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Article
Observations on the ultrastructure of a rat mammary gland treated with harmal and borage

Authors: Salim R. Hamoudi ** --- Shatha M. Al-Faisaly*** --- Wasan Al- Saidi * --- Malak A. Al- Yawer **Ph.D
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 151-156
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : It had been indentified by histological, histochemical and morphometrical studies that peganum harmala is a mammogenic herb and borage officinalis is a lactogenic one . To complete our investigation about these two herbs , we performed electron microscopical study . Materials and methods : Rats were grouped according to their physiological status into three groups . Each group was subdivided in to three subgroups : one control and two experimental . The two experimental group were treated daily; the 1st one with an aqueous extract of peganum harmala seeds and the 2nd with an aqueous extract of borage officinalis flowers . After two weeks of treatment , mammary glands were employed for electron microscopical study . Results : In virgin rats , the epithelial and myoepithelial cells were partially differentiated when harmal was given and completely differentiated when borage was given . In pregnant rats , harmal and borage optimize mammary parenchymal growth and induce lactation when these herbs were given. In lactating rats ,these herbs exhibited a picture similar to control lactating group but the budding of lipid droplets and the swelling of secretary vesicles were markedly increased . Conclusion: Both harmal and borage stimulate the release of prolactin and induce galactogenesis during pregnancy and promote it during lactation . Key Words : Mammary gland , Electron microscope , Harmal , Borage


Article
Apoptotic Features in Normal Rabbit’s Adenohypophysis Cells (Electron Microscopic and Quantitative Study)
أشكال الذوي في خلايا النخامية الغدية للأرنب(دراسة بالمجهر الإلكتروني ودراسة كمية)

Author: Daad A. Hussein¹, Hussein A. M. Dauod, Kawkab S. Nejim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 51-57
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The earliest notable signs of the apoptosis such as the chromatin mass condensation and gradually migration peripherally toward the nuclear envelope were recognized. The terminal end of the apoptotic pathway, represented with apoptotic bodies and membrane blebs or blisters appearances recognized too. In general, apoptotic cells were decreased with progressing animal age; however, there was only significant increase of the apoptotic cells between baby group and adult group in rabbit adenohypothysis with t-value 2.46 and p< 0.05.

لقد تم إستعمال المجهر الإلكتروني النافذ في الدراسة الحالية لغرض التعرف على الخصائص النوعية والمظرية (الفحص البايلوجي) لخلايا النخامية الغدية للأرنب كوسيلة مساعدة للتحري عن أشكال الذوي على صعيد النواة والخلية فضلاً عن التحليل الإحصائي للخلايا الذاوية طبقاً لعمر الحيوان. وتمت ملاحظة بعض العلامات المبكرة لآلية الذوي في الخلايا وهو تكاثف الكروماتين وهجرته بشكل تدريجي محيطياً بإتجاه الغلاف النووي. إن العلامات النهائية والختامية لمسار الذوي والمتمثلة بظهور الأجسام الذاوية وبثرات غشائية قد أشر أيضاً. وتمت ملاحظة نقصان في عدد الخلايا الذاوية مع تقدم عمر الحيوان, وعلى كل حال, كان هناك إرتفاع معنوي وحيد للخلايا الذاوية لمجموعة الرضع عند مقارنتها بمجموعة البالغين.


Article
Analytical Investigation of Charging Ability of Insulators under Electron Beam Irradiation inside SEM Chamber

Author: Hassan N. Al-Obaidi1, Ali S. Mahdi2
Journal: Almuthanna Journal of Pure Science (MJPS) مجلة المثنى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 22263284 Year: 2016 Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

An analytical procedure has been carried out to measure the charge that may trapped in an insulator sample andrelated electrostatic surface potential in sense of mirror effect phenomenon. In fact, scanning electron microscope mirrormethod (SEMME), sometimes called electron mirror method (EME) and/or magnification factor method (MFM), has beenused to accomplished that purpose. However, this work has been carried out concerning the theoretical point of view, themirror plot curve has been adopted as an evaluation scale for the quality of the mirror image. Therefore, this procedure hadbeen used to investigates the experimental mirror plot curves for PMMA material with different accelerating potential andstudying the most important parameters that affects in these curves. Results have clearly shows that the radius of irradiatedarea play an important rule in the shape of mirror plot figure and then the quality of the image.


