخصا (اصحاء، المصابون بالسكري مع اعتلال الشبكية وبدون اعتلال الشبكية السكري) وقياس PEDFو VEGF في الدم. وجد ان هناك علاقة إيجابية ذات دلالة إحصائية بين PEDF و VEGF (OR=0.820, p<0.01) . تركيز PEDF وVEGF تتنبأ بالنتائج السلبية، وقياسها قد يسهل تقدير المخاطر، ويمكن الاستفادة من التدخلات الدوائية للـ PEDF.

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