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Article
ANATOMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF THYMUS GLANDS IN BROILER CHICKS EMBRYO ( Gallus gallus domesticus).
دراسة تشریحیة ونسیجیة للغده الصعتریة في اجنھ فروج اللحم

Author: Hiba Mohammed Alaa A.Sawad علاء عبد الخالق سواد ھبھ محمد عبد الرحمن
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2019 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 174-182
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The study designed to investigates the anatomical and histological structures ofthe thymus gland in broiler chick embryos. Ten healthy, normal embryos at 12th and20th days old chick embryos was used, divided into five embryos for each age. Thethymus was well developed at 12th day chick embryo, Anatomically consisted of 6-8lobes which are similar in both sides .small, translucent bean shaped lobes thatbecame pale in color at 20th day old embryo, these lobes located in both sides of theneck, positioned parallel to the jugular vein and vagus nerve.Histological structures of thymus gland were composed of capsule, cortex andmedulla. At 12th day old of chick embryo the thymus was surrounded by a thinconnective tissue capsule, which septa extends into the gland stroma to form alobulation for each lobe, the cortex and medulla was not differentiated at this age. At20th day old chicks embryo, the lobules start to recognize and composed of externaldark stained cortex with a high population of lymphocytes and internal light stainedmedulla with less abundant of lymphocytes , reticular fiber and epithelial reticularcells with the appearance of Hassall's corpuscles.

صممت الدراسة الحالیة لإیضاح الصفات التشریحیھ والنسیجیة للغده الصعتریة لأجنة فروحاللحم. حیث تم اخذ عشره اجنھ سلیمھ صحیا بعمر الثاني عشر والعشرون یوما من عمر الجنین مقسمة الى خمسةاجنة لكل عمر. یكون تطور الغدة الصعتریھ بشكل واضح في الیوم الثاني عشر من عمر الطیر وتشریحیا:تكونت الغدة من ٨-٦فصوص صغیره وشفافة والتي بعد ذالك تصبح بیضاء شاحبة اللون في الیوم العشرونمن عمر الجنین، تقع ھذه الفصوص على جانبي الرقبھ متموضعھ بصورة موازیة للورید الوداجي والعصبالحائر.تألفت التراكیب النسیجیة للغده الصعتریة من محفظة، قشرة ولب. في الیوم الثاني عشر من عمر الجنینكانت الغده محاطھ بمحفظة رقیقة من النسیج الضام وامتدت منھا حویجزات مؤدیة الي ظھورالفصیصات لكلفص. في الیوم العشرون من عمر الجنین بدات الفصوص بالتمیز متكونھ من قشرة خارجیھ غامقھ اللون مع وفرهبالخلایا للمفیھ ولب داخلي فاتح اللون مع محتوى اقل من الخلایا اللمفیھ مع وجود الیف شبكیھ وخلایا طلائیھشبكیھ مع ظور اجسام ھسالز

Keywords

Thymus --- Embryo --- Broiler --- Thymus --- Embryo --- Broiler


Article
HISTOLOGICAL , ANATOMICAL AND EMBRYONICAL STUDY OF FUNGIFORM PAPILLAE IN TONGUE OF IRAQI SHEEP
دراسة نسيجية وتشريحية وجنينية للحليمات الفطرية في لسان الأغنام العراقية

Author: *Adel. J. Hussein *AL-Asadi , F.S عادل جبار حسين ، فوزي صدام محسن
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 78-89
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determinate The location, arrangement , the total number of fungiform papillae and number of those papillae in different regions of Twenty Tongues of Iraqi sheep (males) in different ages(two, four month embryo ,five month old and two year old) .Histological sections of fungiform papillae in different region from tongues were studied.Bapillae diameters and number of taste buds was assigned for each sample. The results showed that the papillae arise during embryological stage was thickened epithelium forming protrusion on the tongue surface. No significant differences was observed in the total number of the fungiform papillae in all ages. All papillae were distributed in the rostral part of the tongue, The papillae diameter showed significant increase respect to ages in all region. The taste buds were showed significant difference in number between 4 month embryo and 5 month old, while no significant between 5 month old and 2 year old. The number of taste buds for each papillae was more in cranial and caudal part compared with the middle part. The diameter of taste buds showed difference according to ages in all regions.

