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Article
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enterococcal Isolates And its Relevance With Biofilms Formation And &#914; -Lactamase Production

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Abstract

Background: Enteroccci are part of the normal intestinal flora of human and animal, but with increasing antimicrobial resistance, enterococci are recognized as serious nosocomial as well as community pathogens. Objectives: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 44 isolates of enterococci recovered from different pathological specimens from in-and out-patients from Diyala province.Materials and methods: The present study was conducted in Baquba General Hospital and Al-Batool Hospital for Maternity and children during the period from 1st. September/2005 to 30th. September /2006. A total of 343 specimens were collected from 213 inpatients and 130 outpatients. 200 (58.3%) were females and 143 (41.7%) were males. The mean age of patients was (32.8 ± 17.2) years. Specimens include, urine, stool, vaginal swabs, throat swabs, burn swabs, blood for culture, middle ear swabs, wound swabs, sputum and cerebrospinal fluid. Specimens were streaked on blood agar, and other differential and selective media. 44 isolates of enterococci (30 E. faecalis, 10 E. faecium, 3 E. gallinarium, and 1 E. avium) were recovered and identified according to standard bacteriological and biochemical criteria. The susceptibility patterns toward 13 antimicrobial agents were done by disc diffusion method. Data were statistically analysed. Results: The results revealed that the highest susceptibility of enterococcal isolates was toward the Nalidixic acid (79.5%), Ciprofloxacin (61.4%), Amoxacillin+clavilanic acid (61.4%), Rifampicillin (36.4%),Trimethoprim (22.7%), Vancomycin (11.4%). However, all isolates were resistant to Cloxacillin, Cefotaxim, Amoxicillin, Tetracycline, and Erythromycin. The susceptibility of non- β -lactamase producing isolates to penicillin were significantly higher than β - lactamase producing isolates (p<0.001). Furthermore, the sensitivity of non-biofilms former isolates were significantly higher than that of biofilms former isolates (p= 0.002).Conclusion: The overall susceptibility rates of enterococcal isolates recovered from nosocomial as well as community acquired infections to available antimicrobials are low.


Article
Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy Against Enterococcus Faecalis of Newly Prepared Endodontic Irrigant Solution (an In vitro study)

Authors: Nawfal A.A. Zakarea --- Talal Hameed Mohamad --- Amer A Taqa
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 28 Pages: 153-160
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

To evaluate the efficacy of a newly prepared endodontic irrigant solution, against E. faecalis.Materials and Methods: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth samples were prepared by usingprotaper NiTi rotary system. The apical foramen of each sample was sealed by acrylic resin on theapical 3mm. Each root was embedded in silicon impression material block and autoclaved. A ten μl(4X10P5P) of inoculated broth media (nutrient broth) with E. faecalis was injected gently inside thecanals of group A,B&C was incubated for 24hours at 37CPoP. Group D was left without inoculation toserve as a control negative. The samples of group A,B and C were disinfected as fallow: Group A wasdisinfected with MCP solution(mixture of 20% castor detergent and 4% papain). Group B wasdisinfected with freshly diluted 2.5% NaOCl solution. Group C not treated with any solution controlpositive. The disinfected solutions were left inside the canal for 5 min then each canal was dried withsterilized paper point, then bacterial samples were taken from the samples of 4 groups using size 40sterilized file which was inserted to full canal length and rotated 360 degrees in clock wise direction fordentin engagement. The file was put inside the sterilized plastic tube containing 1ml of normal salinethen 200 μl was inoculated and spread on Enterococcus agar media and incubated at 37CPoP for 18hours,the numbers of bacterial colonies were counted. Results: Both solutions (MCP and NaOCl) producecomplete eradication of E Faecalis within 5 minutes. Conclusion: Castor detergent 20% and papainenzyme 4% (MCP) has ability to completely eradicate Enterococcus Faecalis bacteria from theinfected root canal in vitro in 5 min. It's antibacterial action is similar to the action of 2.5 % NaOCl


Article
Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy Against Enterococcus Faecalis of Newly Prepared Endodontic Irrigant Solution (an Invitro study)

