research centers


Search results: Found 26

Listing 1 - 10 of 26 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by

Article
Dependable Discharges Of The Upper And Middle Diyala Basins

Author: Haitham A. Hussein
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2010 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 4960 -4969
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The Diyala river is a major tributary of the Tigris river that runs through Iran and Iraq which drains an area of 32600 km2. The catchment area consist of four parts which are the area of the basin above Derbendi-Khan, Upper Diyala, Middle Diyala and lower Diyala. Through the last two decade the water coming to the upstream Derbendi-Khan reduced and this reduction reach to about 35%. This research focusing on the water dependable discharges reached to upper and middle Diyala river basin as compared with Russian study(water balance). The water balance mention that the discharge can be supplied the above basins with probability of 95%for the year (1947-1948). In this research consider the mean discharge down stream Derbendi-Khan dam for the period (1989-2007) in order to find the dependable probability for discharge which can be satisfied and equivalent to the water balance study .In this research considered different probabilities (95%,80% and 50%) of each months (Oct-Sep) water year for the period (1989-2007) by using the empirical Wei Bull probability equation, and it was conclude that the probability of 50% can be considered the suitable probability for the water requirement to upper and middle basins.

يعتبر نهر ديالى احد الروافد الرئيسية لنهر دجلة والذي ينبع من الأراضي الإيرانية والعراقية حيث تبلغ مساحة حوضه الكلي حوالي 32000 كلم2 . ويمكن تقسيم الحوض إلى أربعة أجزاء , الحوض الواقع اعلى سد دربندخان والأخرى تباعا هي الحوض العالي والوسطي والسفلي. خلال فترة العقدين السابقين تظهر بان التصاريف القادمة قد قلت بحدود 35%. إن هذا البحث سوف يركز على التصاريف الواصلة إلى أعالي والوسطي لحوض نهر ديالى مقارنة مع دراسة الموازنة المائية (1982) المعدة من قبل الروس. إن دراسة الموازنة المائية اشارت بان التصاريف اللازمة للحوض أعلاه يمكن أن تكون باحتمالية 95% لسنة (1947-1948). في هذا البحث سوف يأخذ معدل التصاريف المطلقة بين سنة (1989-2007) وإمكانية إيجاد الاحتمالية المناسبة باستعمال معادلة وضعية من قبل Wei bull.تم إيجاد احتمالية 95%,80% و 50% لمعدل التصاريف من سنة 1998-2007 ولكل شهر (تشرين الأول ولغاية شهر أيلول) حيث اتضح بان معدل التصاريف لاحتمالية 50% (8919-2007) هو الذي يمكن أن يعطي نتائج مقاربة لاحتمالية 95% (1947-1948) بموجب دراسة الموازنة المائية.


Article
Estimation of Contamination of Heavy Metals of Water and Cultivated Plants near the Diyala River and the Effects of Human Health.
تقدير التلوث في العناصر الثقيلة للمياه والنباتات المزروعة بالقرب من نهر ديالى والآثار المترتبة على صحة الإنسان

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This work was carried out to estimate the pollution by heavy metals in the waters of the Diyala river, the plants planted on the Diyala's riverside, and irrigated via Diyala water (Celery, radish, Lepidium , green onions, Beta vulgaris subsp, and Malva). Laboratory analysis were executed using a flame atomic absorption device to measure the Concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn) in water and plants through winter season during January and February. The results were showed that lead and iron were within the limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) for irrigation water, while Nickel, Chromium, cadmium, and zinc were increased in the river water near Rustmaya station .The concentrations of metals (Ni, Zn, Cr, and Cd) near the Rustmaya station were 0.28, 2.77, 0.18, 0.14 mg/L Thus, exceeding the WHO limit. The results of plants have displayed the concentrations of metals (Fe, Ni, and Zn) have not increased, therefore, they were within the limits allowed by the (WHO). While the concentrations of (Pb, Cd, and Cr) have exceeded the WHO limit in all plants types .The highest concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr were 4.25, 4.72, and 4.20 mg/Kg in roots of Lepidium , Beta vulgaris subsp , radish respectively.

