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Article
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (egfr) Immunohistochemical Expression in Gastric Carcinoma

Author: Salim R.Al-Obaidie , Ali F.Hashim, Farah F.Hassan
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 379-384
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND : Gastric cancer is the the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide.OBJECTIVE:To estimate the immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) in the gastric cancer in relation to other parameters like grade and stage.METHODS: Formaline fixed ,paraffin-embedded blocks from 51 patients (29 male and 22 female) with gastric carcinoma were included in this study. Ten biopsies of normal gastric tissue were selected as a control group. Envision (DAKO) technique was applied to study the immunohistochem- ical expression of EGFR in paraffin embedded sections of gastric cancer. RESULTS: Positive immunohistochemical expression of EGFR was seen in 41.2% of cases as both membranous and cytoplasmic brown staining while there was negative staining in the normal control group (p<0.05). EGFR immunoexpression was correlated with the histological type( more in the intestinal variant than the diffuse type) (p<0.0.5).CONCLUSION: These findings provides further evidence for the role of EGFR in the tumorgenensis of gastric cancer. However, EGFR could not be well correlated with stage of tumor and hence may be poor prognostic parameters of the state of malignancy.


Article
Evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), proliferation (Ki-67) and apoptosis (P53) in salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma in relation to tumor grade

Authors: Saad A. Al-Ani سعد العاني --- Bashar Hamid Abdullah بشار حميد عبد الله
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 43-47
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common salivary gland malignancy. Theydisplay a variety of biological behaviours, and several systems have, therefore, been proposed to gradethis neoplasm. Today, the most popular grading systems are Auclair et al, (1992) and Brandwein et al,(2001)grading systems. Assessment of cellular proliferation, apoptosis and growth molecules are important factorsin tumor kinetic which may reflect tumor biological behaviour.Materials and methods: Immunohistochemical analyses of seventeen cases of -fixed paraffin-embeddedtissue blocks of MEC of salivary gland origin using (Ki-67, P53 and EGFR) monoclonal antibodies.Results: The samples comprised of ten males and seven females to give male to female ratio (1.4:1). Themean age was (47.06±8.5) years. The submandibular salivary gland was the most predominant affected site(5 cases). 100% of cases were EGFR immunopositive. Only 47% of MEC cases showed Ki-67 immunopositivity,while P53 immunopositivity were shown in 94% of MEC cases. There was no statistically significantcorrelation regarding P53 or EGFR markers in relation with grading systems. There was a statisticallysignificant correlation between the expression of Ki-67 marker and Auclair grading system. There were nosignificant statistical correlation among markers except between Ki-67 expression and P53.Conclusions: Assessment of tumor biology in term of apoptosis (p53), proliferation (Ki-67) and EGFR are notreflected on tumor grade


Article
Molecular Detection of EGFR Mutation in Lung Cancer Using Bioinformatics Database with PCR Technique
الكشف الجزيئي لطفرة EGFR في سرطان الرئة باستخدام قاعدة بيانات معلومات حيوية مع تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل

Authors: Ayad Mohammed Ali أياد محمد علي --- Kameran Mohammed Ali كامران محمد علي
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 - part 1 Pages: 226-242
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to design a new model of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic method using mouse genome for one rare epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations with diagnostic and prognostic values in lung cancer (this mutation are not covered by commercial test kits). From the systematic database search, one rare mutations identified which is within the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain of EGFR, with an insertion mutation in exon 20 namely A763_Y764insFQEA. For designing primers to detect the targeted regions surrounding the rare mutations, Primer3 Plus was carried out to design two sets of PCR primers for exon 20 of mouse EGFR gene. UCSC (University of California Santa Cruz) in silico PCR testing along with BLASTN search were used for primer specificity in terms of predicted target location (chromosome 11 for exon 20) and predicted amplicon sizes (276 bp for exon 20). PCR was partially optimised for the exon 20 with the presence of expected amplicon bands, along with unspecific and primer-dimer bands. The amplicon was sequenced and revealed the presence of the mutation. The mutation of interest selected was A763_Y764insFQEA (insertion of phenylalanine, glutamine, glutamic acid and alanine in between codon 763 and 764) in exon 20, the mutation was in the kinase domain of EGFR. The Identification and Analysis for rare mutations via this way is sensitive, simple, accurate and inexpensive technique. It is used as genetic markers for allelic and mutational sequence variation.