هدفت الدراسة الحالية لبيان العدد الكلي وموقع وتنظيم الحليمات الفطرية وعددها في مواقع مختلفة في عشرون لساناً من الأغنام العراقية وبأعمار مختلفة ( 2، 4) شهر جنيني و( 5 شهر، 2 سنة ) بعد الولادة.درست المقاطع النسيجية للحليمات الفطرية من مناطق مختلفة من اللسان ، وأيضا درست أقطارها وعدد البراعم الذوقية لكل عينة، أوضحت النتائج ان الحليمات تنشأ خلال المرحلة الجنينية كطلائية ثخينة غير متقرنة مكونة بروزاً على سطح اللسان ولم يلاحظ أي اختلاف معنوي في العدد الكلي للحليمات الفطرية في مختلف الأعمار. بينت الدراسة ان الحليمات تنتشر بكثرة في الجزء الأمامي من اللسان. أظهرت نتائج التحليل الإحصائي ان أقطار الحليمات لا تختلف معنوياً تبعاً للأعمار في كل أجزاء اللسان، بينما أوضحت وجود اختلاف معنوي P<0.05 في عدد البراعم الذوقية بين عمر (4 شهر) جنيني و(5) شهر بعد الولادة، ولم يظهر أي اختلاف معنوي بين (5 شهر) بعد الولادة وعمر (2 سنة) بعد الولادة. وأوضحت النتائج أيضا إن عدد البراعم الذوقية لكل حليمة يكون أكثر في الجزء الأمامي والخلفي عند مقارنتها مع الجزء الوسطي من اللسان. وأخيرا أظهرت النتائج وجود اختلاف معنوي في أقطار البراعم الذوقية تبعاً للأعمار في كل مناطق اللسان.

Keywords

fungiform --- Bapillae --- embryo.


Article
Embryo Grading and Pregnancy Outcome inWomen of Patients with Azoospermia Following ICSI

Authors: Ula M. AL-Kawaz --- Ban J. Qasim --- Sally A. Shukry --- Ammar M. Qassim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 61-71
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Azoospermia is defined as the lack of sperm in male ejaculate and is suggested to be present in about 1 % of all males and to account for 10-15% of the causes of infertility in men. The development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as an effective therapy. Embryo grading has gained special attention in published literature regarding its predictive role in pregnancy outcome following ICSI; however, substantial controversy is present that justified the carrying out of the present study.Objective:To study the association between embryo quality and pregnancy rate in women of males with azoospermia.Patients,Materials and Methods:This prospective cohort study included 60 patients with azoospermia, 15 male with obstructive type and 45 males with non-obstructive type.Those patients were randomly selected form the population of infertile couples who regularly visits the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies and from Kamal Al-Samarrai Hospital -Center for Infertility Treatment and IVF.ResultsPregnancy was encountered in 7 patients (23.33%). It was not statistically associated with type of azoospermia (P=0.388), also it was not affected by age and serum hormonal level, but highly determined by good quality of embryo. Quality of embryo was graded from 1 to 4. The lower the grade, the better the quality of the embryo was. Quality of embryo was not significantly correlated with type of azoospermia, age and hormonal levels.Iraqi Journal of Embryo and Infertility Researches Vol.(6) Special Issue (2016)61ConclusionsGood quality of embryo is a significant predictor of positive pregnancy outcome in ICSI and the quality of embryo is not affected by age of male patient or type of azoospermia.

Keywords

Azoospermia --- ICSI --- embryo grading


Article
Although Late; but the First, an Iraqi Success in Human Embryo Cryopreservation Using Vitrification and the Factors Affecting the Pregnancy Rate: Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Thuraya H. Abdulla --- Ula M. Al-Kawaz --- Ali I. Rahim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 10-21
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: it is important to study a history of the science to appreciate thepast as a motive for hard work in the present for better future. In the other hand,the factors affecting pregnancy rate of frozen embryos are yet to be clarified atdifferent embryonic developmental stages.Objectives: to record a brief history of embryo cryopreservation in Iraq and tostudy many clinical and embryological factors that might affect the pregnancyrate.Subjects, materials and Method: a cross-sectional study of many clinical and embryologicalvariable, where120 frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles enrolled inthe study at the period from January 2017 till July 2018. The variables were statisticallyanalyzed first by one factor analysis comparing between pregnant andnon-pregnant cases; then by multivariate logistic regression analysis to illustratemain factors without a possible confounder effect.Results: In one factor analysis, the following variables showed a significantlyhigh effect on pregnancy rate (P value <0.001) which are women’s age, women’sweight, number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes and good quality embryos,developmental stage, E2 level, and endometrial thickness. While in multivariatelogistic regression analysis the women’s weight, the number of retrieved oocytesand good quality embryos were the main factors.Conclusions: it is judiciously to consider these factors while managing infertilecouples with embryo cryopreservation programs especially the modifiable factors.