Authors: Nawfal A. Zakarea --- Talal H Mohamad --- Amer A. Taqa
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2017 Volume: 17 Issue: 33 Pages: 32-43
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a newly prepared endodontic irrigant solution, against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth samples were prepared by using protaper NiTi rotary system. The apical foramen of each sample was sealed by acrylic resin on the apical 3mm. Each root was embedded in silicon impression material block and autoclaved. A ten µl (4X105) of inoculated broth media (nutrient broth) with E. faecalis was injected gently inside the canals of group A,B&C was incubated for 24hours at 37Co. Group D was left without inoculation to serve as a control negative. The samples of group A,B and C were disinfected as fallow: Group A was disinfected with MCP solution(mixture of 20% castor detergent and 4% papain). Group B was disinfected with freshly diluted 2.5% NaOCl solution. Group C not treated with any solution control positive. The disinfected solutions were left inside the canal for 5 min then each canal was dried with sterilized paper point, then bacterial samples were taken from the samples of 4 groups using size 40 sterilized file which was inserted to full canal length and rotated 360 degrees in clock wise direction for dentin engagement. The file was put inside the sterilized plastic tube containing 1ml of normal saline then 200 µl was inoculated and spread on Enterococcus agar media and incubated at 37oC for 18hours, the numbers of bacterial colonies were counted. Results: Both solutions (MCP and NaOCl) produce complete eradication of E Faecalis within 5 minutes. Conclusion: Castor detergent 20% and papain enzyme 4% (MCP) has ability to completely eradicate Enterococcus Faecalis bacteria from the infected root canal in vitro in 5 min. It's antibacterial action is similar to the action of 2.5 % NaOCl.


Article
Molecular Detection of Enterococcus Surface Protein (Esp) Gene in E.faecalis and E.faecium and their Role in Biofilm Formation

Author: Aya H. Al-Halaby, Ashwak B. Al-Hashimy, Israa Al-Kadmy, Emad Al_Ajeeli
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 80-91
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Total of (104) urine samples were collected from patients suffering from urinary tract infection with different age groups from five hospitals in Baghdad (Ibn- Albalady, Al Yarmouk, Medical city, Baghdad hospital and Al-Kandy) from the period of the beginning of September to the end of December 2015. All samples were examined by traditional methods based on cultural characteristics, biochemical test and API 20 strep. The results showed the revealed of 50 isolates to Enterococcus and this confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique based on amplification of species specific genes. PCR were performed for E.faecalis and E.faecium in order to confirm the presence of Esp gene which coding for Enterococcus surface protein using specific primer for gene, the results showed Enterococcus contain a proportion of 54% of Esp. Biofilm production was detected in E.faecalis and E.faecium by use two methods: Congo red agar method and microtiter plate method, our results showed 22(44%) of Enterococcus isolates was strong biofilm production, 25(50%)as moderate and 3(6%) as week biofilm production. By use Congo red method, in microtiter plate method results showed that 20(40%) of bacterial isolates was detected as strong, 26(52%) as moderate and 4(8%) as week biofilm production.


Article
Detection of enterococci ability to produce bacteriocin and evalution of it,s inhibition effect on some bacteria
الكشف عن قابلية جراثيم المكورات المعوية على انتاج البكتريوسين وتقييم تأثيره على منع نمو بعض الجراثيم

Author: Shara Najmalddin Abdullah 1 , Hager Ali Shareef 2 شارا نجم الدين عبداللة
Journal: kirkuk university journal for scientific studies مجلة جامعة كركوك - الدراسات العلمية ISSN: 19920849 / 26166801 Year: 2016 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Kirkuk University جامعة كركوك

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Abstract

The study was conducted for detection of bacteriocin production ability in isolates ofenterococcus spp in urine sample by disc assay method . results showed all isolates of E.faecium and some of E.faecalis have the ability to produce bacteriocin . these bacteriocinesshowed high inhibitory effect against gram positive bacteria than gram negative.

اجريت هذه الدراسة للكشف عن قابلية انتاج العزلات المكورات المعوية للبكتريوسين بأستخدام طريقة اقراص الاكار (disc assay) ومعزولة من عينات الادرار في دراسة سابقة والتي تم تأكيد تشخيصها بأعتماد على مواصفات المستعمرات والفحوصات البايوكيميائية ، بينت النتائج قابلية جميع العزلات E.faecium وبعض عزلات E.faecalis على انتاج البكتريوسين ، أظهرت البكتريوسينات المنتجة فعالية تثبيطية اكثر ضد الجراثيم الموجبة لصبغة كرام مقارنة بالجراثيم السالبة لصبغة كرام.


