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Article
Tear Film Instability in Diabetic Patients

Authors: Hussam Abdalhussain Saeed Alhamari --- Hussain Ali Tufaili
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 3918-3922
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: The association between dry eye symptoms and ocular surface disease is becoming more frequent. The recent rise in newly diagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus and the awareness of real complaints of diabetic patients from dryness of the eye and ocular discomfort are responsible for the recent increase in the number of patients and frequency of their consultations to the outpatient departments.Aims of the study: To investigate the changes of tear film and ocular surface in diabetic patients.Design and method: A case control study carried out in the eye clinic of Al-Sadr Teaching hospital in holy Najaf city for 12 months. It included 100 eyes of fifty patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Cases) and 100 eyes of fifty healthy individual (Controls). After exclusion of patients with history of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations affecting tear secretion, abnormalities in the cornea, conjunctiva, or eyelid, and secondary ocular and systemic disease, the remaining diabetic cases are 72 and control cases are 89. Different symptoms included; character of irritation whether it was burning, foreign body sensation or sand gritty feeling. All the individuals underwent routine general physical examination and thorough ophthalmological examination followed by measuring tear film meniscus height, tear film breakup time (BUT), presence or absence of tear film debris.Results: There is significant difference between diabetics and non-diabetics in presence of normal or abnormal tear meniscus height. There is also significant difference between diabetics and non-diabetics regarding normal and abnormal tear film breakup time. However, there are no significant differences between diabetic and control group in the presence or absence of tear film debris.Conclusion: Tear film stability is decreased in diabetic patients. These results sug¬gest that diabetic patients are more prone to suffer¬ing from dry eye symptoms than normal subjects.

Keywords

Tear --- diabetic --- dry eye.


Article
Ocular manifestations of Rheumatoid arthritis

Author: Furkaan Majied Hamied فرقان مجيد حميد
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 6 Pages: 126-130
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common inflammatory arthritis of rheumatoid diseases which are group of immune mediated multisystem diseases.To find out the clinical ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis & to ensure the importance of ophthalmologic assessment for each patient with rheumatoid arithritis.56 patients attendant to the rheumatological unite in Al-Diwaniya Teaching hospital, examined by (Visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, tear breakup time, Schirmer test, & fundoscopy).of 56 patients; 18(32%) had positive ocular findings. The most common finding was dry eye; 9(18%) of patients.

يعتبر التهاب المفاصل الروماتزمي (الرثوي) اكثر انواع التهابات المفاصل الروماتزمية شيوعا حيث ان الامراض الروماتزمية هي امراض مناعية تؤثر على معظم اجهزة الجسم. اجريت هذة الدراسة على 56 مريض من المرضى المصابين بالتهاب المفاصل الروماتزمي في مستشفى الديوانية التعليمي وكانت اثار المرض على العينين ظاهرة عند 18(32%) من المرضى, معظمهم كانوا يعانون من جفاف العينين, من هذا نستنتج ان كل مريض مصاب بالتهاب المفاصل الروماتزمي يحتاج الى فحص سريري للعينين


Article
Prevalence and characteristics of eye involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
انتشار وخصائص اصابة العين عند المرضى الذين يعانون من التهاب المفاصل الروماتويدي

Authors: Khalid A. Al-Dabbagh --- Ruba Abbas Fadhil
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 1708-1714
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease. Ocular manifestations involved with rheumatoid arthritis are keratoconjunctivitis sicca, episcleritis, scleritis, anterior and posterior uveitis, dry eyes and ulcerative keratitis. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of ocular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis patients, find out the relation between the effects of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, biological agents and ocular complications in rheumatoid arthritis patients and explore role of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies.Methods: This is a cross-sectional clinical study of 60 rheumatoid arthritis patients who have attended Rizgary Teaching Hospital in Erbil. A data information about symptoms of ocular manifestations and history of ocular complications before starting disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and/or biological agents were taken. Musculoskeletal examination, serum Anti-CCP antibodies test were done. Ocular examination by ophthalmologist was done.Results: This study was conducted from April to November 2015 and involved 60 patients; 55 females and five males with a mean± SD age of 46 ± 11.46 years. Thirty nine (65%) patients had ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. The most frequent manifestation was dry eyes 30 (50.0%). There was no relation between severity of the rheumatoid arthritis disease and ocular manifestation (P = 0.529). There was a relationship between the Anti-CCP antibodies titer and presence of ocular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis patients (P = 0.006). There were no curable effects of the disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, biological agents on ocular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis patients (P = 0.787).Conclusion: Dry eye was the most common ocular manifestation, anti-CCP antibodies are a sensitive marker for ocular manifestations. Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and biological therapies provide no significant efficacy in treatment or prevent the occurrence of ocular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis patients.


Article
Prevalence of dry eye among 195 patients with diabetes mellitus patients
انتشار جفاف العين بين 195 مريضا يعانون من مرضى السكري

Authors: Abdulmajeed Abdulkadir Abdullah --- Ahmed I. Abdulgani --- Zana Ghany Hameed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 1368-1375
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Dry eye is a disorder of the tear film. There are significant associations between dry eye and environmental factors, autoimmune and chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dry eye in patients with diabetes mellitus in patients attending Erbil and Rizgary Teaching hospitals in Erbil city. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study of 195 diabetic patients who presented to the department of ophthalmology, Rizgary and Erbil teaching hospitals, Erbil; from February 2011 to December 2011 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slitlamp biomicroscopy was done. The examination of dry eye included Schirmer`s test, tear break-up time and fluorescein dyeResults: From total 195 patients, eighty-one (41.5%) of them had dry eye. The prevalence of dry eye among older ages (≥60 years) was 49%, which was higher than younger ages (<60 years). The dry eye had a higher percentage in males than females (44.7% and 39.1%, respectively). Those who had diabetes mellitus for <10 years recorded 36.6% dry eyes, however, those who had diabetes mellitus for ≥10years showed 50.7% dry eyes. On the other hand patients with good diabetic control (HbA1c<7%) had a lower prevalence of dry eye than those of uncontrolled one (HbA1c≥7%) with a percentage of 38.5% and 48.3%, respectively. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of dry eyes among diabetic patients in Erbil city. The prevalence of dry eye is higher in those with duration of diabetes for more than ten years. There was no statistically significant difference between male and female. The sensitivity of tear break-up time test was higher than Schirmer`s test for diagnosing dry eye.

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