Article
women age and embryo implantation following intracytoplasmic sperminjection and embryo transfer in infertile patients

Authors: mundhir T. AL- barzanchi منذر البرزنجي --- Saeeda M.Al-Anssari سعيدة الانصاري --- sarmad S.Khunda سرمد خوندة --- ahmed k. allow احمد خلف --- et al.
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 2 Pages: 155-161
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract


Article
Assessment of different methods of bovine oocytes collection, maturation and Invitro fertilization of abattoir specimens
تقييم طرقِ مختلفةِ لجمع بويضات الابقار من عينات المجزرة، انضاجها والإخصاب خارج الجسم

Author: W.M. Saleh وافر مهدي صالح
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 16073894/20711255 Year: 2017 Volume: 31 Issue: 1 Pages: 55-65
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of this study is designed to evaluate the best methods for cow oocytes collection from abattoir specimens which is the cheapest, easily obtained and bulky number. Forty five fresh cow genitalia specimens and testicle were collected directly after slaughter from Al-Shoáalla abattoir north-west of Baghdad the capital early morning, transported in cool box under (4-8) °C to the laboratory of theriogenology in the college of veterinary medicine/Baghdad University during the period from November 2016 to February 2017. Ovaries were separated from the surrounding tissues, washed thoroughly with dis. water repeatedly, then with normal saline and finally with MEM medium containing Antibiotics and Nystatin for contaminant elimination. Oocytes were collected with four methods aspiration, slashing, slicing after aspiration and slicing. The result showed that; the collected oocytes were 55, 68, 87 and 106 oocytes respectively; slicing methods yield more oocytes count. Period of time between slaughtering and samples processing significantly affect oocytes collected percentage and quality, periods as 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours yield 75%, 68%, 61% and 55% oocytes counts of good, fair, poor to aged and bad quality oocytes respectively. Two hours period yield an elevated oocytes count with good quality. Maturation index of oocytes according to the type of collected methods showed 44, 37, 39 and 42 with 12, 8, 6 and 6 good oocyte quality for the four methods respectively. In conclusion slicing methods yield more oocytes count with a moderate quality and embryos production while aspiration methods yield a moderate oocytes count with an elevated quality and good embryos production.

ان الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو تقييم أفضل الطرق لجمع بويضات الابقار من عينات المسلخ والتي هي الارخص قيمةً، سهلة الحصول عليها وباعدد ضخمة. تم جمع 45 عينة من الاجهزة التناسلية للابقار وبعض خصى الثيران مباشرة بعد الذبح من مجزرة الشعلة – بغداد- مبكرا حيث نقلت النماذج بواسطة حاوية مبردة (4-8 درجة مئوية) الى مختبر كلية الطب البيطري في جامعة بغداد- الجادرية- للفترة من تشرين الثاني 2016 ولغاية شباط 2017. تم استخلاص المبايض من الانسجة المحيطة بها شطفت بالماء المقطر اكثر من مرة ثم بمحلول الملح الفسيولوجي وبعدها بالوسط ام إي أم المضاف اليه المضاد الحيوي ومادة النستاتين لتقليل درجة التلوث. جمعت البويضات من المبايض باربعة طرق وهي السحب، تشطيب المبيض، تقطيع المبيض بعد السحب و تقطيع المبيض مباشرة. اظهرت نتائج جمع البويضات بالترتيب 55، 68، 87 و 106 حسب طرق الجمع وكانت طريقة تقطيع المبيض الاكثر عددا للبويضات من باقي الطرق. تم قياس تأثير الفترة الزمنية بين عملية ذبح الابقار الواهبة لنماذج والبدء في جمع البويضات في المختبر حيث لوحظ ان فترة 2، 6، 12 و 24 ساعة اثرت ايجابيا على اعداد و درجة تقييم البويضات التي تم جمعاه حيث كانت النسبة المئوية 75، 68، 61 و 55% بالترتيب، كانت فترة الساعتين بين النحر والمختبر هي الاكثر انتاجا للبويضات ذوات التقييم الجيد، وكان المستوى القياسي لانضاج البويضات الاعلى في طريقة السحب عن باقي الطرق. يستنتج من الدراسة ان طريقة تقطيع مبايض الابقار انتجت اعداد متزايدة من البويضات وبمعدل تقيمي متواضع مقابل طريقة سحب البويضات التي انتجت اعداد متواضعة من البويضات ولكن بمعدل تقييم عالي.