Article
Isolation and Identification of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Faecalis
عزل وتشخيص بكتريا المكورات المعوية البرازية المقاومه لمضاد الفانكومايسين

Authors: Haider S. Kadhem حيدر صباح كاظم --- May T. Flayyih مي طالب فليح
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 4B Pages: 1811-1816
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

One hundred thirty - five clinical specimens of urine, blood, teeth root canal and burns were obtained from patients in hospitals of Baghdad. The specimens were cultured on Pfizer Selective Enterococcus agar to purify Enterococci isolates. 20 E. faecalis isolates were identified biochemically by growing in 10Cº, 45Cº, 6.5% NaCl, at pH 9.6 and confirmed by VITEK. Determination of Vancomycin-Resistant E. faecalis isolates were done by the minimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs] using agar dilution method. Seventeen E. faecalis isolates were determined as Vancomycin-Resistant and Intermediate Resistant.

مائة وخمس وثلاثين عينة سريرية من الادرار والدم وقنوات جذر الأسنان واصابات الحروق تم الحصول عليها من المرضى في مستشفيات بغداد. وقد تم زرع العينات المأخوذه على الوسط الزرعي الصلب فايزر الاختياري لبكتريا المكورات المعويه لغرض تنقيه عزلات E. faecalis. بكتريا المكورات المعويه البرازية تم تشخيصها من خلال تنميتها عند درجة حرارة 10 و 45 مئوية, تنميتها في وسط مغذي يحتوي 6.5 بالمئة من كلوريد الصوديوم وايضا تنميتها في الاس الهيدروجيني القاعدي 9.6 بالاضافة الى ذلك تم تشخيصها بواسطة الفايتك. عشرون عزلة من المكورات المعوية البرازيه تم تشخيصها. عزلات المكورات المعوية البرازية المقاومة لمضاد الفانكومايسين تم تحديدها بطريقة التركيز المثبط الادنى بواسطة عملية التخفيف الزرعي. سبعة عشر عزلة من المكورات المعويه البرازية تم تحديدها كعزلات مقاومة أو متوسطه المقاومة لمضاد الفانكومايسين.


Article
An Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Steralium, co+steralium, and 5% Sodium Hypochlorite against Enterococcus Faecalis Biofilm Formed on Tooth Substrate: (An in Vitro Study)

Author: Ayad M. Al-Kadhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-16
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Enterococcus faecalis is emerging as an important endodontic pathogen, which can persist in theenvironment for extended periods after treatment and may cause endodontic failure. It is known to producebiofilms, a community of bacteria enclosed within a protective polymeric matrix. This study aimed to establishwhether the biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis can be inhibited with steralium, co+steralium, and 5%sodium hypochlorite in the root surface environment.Materials and Methods: Extracted human teeth were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in thetissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to E. faecalis to form a biofilm. At the end of the 3rd and 6thweeks, all groups were treated for 10 minutes with the previously mentioned tested solutions and control and wereanalyzed qualitatively and quantitatively.Results: Qualitative assay with 3-weeks biofilm showed a complete inhibition of bacterial growth with co+steraliumand NaOCl, except steralium and saline, which showed presence of bacterial growth. In quantitative analysis,steralium and saline- treated tooth samples have 57.74 ± 5.39* CFU/ml., 140.71 ± 8.49 CFU/ml. respectively.Qualitative assay with 6-week biofilm showed growth when treated with steralium and saline treated tooth sampleshave 346.0 ± 78.88* CFU/ml., 127.18 ± 17.84 CFU/ml. respectively whereas co+steralium and NaOCl has showncomplete inhibition.Conclusions: co+steralium and 5% sodium hypochlorite showed maximum antibacterial activity against E. Faecalisbiofilm formed on tooth substrate. co+steralium showed statistically significant antibacterial activity. The use ofco+steralium as a root canal irrigant might prove to be advantageous considering the several undesirablecharacteristics of NaOCl


Article
Effect of Tea Tree, Thymus Vulgaris and Nigella Sativa Oils on The Elimination of Enterococcus Faecalis (In Vitro Study)

Authors: Rafid J. Al-Badr --- Hussain F. Al-Huwaizi حسين فيصل الحويزي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 55-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: The main goal of chemomechanical endodontic treatment is the reduction or elimination of microorganisms from root canal system. The intracanal medicaments were used to enhance the disinfection process. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of thymus vulgaris, tea tree essential oils and cold pressed black seed oil (BSO) against E.faecalis.Materials and methods: E.faecalis was isolated from ten patients in need for endodontic treatment. The sensitivity of E.faecalis to the tested oils was evaluated in different concentrations in agar well diffusion method and compared with calcium hydroxide. The sensitivity of E.faecalis to vapor of the tested oils was also evaluated, in disk vaporization method using inverted agar plate and compared to tricresol formalin (TC) and camphorated monochlorophenol (CMCP).The micro broth dilution method was used to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the tested oils against E.faecalis. The presence of biologically active volatile components of two samples of BSO with different origins was evaluated by the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results: All the tested oils exhibited antibacterial activity against E.faecalis in different concentrations with different levels in agar well diffusion and disk vaporization methods. The MBC was 2μl/mL, for thymus vulgaris oil and 32μl/mL for tea tree and Black seed oils. The vapor forming medicaments (TC and CMCP) induced effective antibacterial action but calcium hydroxide showed a low antibacterial action against E.faecalis. The active volatile components were present in one sample of BSO only (the Iraqi one).Conclusion:The three oil extracts were active against E.faecalis, and the origin, condition of storage and method of extraction may affect the components of cold pressed black seed oil