Article
A scanning electron microscopical study of initial changes in human premolars teeth after orthodontic tooth movement

Author: Dalia Kubad Taher, B.D.S., M.Sc د. داليا طاهر
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 230-234
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

scanning electron microscope was used to study the effect of orthodontic tooth movement by using a force of 50 grams on the pressure side of 2l upper left premolarmt for 5- 75 days while the contralaterl side 14 teeth were used as a control. In order toruiy the morphology and occurrence of root resorptions, the organic tissue was removedrsigg sodium hypochlorite and the denuded root surface were re—examined in thescanning electron microscope. Initially, tissue affected by pressure was mainly located inhe marginal region and subsequently the mid- portion of the roots became generallyuri genced. The resorption process of cementum begins after 5 days as around cavitiesmeasuring about 4u. Further resorption in cementum was characterized by measuringsmall, thin—walled round lacunae which confluence into extensive, shallow resorptionsafter 25 days and more


Article
Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Urinary Bladder Cancer Tissues By Using Transmission Electron Microscope
الكشف عن وجود عصيات السل الرئوية باستخدام المجهر الإلكتروني الانتقالي

Authors: Asaad Aljanabi --- Hashim Raheem Tarish --- Zina Mohammed Abdul-Hussein
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 53-61
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background:Bladder cancer is one of the most common human cancers in Iraq and the world. While smoking, age sex, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines are the most prominent among the risk factors identified, long term Inflammation and chronic infection may largely play some role in urinary bladder cancer (UBC) development. In the present study we worked on urinary bladder cancer and noncancerous Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) Tissue specimens of Iraqi patients, the current study used Acid Fast Stain and Transmission Electron Microscope for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Urinary Bladder tissues.Objectives: microscopical detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urinary bladder cancer.Methods: The current study used urinary bladder cancer (UBC) formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues (FFPET) specimens of Iraqi patients collected from several privet histopathology labs in AL-Najaf province, the specimens were 50 specimens of UBC patients and 25 different noncancerous pathological bladder specimens. Slides of urinary bladder FFPE tissues were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen(ZN) stain. Examining of slides were conducted using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) imaging was performed special procedure was used for TEM slides preparation.Results: FFPE tissues were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen(ZN) stain. Examining of slides showed presence of high number of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in one microscopical field. UBC tissue slides showed the highest percentage comparing to noncancerous patients (76.6% and 23.4%) respectively. For further confirmation and study of ZN stain results, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) imaging was performed. The results showed presence of different morphological shapes of acid fast bacilli cells appeared in TEM fields and most cells were observed attaching to the urothelial cell membrane.Conclusions: high percentage of MTBC and MTB were detected among patients with UBC compared to noncancerous cases. Recommendations: modern techniques should be used for MTBC and MTB detection in laboratories, and further study for the relationship between chronic MTB infection and UBC are required.