تم انجاز هذا البحث لتقدير التلوث بالمعادن الثقيلة في مياه نهر ديالى والنباتات المزروعة على ضفاف نهر ديالى والمروية بمياه نهر ديالى وهي (الكرفس , الفجل , الرشاد , البصل الأخضر , السلق , الخباز) وأجريت التحاليل المختبرية باستخدام جهاز الامتصاص الذري اللهبي لقياس نسبة العناصر الثقيلة (Pb,Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn) في المياه والنباتات في فصل الشتاء خلال شهري كانون الثاني وشباط . تبين من خلال نتائج البحث أن تركيز عنصري الرصاص والحديد كانت ضمن الحدود المسموح بها لمنظمة الصحة العالمية لمياه الري ) mg/L) بينما سجل عنصر النيكل والكروم والكادميوم و الخارصين ارتفاعا في مياه النهر بالقرب من محطة الرستمية إذ بلغت تراكيز العناصر بالقرب من محطة الرستمية0.28) للنيكل ,2.77 للزنك, 0.18 للكروم , 0.14 للكادميوم mg/L) وبذلك تتجاوز الحد المسموح به لمنظمة الصحة العالمية WHO إما في النباتات تبين من خلال النتائج إن تراكيز العناصر ( الحديد , النيكل , الخارصين mg/kg ) ضمن الحدود المسموح بها لمنظمة الصحة العالمية WHO إما عنصر الرصاص والكادميوم والكروم كان تركيزها مرتفع عن الحد المسموح به لمنظمة الصحة العالمية WHO حيث سجل عنصر الرصاص ارتفاعا واضحا في جميع أنواع النباتات و بلغ أعلى تركيز للرصاص في جذر السلق إذ بلغ تركيزه 4.25 mg/kg إما عنصر الكادميوم كان مرتفع في جميع أنواع النباتات وبلغ أعلى تركيز له في جذر الرشاد إذ بلغ تركيزه4.72 mg/kg إما عنصر الكروم فسجل ارتفاعا واضحا في جذور جميع أنواع النباتات وكان أعلى تركيز له في جذر الفجل إذ بلغ تركيزه 4.20 mg/kg و لم يظهر له تركيز في أوراق النباتات.الكلمات المفتاحية: التلوث , نهر ديالى , عناصر ثقيلة .


Article
The Climatic Regions and Desertification Level for Diyala River Basin in Iraq
الاقاليم المناخية ومستوى التصحر في حوض نهر ديالى في العراق

Authors: Omer Sabah Al-Tamimi عمر صباح ابراهيم التميمي --- Shaima Abd Algalil Gamel شيماء عبد الجليل جميل
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 3A Pages: 1759-1767
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The current study a accounts for the climate of the Diyala River Basin in Iraq where the climate is assessed depending on the most wellknown climatic classification. According to these classifications, it has been discovered that the area is located under Three climatic zones. The first zone is the semi humid or moderate, which covers the northern parts of the area. The second zone is the semi –dry climate which spreads over the middle part of the region. The third one, it extends over the southern parts and it is described as being dry .some maps were drawn to show the depth of rain fall for two successive periods. These maps indicate increase in the area of lands affected by the dry climate on account of the lands that used to lie under the effect of the semi – dry climate

تم في هذا البحث إجراء تقييم نوعي للمناخ في حوض نهر ديالى داخل الاراضي العراقية . والذي اعتمدت فيه اشهر ثلاث تصانيف مناخية عالمية واكثرها شيوعا بالاستخدام من قبل الباحثين المهتمين بمجالات الطقس والمناخ وعلوم المياه . ومن النتائج تبين بان المنطقة تقع تحت تاثير ثلاث اقاليم مناخية (مناخ معتدل او شبه رطب يغطي الاجزاء العليا من المنطقة) , (مناخ شبه جاف يغطي الاجزاء الوسطية منها) فيما تقع الأجزاء الجنوبية تحت تأثير المناخ الجاف. وبعد اعتماد عنصرالساقط المطري كااحد اهم العوامل في دراسات الهيدروميتيورولوجيا والتصحر،في تحديد اثر ظاهرة التصحر في المنطقة وذلك بعد تقسيم مدة المراقبة الى مدتين تبين منها وبشكل واضح زحف الاقليم المناخي الجاف على حساب الاقليم شبه الجاف وخاصة ضمن الاجزاء العليا في العشر سنوات الاخيرة .