هدفت هذه الدراسة هو تصميم نموذج جديد لتقنية التشخيص المعتمد على تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل (PCR) باستخدام جينوم الفأر لاحد الطفرات الجينية النادرة لمستقبل عامل نمو الادمة (EGFR) مع القيم التشخيصية والنذيرية في سرطان الرئة (هذه الطفرة لم تغطى باستخدام عدد تجارية). من البحث في نظام قاعدة البيانات، حددت واحدة من الطفرات النادرة التي تقع ضمن نطاق انزيم التيروسين كاينيز (TK) من EGFR كطفرة مدرجة في اكسون 20 وهي .A763_Y764insFQEA لتصميم الشعيلة للكشف عن المناطق المستهدفة المحيطة الطفرات النادرة نفذت Primer3 Plus لتصميم مجموعتين من شعيلات لاكسون 20 من جين EGFR للفار. استخدمت تقنية جامعة كاليفورنيا سانت كروز (UCSC) في silico PCR مع البحث BLASTN لخصوصية الشعيلات من حيث تنبأ الموقع المستهدف (الكروموسوم 11 لاكسون 20) وتوقع حجم الامبليكون بـ (276 لاكسون 20) و حسنت جزئيا تقنية PCR للاكسون 20 مع وجود حزم امبليكون متوقعة، جنبا إلى جنب مع الخطوط غير محددة. حيث الامبليكون تسلسل وكشف وجود الطفرة. وكانت الطفرة المهم اختيارها كانتA763_Y764insFQEA المدرج من الفنيل الأنين، الجلوتامين، حمض الجلوتاميك وألالنين بين كودون 763 و 764 في اكسون 20، كانت طفرة في المجال كاينيز من .EGFR ان تحديد وتحليل الطفرات النادرة باستخدام هذه التقنية كانت حساسة وبسيطة ودقيقة و غير مكلفة، وهو يستخدم كدلائل وراثية لمختلف التسلسلات الأليلة والطفرية.


Article
Effects of Black Seed on Lung Cancer/in Vitro Study

Authors: Azher Abdul-hafidh Jabir --- Adeeb A. Alzubaidy --- Haider Sabah Kadhim
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 363-377
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This study was done to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effects of black seed on lung cancer cells and to determine its IC50 alone and in combination with cisplatin, and to study its effects on the expression of each of p53 and EGFR.QU-DB lung cancer cells were cultured in Eagle's MEM medium with 5% FBS and antibiotics. The cells were seeded in 96 well plate and the cytotoxic effects of each of cisplatin [25-0.195 µl/ml (or µg/ml)] and black seed [300-1.1719 µl/ml (each one µl is extracted from 25 µg of dried seed)] was determined using neutral red uptake (NRU) assay for 24, 48, and 72 hours in comparison with their corresponding control groups.Combined effect of black seeds with cisplatin was determined also using NRU assay. Cytotoxicity was further assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay at IC50 of each agent for 48 hours duration. Immunocytochemistry assay was performed also to detect p53 and EGFR expression. Cisplatin induced a directly proportional, dose-dependent and time-dependant cytotoxic effect with an IC50 of 8.5µg/ml and 7.3 µg/ml after 48 hrs and 72 hrs of exposure respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in optic density of cisplatin group from that of the control for all tested concentrations. Black seed extract induced a directly proportional, dose-dependent and time-dependant cytotoxic effect in experiments with 48 hrs and 72 hrs of exposure with an IC50 of 149.5 µl/ml and 130 µl/ml respectively (each one µl is extracted from 25 µg of dried seed). While it produces a protective effect in 24 hrs exposure experiment. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in optic density of black seed from that of the control at concentrations of 75 µl/ml and above. Black seed produce an antagonistic action when combined with cisplatin, combination index (CI) >1.3.Cisplatin highly significantly (p<0.005) increased EGFR expression at different concentrations. While black seed extract highly significantly (p<0.005) reduced EGFR expression at 300 µl/ml (each one µl is extracted from 25 µg of dried seed). Cisplatinand black seed highly significantly (p<0.005) decreased the expression of P53. In conclusion: monotherapy of black seed have anticancer effects on lung cancer cell line, but an antagonizing effect to cisplatin when combined with it. Black seed may have a beneficial therapeutic effect in decreasing EGFR expression and decreasing mutant p53 expression.


Article
Immunohistochemical Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Human colorectal Adenocarcinoma (A clinicopathological study)
التعبير المناعي النسيجي للمعلم السرطاني : مستقبل عامل النمو البشري (EGFR ) في سرطان القولون و المستقيم (دراسة امراضية سريرية)