خلفية البحث: سرطان المثانةِ هو أحد الأمراضِ السرطانية الإنسانيةِ الأكثر شيوعاً في العراق والعالم. ويعتبر التدخين ,الجنس ,العُمرِ،و التعرض المهني إلى الأماينِ العطريِ من بين عواملِ الخطورة الأبرز َ لهذا المرض, يضاف إلى هذه العوامل عاملا الالتهاب لفترة طويلة و الإصابات ألمرضية المُزمنةِ واللذان قَدْ يَلْعبانِ دورِ كبير في نشوء سرطانِ المثانةِ. في الدراسةِ الحاليةِ عَملنَا على عينات نسيجِ المثانة المحفوظة في الفورمالينَ لمرضى عراقيينِ وقد شملت العينات عينات سرطانِ المثانةِ وعينات لإصابات مرضية غير سرطانيَة، أجريتْ الدراسةُ الحاليةُ للكشفِ عن عصيات السُلِّ في الإنسان باستعمال صبغة زيهيل- نيلسون وتصوير الشرائح بإستخدام مجهر الالكتروني الانتقالي.الهدف: الكشف ألمجهري عن وجود عصيات السُلِّ في عينات سرطانِ المثانةِ ومقارنتها بعينات لإصابات مرضية غير سرطانيَة .المنهجية: الدراسةُ الحاليةُ عملت على 75 نموذج من الأنسجة المثبتة بالفورمالين للمثانة خمسون عينة مِنْ العيناتِ كانت لمرضى سرطان المثانة وخمس وعشرون عينة مثانةِ لإصابات غير سرطانيةِ مختلفةِ جمعت العينات من عِدّة مختبرات خاصة في محافظةِ النجف. 84 % مِنْ عينات سرطان المثانة كَانتْ المجموعةَ السائدةَ فيها من الذكورَ والفئة العُمرية كَانتْ 61-80 سَنَوات (60 %) لكلا الجنس. حالات انتشار من مستوى الدرجةِ واطئِ كَانتْ الأكثر شيوعاً وقد سجّلتْ (64 %). جزء كبير من ألدراسةِ تم إجراءه في مركز البحوث الطبية في كلية الطبِّ / جامعة آيوا/ الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. تم التقطيع النسيجي للعينات وتحضير العينات للتصوير الالكتروني باستخدام تقنية خاصة.النتائج: أظهرت نتائج فَحْص شرائح أنسجة المثانةِ والتي لُطّختْ بصبغة زيهيل-نيلسون، وجود العديدِ من عصيات السل الحمضية (أي إف بي) في الحقلِ الواحد النسبة المئوية الأعلى سجلت بمرضى سرطان المثانة مقارنة بمرضى الحالات الغير سرطانيِة (76.6 % و23.4 %) على التوالي. لدراسة نتائج صبغة زيهيل-نيلسون والتأكيدِ مِنْها تم فحص اللطخات باستعمال المجهرَ ألالكترونِي ,التصوير اظهر وجود أشكال مختلفة مِنْ خلايا العصيات ظَهرتْ في حقولِ المجهرِ ألالكترونِي وغالبية الخلايا كَانت خارج غشاءِ الخلايا البولية الظهارية.الاستنتاج: تم الكشف عن وجود نسبة عالية من عصيات السل في سرطان المثانة مقارنة بحالات إصابات المثانة الغير سرطانية.التوصيات: اعتماد التقنيات الحديثة والبسيطة في التشخيص ألمجهري للكشف عن علاقة عصيات السل وتحديد العلاقة بين الإصابة المزمنة بعصيات السل وتأثيرها في استحداث سرطان المثانة قد يساهم في تقليل الإصابة بهذا المرض.


Article
Electron Microscope Evaluation of late changes in the nerve fibers and neurons induced by Sciatic nerve section in rabbits
تقييم المجهر الالكتروني للتغيرات المتأخرة في الالياف العصبية والعصبونات والمتسبب عن قطع العصب الوركي في الارانب

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to demonstrate late changes occurs after Sciatic nerve section [nerve fibers and their associated neurons]. Five adult rabbits were used in this study. Sciatic nerve was sectioned under general anesthesia. After ninety days, all animals were sacrificed and samples were taken from ventral horn of spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion at L₇ segment level and from sciatic nerve for electron microscope evaluation. The results revealed different changes include: separation of the myelin sheath lamellae within ventral horn, the Nissl bodies were scattered within sensory neuron thoughout the cytoplasm specially at the periphery, the cytoplasm contain numerous closed vesicles of different size associated with endoplasmic tubules and the myelin sheath usually forming a loop, axons seemed relatively smaller than normal. All of which are common features of axonal atrophy

الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو إظهار التغيرات المتأخرة التي تحدث بعد قطع العصب الوركي [الألياف العصبية والخلايا العصبية المرتبطة بها]. استخدمت في هذه الدراسة خمسة أرانب بالغين. قطع العصب الوركي تحت تاثير التخدير العام. بعد تسعين يوما، تم التضحية بجميع الحيوانات وأخذت عينات من القرن البطني للحبل الشوكي، وعقدة الجذر الظهري في مستوى القطعة L7ومن العصب الوركي لتقييمها تحت المجهر الإلكتروني. كشفت النتائج عن تغيرات مختلفة تشمل: أنفصال صفائح غمد النخاعين داخل القرن البطني، وأنتشار أجسام نيسل داخل سيتوبلازم الخلايا العصبية الحسية خاصة في المحيط، و احتواء السيتوبلازم على العديد من الحويصلات المغلقة بأحجام مختلفة مرتبطة بأنابيب الشبكة الإندوبلازمية وغمد المايلين يشكل حلقةعادة، والمحاور العصبية تبدو أصغر نسبيا من الطبيعي. وكلها سمات مشتركة تدل على ضمور المحاور عصبية.