Article
Hydrologic Modeling for Sedimentation in Hemrin Reservoir Using HEC-HMS

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Hemrin dam is an important dam in Iraq located on Diyala river which is considered as main tributary of Tigris. The sedimentation is very difficult problem and is considered the major problem affecting the utilization of the dam. HEC-HMS 4.1 software was used to made a simulation for sedimentation in Hemrin reservoir in order to estimate the amount of sediment entering and deposition in the reservoir for the period (1981-2014). The calibration processes were performed using field measurement data for flow of water from Diyala river, the result obtained from simulation process found that the average annual sediment discharge load to Hemrin reservoir is ( 3.43x〖10〗^6 Ton), while the average annual sediment deposited is (3.25x〖10〗^6 Ton).


Article
The oxidation reduction potential distribution along Diyala river within Baghdad city

Authors: Safaa Nasser Hassan Al-Hussaini --- Adnan Abbas Ali Al-Samawi
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Volume: 2 Issue: 4 Pages: 54-66
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The reach of the Diyala river just before its confluence with Tigris River south of the capital city Baghdad was taken as a case-study. Its aquatic physicochemical characteristics were investigated and its pollution status was assessed in this study according to ORP (oxidation reduction potential) levels and other parameters. This segment of Diyala river was exposed to multiple points of treated and raw municipal waste water discharges, represented by the outfalls and bypass of three wastewater treatment plants of Al-Rustimiyah.Diyala River's aquatic parameters represented by DO, BOD, COD, ORP, pH, and others were monitored and measured at nine stations along the river reach for a period of one year to assess seasonal variations. It was found that station two, which lies downstream the bypass of R3, was the most polluted station among all.With regard to the ORP concentrations, the river was classified as anoxic conditions during winter to anaerobic conditions during summer from station two and downstream. Furthermore, it has been reached that the strong odor observed on site especially during summer, might be attributed to the formation of acid and methane production that goes with the obtained low levels of ORP.The COD and BOD5 levels classified the river as medium to low strength untreated wastewater during summer at station two and the downstream stations respectively.The effect of temperature on DO and ORP was found to be reversed, while a positive nonlinear relation combined the DO concentrations with ORP levels.The COD/BOD ratio of the river was found to be 1.2, which indicates the presence of biodegradable matter at high concentrations.A statistical model relating DO concentration to BOD, ORP, EC and temperature was established. It was proved to be accurate.To sum up, Diyala River at the reach of interest was found heavily polluted. The need for an urgent makeover of the water body characteristics of the river via mechanically assisted methods was found necessary to restore its original usages and ensure public health safety.

Keywords

Diyala River --- ORP --- DO --- COD --- BOD --- Temperature


Article
The first appearance of the Blue tilapia is Oreochromis aureus (S, 1864) in diyala river / Buhriz

Authors: Salam Zidane Khalifa --- Raaed Sami Atee --- Abdul Karim Jassem Abulheni --- Taghreed Salman Hussein
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2018 Issue: Special Issue E Pages: 179-184
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Oreochromis aureus was first recorded in the diyala river / buhriz. During the year 2016-2017. A total length ranges from 160 to 180 mm and standard lengths from 130 to 150 mm and total weights from 98.8 to 136.2 g. A number of gill rakers on the first arch gill ranged from 22-26. The dorsal fin contains 15 - 16 spines and 12 soft rays. The number of spines in anal fin, 3- 4, and the number of soft rays 9 – 10. The number of soft rays in the pectoral fin 13. The body depth in size and constitutes 38.40% of the total length ratio and with a body thickness of 15.16%.


Article
Impact of Climate Change on the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Stream Flow and Sediment Yield of Darbandikhan Watershed, Iraq

Authors: Mahmoud S. Al- Khafaji --- Rana D. Al- Chalabi
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2020 Volume: 38 Issue: 2 part (A) Engineering Pages: 265-276
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The impact of climate change on stream flow and sediment yield inDarbandikhan Watershed is an important challenge facing the waterresources in Diyala River, Iraq. This impact was investigated using fiveGlobal Circulation Models (GCM) based climate change projectionmodels from the A1B scenario of medium emission. The Soil and WaterAssessment Tool (SWAT) was used to compute the temporal and spatialdistribution of streamflow and sediment yield of the study area for theperiod 1984 to 2050. The daily-observed flow recorded in DarbandikhanDam for the period from 1984 to 2013 was used as a base period forfuture projection. The initial results of SWAT were calibrated andvalidated using SUFI-2 of the SWAT-CUP program in daily time stepconsidering the values of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) coefficient ofdetermination (R2) as a Dual objective function. Results of NSE and R2during the calibration (validation) periods were equal to 0.61 and0.62(0.53 and 0.68), respectively. In addition, the average futureprediction for the five climate models indicated that the average yearlyflow and sediment yield in the watershed would decrease by about 49%and 44%, respectively, until the year 2050 compared with these of the baseperiod from 1984 to 2013. Moreover, spatial analysis shows that 89.6 %and 90 % of stream flow and sediment come from the Iranian part ofDarbandikhan watershed while the remaining small percent comes fromIraq, respectively. However, the middle and southern parts ofDarbandikhan Watershed contribute by most of the stream flow of thewatershed while the parts of lack land cover and steep slopes producemost the sediment.