Authors: Sazan A. Al-Atroushi سازان عبد الوهاب --- Khitam R. Al- khafaji ختام رزاق الخفاجي --- Kifah h. AbdulGhafour كفاح حمدان
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2016 Volume: 58 Issue: 1 Pages: 58-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Colorectal Adenocarcinoma contributes one of the most common malignancies and the second leading cause of death from cancer in the western world. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) belongs to a family (ErbB-tyrosine receptors), EGFR plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer.Objectives : to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in colorectal adenocarcinoma and to correlate this expression with different clinicopathological parameters.Pateints and method: In this study clinicopathological parameters of twenty five colorectal adenocarcinoma cases diagnosed in private pathology laboratories in Baghdad /Iraq from November 2012 to September 2013 were respectively evaluated in terms of age, gender, pathological diagnosis including; tumor location, lymph node status. EGFR expression was investigated immunohistochemically. Results: twenty five colorectal cancer patients were included in this study with median age 54.5, range from (28-81)years, 15 cases (60%) were female and 10 (40%) cases were male. Tumor size range from 3-10 cm with mean 6.5 cm, 10 (40%) cases were from rectum, 7 (28%) from the right side colon & 8 (32%) cases were from from left side colon. Twenty three (92%) cases were moderately differentiated, and two (8%) cases were poorly differentiated, five (20%) cases were T1, 10 (40%) cases were T2, 5 (20%) cases were each T3 & T4 respectively. 3 (12%) cases were N1, 7 (28%) cases were N2, and fifteen (60%) cases have no lymph node involvement. Three (12%) cases with distant metastasis. Eighteen (72%) cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma demonstrate EGFR reactivity in > 1% of the tumor cells. No significant statistical correlation was noticed between EGFR expression and each of age, gender, site of the tumor and grade of tumor (P value > 0.05). A significant statistical correlation was noted between EGFR expression and local tumor invasion (T) and lymph node involvement (p value <0.05). Conclusion: Epidermal growth factor receptor plays an important role in colorectal adenocarcinoma oncogenesis. EGFR expression appears to have a value as a prognostic biomarker, since it's expression by the tumor cells is significantly correlated to lymph node involvement and tumor local invasion. Keywords: Colorectal Adenocarcinoma, EGFR

المقدمة: يعتبر سرطان القولون واحدا من اكثر الاورام الخبيثة شيوعا و انتشارا, و السبب الثاني للوفاة بسبب السرطان في العالم الغربي. ينتمي مستقبل عامل النمو البشري الى عائلة ( Erb-B ) مستقبلات التايروسين و يلعب دورا مهما في تطور سرطان القولون و المستقيم.هدف الدراسة:تحديد نسبة و شكل التعبير المناعي لمستقبلات عامل النمو البشري في السرطانات الغدية للقولون و المستقيم بواسطة الفحوص المناعية و النسيجية و تقييم العلاقة بين التعبير المناعي مع مختلف الدلالات السريرية و المرضبة.المواد و الاسلوب: تم دراسة خمس و عشرون حالة لمرضى بسرطانات القولون و المستقيم و هذة الحالات تم تشخيصها في مختبرات اهلية في بغداد من شهر تشرين ثاني 2012 و لغاية ايلول 2013. هذه الحالات تم تقيمها من ناحية العمرو الجنس , التشخيص النسيجي و تشمل حجم الورم, مكان الورم, عدد الغدد اللمفاوية , تمايز الورم و مراحل انتشاره . تم تقييم التعبير المناعي لجميع الحالات بواسطة فحوصات المناعة النسيجية الكيميائية.النتائج: الدراسة تضمنت خمس و عشرين حالة من السرطانات الغدية للقولون و المستقيم اعمارهم تراوحت بين (28-81) سنة مع متوسط عمر 54,5 سنة . 15 (60%) حالة من الاناث و 10 (40%) حالة من الذكور. حجم الورم يتراوح بين (3-10) سم مع متوسط 6.5 سم . عشر حالات (40%) كانت من المستقيم , 7 (28%) حالات من القولون الايمن و 8 (32%) حالات من القولون الايسر. ثلاث و عشرون (92%) حالة كانت متوسطة التمايز و 2 (8%) كانت فقيرة التمايز.بالنسبة الى مراحل السرطان تبين ان 5 (20%) حالات هي T1 , 10 (40%) هي T2 و 5 (20%) حالات هي T3 , T4 . بالنسبة الى اصابة الغدد اللمفاوية وجدت النتائج التالية: ثلاث (12%) حالات N1 , وسبع (28%) حالات N 2 و 15 (60%) حالة خالية من الاصابات و ان السرطان منتشر في 3 (12%) من الحلات و ان التعبير الناعي النسيجي لعامل النمو البشري كانت موجبة في 18 (72%) حالة في اكثر من 1% من الخلايا السرطانية.لم يلاحظ وجود علاقة احصائية بين التعبير المناعي للمعلم السرطاني لمستقبل النمو البشري و بين كل من العمر, الجنس, مكان وجود الورم, درجة تمايز الورم (P>0.05). و وجدت علاقة بين التعبير المناعي للمعلم السرطاني و درجة انتشار الورم (T), و اصابة الغدد اللمفاوية (P< 0.05).الاستنتاج: يلعب المعلم السرطاني (مستقبل عامل النمو البشري ) دورا مهما في عملية تطور سرطان القولون و المستقيم. و يعتبر هذا العامل ذو قيمة تنبوئية في هذا السرطان, حيث وجدت علاقة احصائية بين تعبيره المناعي من قبل الخلايا السرطانية و درجة انتشار الورم و اصابة الغدد اللمفاوية.مفتاح الكلمات: سرطان الفولون و المستقيم الغدي , مستقبلات عامل النمو البشري.

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