Article
Easy and New Chemical Synthesis of Stable Nano Sliver using Propylene Glycol and Glycerin as Reducing Agents

Authors: Abdulah A. Mohammed --- Sarab T. Mahmood
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 2 Part (B) Engineering Pages: 131-135
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this present work we have synthesized stable silvernanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by chemical reduction with aqueous solutions ofsilver nitrate (i) propylene glycol (ii) glycerin as reducing agents and guargum as a stabilizer. The reaction were done at room temperature and atpH=8. Systematic characterizations of the Ag-NPs were done using UV-Vis,zeta potential analysis, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), AFM and SEM whichreveal stable Ag-NPs. These measurements indicate that the particles aremostly spherical in shape. The UV-Vis spectra of the result solution of AgNPsshow an absorption peak at 412 nm and 424 nm for using propyleneglycol and for using glycerin respectively. These color occurring due toSurface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The SEM measurements gave a particlesize of 40 -70 nm. Nano silver showed stability for long periods of time tomore than nine months, and this can be an economical and effective way forwide scale synthesis of Ag-NPs which applicable for various medicaltherapies.


Article
Surface Structure for Silicon Nanoparticles
التركيب السطحي لجسيمات السيكون النانوية

Authors: M.A.Shahooth محمد عبد شاحوذ --- H.S.AL-Jumaili --- M.S.Omar مصطفى سعيد عمر
Journal: Journal of university of Anbar for Pure science مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: ISSN: 19918941 Year: 2018 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

A model depend on ratio number atoms of the Surface to the internal atoms used to calculate the mean bonding length (dmean(r)) of silicon nanoparticles with radius (r) in the range of (1.2nm ≤ r ≤ 10nm). The results compared with the (dmean(r)) which measured from high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) in the range of (r), using AUTO CAD software for measuring nanoparticle radius and the spacing between adjacent fringes that correspond to dhkl – spacing. The results obtained that the theoretical model is in good agreement with the experiment for all (r) range. The lattice parameter (dmean(r)) are found to increases from (0.235nm) for bulk Si up to (0.262nm) for nanoparticles having a size down to 3nm, then it is increased sharply at about the critical radius of silicon nanoparticle (r = 1nm), which related to the atomic surface behavior.

صمم برنامج لحساب نسبة عدد ذرات السطح الى عدد الذرات الداخلية لحساب معدل طول الاصرة لجسيمات السياكون النانوية لمدى نصف قطر بين ( nm10 -1.2). ومقارنة النتائج المستحصلة مع نتائج معدل طول الاصرة المحسوب من القيم التجريبية للمسافة البينية المأخوذ مباشرة من فحص المجهر الالكتروني علي التحليل HRTEM)) بإستخدام برنامج حاسوبي نوع (AUTO CAD) لقياس نصف قطر الحبيبة والمسافة بين الاهداب المتعاقبة لتعطي قيمة .dhklالنتائج اظهرت بأن البرنامج النظري يتطابق مع العملي بشكل جيد ولجميع قيم نصف القطر (r). ان قيم معدل طول الاصرة يزداد من(0.235nm) للسيكون السميك تصل الى (0.262nm) ان قيم معدل طول الاصرة يزداد مع نقصان نصف القطر بشكل تدريجي والى قيمة (r = 3nm) حيث الزيادة تكون حادة ولقيمة نصف القطر الحرج للسيليكون النانوي (r=1nm) والتي تعود الى سلوك ذرات السطح


Article
Evaluation of marginal gap at the composite/enamel interface in Class II composite resin restoration by SEM after thermal and mechanical load cycling (An in vitro comparative study)