Article
Nitrogen Compounds Distribution in Diyala River Opposite Al-Rustimiyah Sewage Treatment Plants

Authors: Adnan A. Al-Samawi --- Safaa N. H. Al-Hussaini
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 15 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2971-2981
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The reach of Diyala River just before its confluence with Tigris River south of the capital city Baghdad was taken as a case-study. This segment of Diyala River is exposed to multiple points of treated and raw municipal wastewater discharges of Al-Rustimiyah wastewater treatment plants. Its pollution status was assessed with regard to nitrogen compounds levels. The aquatic parameters: DO, TN, TKN NH4-N, NH3-N, NO3-N, NO2-N, pH, and temperature were monitored and measured at nine sites along the river reach for a period of one year to assess seasonal variations. The first and last sites were chosen at the downstream and upstream of the points of pollution flowing into Diyala River, while the second to eighth sites were located at the effluents of the WWTPs of Al-Rustimiyah. It was found that water at sites two, seven, and four, respectively, were the most polluted points among all duo to the presence of the bypasses from the WWTPs at these sites. With regard to NH4-N, NH3-N, and TN concentrations, the river was found to be heavily polluted with untreated wastewater at site two and between low to medium strength at other sites, except for site one. On the other hand, NO3-N and NO2-N concentrations categorized the river water as an effluent rather than a stream according to Iraqi standard classification. Reversed relations were found between the DO concentrations and some of the nitrogen compounds and temperature. A statistical model relating TN concentration to DO, NH3-N, and temperature was derived. It was proved to be accurate.

Keywords

Diyala River --- TN --- NO3-N --- NH3-N --- DO --- Temperature


Article
Application of QUAL2K for Water Quality Modeling and Management in the lower reach of the Diyala river
تطبيق QUAL2K لنمذجة والسيطرة على نوعية المياه للمجرى الأسفل لنهر ديالى

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The current study includes application of QUAL2K model to predict the dissolved oxygen (DO) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) of lower reach of the Diyala River in a stretch of 16.90km using hydraulic and water quality data collected from Ministry of Water Resources for the period (January-April 2014). Google Earth and Arc-GIS technique were used in this study as supported tools to provide some QUAL2K input hydro-geometric data. The model parameters were calibrated for the dry flow period by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The model performance was measured using different statistical criteria such as mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE). The results showed that the simulated values were in good agreement with the observed values. Model output for calibration showed that DO and CBOD concentration were not within the allowable limits for preserving the ecological health of the river with range values (2.51 - 4.80 mg/L) and (18.75 – 25.10 mg/L) respectively. Moreover, QUAL2K was used to simulate different scenarios (pollution loads modification, flow augmentation and local oxygenation) in order to manage the water quality during critical period (low flow), and to preserve the minimum requirement of DO concentration in the river. The scenarios results showed the pollution loads modification and local oxygenation are effective in raising DO levels. While flow augmentation does not give significant results in which the level of DO decrease even with reduction in the BOD5 for point sources. The combination of wastewater modification and local oxygenation (BOD5 of the discharged effluent from point sources should not exceed 15 mg/L and weir construction at critical positions 6.67km from the beginning of the study region with 1m height) is necessary to ensure minimum DO concentrations.