Article
Spreading of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in Hospitals and Water Environment in Mosul City
انتشار نوعي جرثومة المكورات المعوية Enterococcus faecalis وEnterococcus faecium ضمن بيئة المستشفيات والمياه في مدينة الموصل

Authors: Muhsin A. Essa محسن أيوب عيسى --- Hala Z. Najem حلا زيد نجم
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2013 Volume: 24 Issue: 5A Pages: 38-54
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in hospitals and water environment in Mosul city. 240 specimens were collected during the period from September to December / 2011, 120 specimens were from water environment in addition to 120 specimens from hospitals environment (General Hospital, Ibin-Sena Hospital and Al-Khansaa teaching Hospital). Isolation and identification were done using a number of specific selective media for Enterococcus in addition to biochemical and serological tests then conformational tests were done using API 20 Strep and ID32 Strep. The results illustrated that the genus Enterococcus was isolated at 30% of all isolates (56.94 % was from Hospitals and 43.05% was from water environment). The isolated ratio of E. faecalis (18.1%) was higher than E.faecium (12.5%).

أجريت هذه الدراسة بهدف تحديد مدى انتشار نوعي جرثومة المكورات المعوية E.faecalis و E.faecium ضمن بيئة المياه والمستشفيات في مدينة الموصل، إذ جمعت (240) عينة منها (120) عينة من بيئة المياه (مياه نهر ومياه مجاري وماء الشرب) فضلاً عن (120) عينة من بيئة المستشفيات (المستشفى العام، مستشفى ابن سينا التعليمي، مستشفى الخنساء التعليمي) وذلك للفترة من أيلول ولغاية كانون الأول 2011.استخدم لغرض العزل والتشخيص عدد من الأوساط الانتخابية الخاصة بجنس المكورات المعوية فضلاً عن الاختبارات الكيموحيوية والمصلية وتم تأكيد التشخيص باستخدام نظامي التشخيص ID 32 strep و API 20 strep .أوضحت النتائج أن نسبة عزل جنس المكورات المعوية كانت (30%) من مجموع العينات المدروسة وان نسبة عزله من بيئة المستشفيات (56.94%) كانت أعلى من نسبة عزله من بيئة المياه (43.05%) وكانت نسبة عزل النوع E.faecalis (18.1%) أعلى من نسبة عزل النوع E.facium (12.5%).


Article
Identification of Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Infected Human Tooth Root Canals Human by Using Polymerase Chain Reaction
تشخيص بكتريا المكورات المعوية البرازية Enterococcus faecalis المعزولة من جذور اسنان الانسان باستعمال تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل (PCR)

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One hundred samples of root canal bacteria were isolated from patients teeth with primary and secondary infected root canal from all the ages . Biochemical and microscopial tests were done for identification of these isolates. Twenty four isolates were confirmed as E. faecalis species by using these tests. Genetic diagnosis for the all isolates was also done by using polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ). Thirty two isolates were confirmed to belong to E. faecalis species by using this test.

تم التحري عن وجود بكتريا Enterococcus faecalis في (100) عينة مأخوذة من مرضى ذي اعمار مختلفة مصابين بالتهاب جذر السن للمرة الاولى ولم يخضعوا بعد للعلاج ( اصابة ابتدائية ), ومرضى مصابين بالتهاب جذر السن بعد الخضوع للعلاج و فشل العلاج (اصابة ثانوية ) , اذ اخذت ( 70 ) عينة من الاصابات الابتدائية لجذر السن , و (30 ) عينة من الاصابات الثانوية لجذر السن ( اعادة العلاج ) . شخصت البكتريا بالاعتماد على الطرزالمظهرية بالطرائق الكيموحياتية التقليدية حيث تم الحصول على 24 عزلة تعود لبكتريا المكورات المعوية , وثم شخصت بالاعتماد على الطرز الجينية باستعمال تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assey وتم الحصول على 32 عينة تعود لبكتريا المكورات المعوية البرازية .

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