Authors: Mais Yaroub ميس يعرب --- Mohammed R. Hameed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 63-70
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study compared in vitro the marginal adaptation of three different, low shrink, direct posteriorcomposites Filtek™ P60 (packable composite), Filtek™ P90 (Silorane-based composite) and Sonic fill™ (nanohybridcomposite) at three different composite/enamel interface regions (occlusal, proximal and gingival regions) of astandardized Class II MO cavity after thermal changes and mechanical load cycling by scanning electronmicroscopy.Materials and methods:Thirty six sound human maxillary first premolars of approximately comparable sizes weredivided into three main groups of (12 teeth) in each according to the type of restorative material that was used:group (A) the teeth were restored with Filtek™ P60 and single bond™ Universal adhesive using horizontal incrementaltechnique, group (B)the teeth were restored with Filtek™ P90 and P90 system adhesive using horizontal incrementaltechnique and group (C) the teeth were restored with Sonic fill™ composite and single bond™ Universal adhesiveusing bulk technique.After specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days, all specimens were subjectedto thermocycling at (5° to 55 °C), then submitted to mechanical load cycling (intermittent axial force of 49N and atotal of 50.000 cycles). The specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope at (2000 X) to measuremarginal gap width (the distance between the dental wall and the restoration) at occlusal, proximal and gingivalregions in micrometer using Tescan software, version 3.5. Data were analyzed statistically by one way ANOVA testand least significant difference tests.Results:The results showed that the silorane-based posterior composite (Filtek™ P90) showed significantly the leastmarginal gap width at the occlusal, proximal and gingival regions after the application of thermal changes andmechanical load cycling in comparison to the two methacrylate-based posterior composite Filtek™ P60 (packable)and the Sonic fill™ (nano-hybrid). Sonic fill™ bulk fill composite that relied on the vibration concept to lower theviscosity of high filler loaded composite material showed significantly lesser marginal gaps width at occlusal, proximaland gingival composite/enamel interface regions in comparison with Filtek™ P60 (packable composite) usinghorizontal incremental technique. The silorane-based composite (Filtek™ P90) showed non-significant difference inmarginal gaps width at the three different regions. While, both methacrylate based Filtek™ P60 and Sonic fill™composite showed significantly lesser marginal gap width at the occlusal region in comparison with gingival regions.Conclusion: None of the low-shrinkage composite restorative materials tested in this study totally prevented microgapformation at composite/enamel interfaces of Class II MO cavity


Article
The Effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite and Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate in Preventing Loss of Minerals from Teeth after Exposure to an Acidic Beverage (An In vitro Study)

Authors: Shahad Zahed Al-Janabi شهد زاهد الجنابي --- Zeyneb A.A. Al-Dahan
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 132-137
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antierosive agents (10% Nano-Hydroxyapatite (NHA), 10%Casein Phophopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP), and combination of 10% NHA and 10% CPPACP)on loss of minerals from enamel surface of permanent teeth treated with antierosive agents when exposed toan acidic beverage and investigate the morphological changes of treated enamel surface after demineralizationwith cola based beverage under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary first premolars were randomly divided into four groups, 15 teeth for eachgroup. Group I treated with 10% NHA, Group II treated with 10% CPP-ACP, Group III treated with 10% NHA and 10%CPP-ACP, and Group IV did not treat with any remineralizing agents. The teeth were immersed in the remineralizingsolutions (10% NHA, 10% CPP-ACP, and combination of 10% NHA and 10% CPP-ACP) for 4 minutes twice daily for 28days and then stored in the artificial saliva. The samples were immersed for 40 minutes in 20 ml Pepsi cola (PH=2.5).Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to record the calcium and phosphorus concentrationsinPepsi cola before and after demineralization with cola based beverage. SEM also usedto examine themorphological changes occurs in enamel surface of each group after demineralization with cola based beverage.Results: Statistically, there is a highly significant increase in calcium concentration in Pepsi cola (mg/dl) afterdemineralization with cola based beverage. Group I showed the lowest changes in calcium concentration valuesamong the three studied groups. Group II was the next, which also showed lower changes in calcium concentrationvalues, then group III while the highest changes were recorded in group IV. There is a highly significant reduction inphosphorus concentration in Pepsi cola (mg/dl) after demineralization with cola based beverage. Group I showedthe lowest changes in phosphorus concentration values among the three studied groups. Group II was the next,which also showed lower changes in phosphorus concentration values, then group III while the highest changeswere recorded in group IV. Statistically, a highly significant difference was showed in calcium and phosphorusconcentrations between the four studied groups after demineralization with cola based beverage. Group IV has ahighly significant difference in comparison to group I, group II, and group III.Conclusions: Both the remineralizing agents (NHA and CPP-ACP) were found to be effective in inhibiting thedemineralization caused by cola based beverage.The combination of NHA and CPP-ACP had no synergistic effecton remineralization

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