تتضمن الدراسة الحالية تطبيق نموذج (QUAL2K) لمحاكاة الأوكسجين المذاب (DO) والمتطلب الحيوي للأوكسجين (BOD5) للجزء الأسفل لنهر ديالى لمسافة (16.90km) باستخدام بيانات تم جمعها من وزارة الموارد المائية للفترة (كانون الثاني - نيسان 2014). استخدمGoogle Earth ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية Arc-GIS)) في هذه الدراسة كأدوات داعمة لتوفير بعض البيانات الداخلة بنموذج QUAL2K. تم معايرة معاملات الموديل باستخدام بيانات موسم الجريان المنخفض عن طريق المحاولة والخطأ إلى حصول على توافق بين نتائج المحاكاة والقيم المقاسة. تقييم أداء النموذج تم باستخدام المعايير الإحصائية, معدل الخطأ المطلق (MAE) ، جذر متوسط لمربع الخطأ (RMSE) والخطأ المطلق (RE). تبين من النتائج المستحصلة أن القيم التي تنبأ بها النموذج متوافقة مع القيم المقاسة. وأظهرت النتائج أن تراكيز DO و CBOD كانتا أعلى من الحدود المسموح بها لإدامة الحياة المائية حيث كانت(2.51 - 4.80mg/L) و 25.10mg/L) (18.75 -على التوالي .بالإضافة لذلك تم تطبيق QUAL2K لمحاكاة سيناريوهات مختلفة(تعديل أحمال التلوث , زيادة تصريف النهر وإنشاء الهدار المائي (( (weir لإدارة نوعية المياه خلال الفترة الحرجة (الجريان المنخفض) وللحفاظ على معايير نوعيه المياه ضمن الحد المسموح (الحد الأدنى ل DO اكبر أو مساوي4mg/L ). أظهرت نتائج السيناريوهات أن تعديل أحمال التلوث المتمثلة ب BOD_5 لمياه الصرف الصحي للمصادر النقطية وإنشاء الهدار المائي فعالتان لرفع تركيز DOللنهر بينما زيادة تصريف النهر لا تعطي نتائج مفيدة حيث أن تركيزDO يقل حتى وان تم تخفيض تركيز BOD_5للمصادر النقطية. أن تعديل أحمال الملوثات وإنشاء الهدار المائي معا بنفس الوقت ضروري لجعل تركيز DOللنهر ضمن المستوى المطلوب لذلك يجب أن يكون تركيز BOD_5 المطروح للنهر من المصادر النقطية لا يزيد عن (15mg/L) مع إنشاء هدار مائي((weir بارتفاع 1m عند مسافة 6.67km من بداية منطقه الدراسة .

Keywords

Water quality modeling --- QUAL2K --- GIS --- Diyala River --- BOD --- DO


Article
The physico-chemical properties of southern part of Diyala River water
الصفات الفيزياوية والكيمياوية للجزء الجنوبي من مياه نهر ديالى

Author: Ayad Gh. Hashim اياد غازي هاشم
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 4c Pages: 2322-2331
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study aimed to assess the water quality status of Diyala River (Iraq).Some physical and chemical properties were studied also the impact of Rustumiya station for sewage treatment. water samples of Diyala River were collected for four seasons through 2015, to examine the following parameters (water temperature, pH, E.C., salinity, T.D.S., T.H., Ca., Mg., T.S.S., D.O., B.O.D., CL, SO4, NO3 and PO4). It observed by the results that the proportions of these variables have exceeded the Iraqi rivers conservation system No, 65 1967, especially at the third station of the River has been affected greatly as posed streams Rustumiya station to the river, which negatively affects aquatic life on one hand and on the farmland on both sides the river on the other hand, where the river water used for irrigation.

هدفت الدراسة الحالية إلى تقييم حالة نوعية المياه في نهر ديالى (العراق). كما تم دراسة بعض الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيميائية لتأثير محطة الرستمية لمعالجة مياه المجاري. تم جمع عينات المياه من نهر ديالى لمدة أربعة مواسم خلال عام 2015، لدراسة العوامل التالية (درجة حرارة الماء والحامضية والتوصيلية الكهربائية والملوحة والاملاح الذائبة الكلية والعسرة الكلية والكالسيوم والمغنيسيوم والمواد العالقة الكلية والاوكسجين المذاب والمتطلب الحيوي للأوكسجين والكلورايد والكبريتات والنترات والفوسفات). وقد لوحظ من خلال النتائج أن نسب هذه المتغيرات قد تجاوزت نظام المحافظة على الأنهار العراقية رقم 65 لسنة 1967، وخاصة في المحطة الثالثة للنهر، وقد تأثرت بشكل كبير من مطروحات محطات الرستمية إلى النهر، مما يؤثر سلبا على الحياة المائية من جهة وعلى الأراضي الزراعية على جانبي النهر من جهة أخرى، حيث تستخدم مياه النهر للري.

Listing 1 - 10 of 26 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Resource type

article (26)


Language

English (15)

Arabic (7)

Arabic and English (3)


Year
From To Submit

2020 (1)

2019 (4)

2018 (5)

2017 (4)

2016 (5)

More...