Keywords

Oocytes --- Aspiration --- Slashing --- Slicing --- Embryo


Article
3.THE EFFECTS OF DEXAMETHASONE ON TIBIA DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL CHICK- EMBRYO. I: COMPUTER-ASSISTED MORPHOMETRIC STUDY

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Background:Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid as a member of the steroidal anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant. It has well documented effects on skeletal structures osseous and cartilaginous, commonly used to treat or control diseases.Objective:To evaluate by histomorphometric study the effects of dexamethasone on the embryogenesis of long bones in chick embryos.Methods:Forty-eight fertile chick eggs of Gallus gallus domesticus, were used. The eggs were divided into 2 groups; control and treated groups of 24 eggs each, these groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n=6 eggs). On day 10 of incubation, the control group was injected with 25 µl of distilled water while the treated group was injected with 25 µl of distilled water contained 8 µg dexamethasone. In the next days (11, 12, 13, and 14 of incubation), 12 chick embryos were sacrificed in each day. A computer-assisted morphometric/ image analysis (Motic Image Plus version 2.0ML), was used to measure length, area, perimeter of tibiae, and the area and perimeter of the perichondral osseous collar of cross section in mid-diaphyseal zone of these bones.Results:These bones of chick embryos treated with dexamethasone, suffered shortening and retardation in length, weight, area and perimeter throughout the period of this study, decline area and perimeter to the perichondral osseous collar in the mid-diaphyseal zone.Conclusion:Dexamethasone given at day 10 of incubation caused tibial bones growth retardation at development stages 11, 12, 13, and 14-days; this was observed in the measured parameters: bone length, area, perimeter and weight.Keywords:Bones, chick-embryo, dexamethasone, histomorphometryCitation:Wathiq Q.S. Ali, Mohammad O. Selman, Insaf J. Al-Hasson, Imad M. Al-Ani, Anam R. Al-Salihi. The Effects of dexamethasone on tibia development of local chick-embryo. I: computer-assisted morphometric study. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(2): 116-128. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.2.3


Article
Assessment of in vitro fertilization and early embryonic development using SMART medium enriched with coenzyme Ql0

Authors: Muhammad-Baqir M-R .Fakhrildin --- NahlaA. AL-Bakri --- Mudhafar A-Hussen Muhammad
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 37-42
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundZygote produce from once a sperm fertilizes an egg cell. Then, the zygote (unicellular) will begin chain of cellular cleavages to produce multicellular mass, its embryo, the differentiated to different tissues and organism.The development of the embryo is called embryogenesis.Coenzyme Q10, is an antioxidant produced in the body. It boosts cellular energy and may enhance the immune system. CoQ10 is present and measurable in seminal fluid,the concentration of CoQ10 directly correlates with both sperm count and motility. It is beneficial inthe prevention and treatment a wide range of health problems.ObjectivesThe present study was aimed to investigate the possibility of using coenzyme Q1O to improvein vitro fertilization (IVF), and early embryonic development (ED) in mice as a model for human beingMethodsSuperovulation program was achieved to mature healthy female mice with age 10-12 weeks and weight 24-26 gm. After sacrificing female, oocytes were collected and incubated within C02 incubator for less than 1 hour. Sperm were collected from vas deference of males. Sperm parameters were assessed after 30 min. of incubation. Mature oocytes were divided intothree groups accordingto theconcentrations of CoQ10 including G1 (control group; SMART medium only), G2 (treated group; SMART medium enriched with 20 M CoQ10) and G3 (treated group; SMART medium enriched with 40 M CoQ10). IVF technique was performed for 3 groups, and assessment of IVF (%), embryonic development stage (%) and abnormal embryo morphology (%) for each embryo stage.ResultsResults of the present study appeared significant increment (P<0.05) in the percentages of IVFfor both treated groups as compared to the control groups.Also, significant increase (P0.05%) in the 8-cells embryo stage were assessed among control and treated groupsConclusionFrom the results of the present study it wasconcluded that the coenzyme Q1O (40µM) enriched to the culture medium improved percentage of in vitro fertilization and no effect on embryonic development.

Keywords

Fertilization --- Embryo --- Smart --- coenzyme Q10


Article
Embryonic development following the insemination with epididymal sperms of vasectomized mice activated invitro using Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice) extract: model for obstructive azospermia

Authors: Saad Al-Dujaily --- Sawsan S. Hamza
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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BackgroundMany studies found that the Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra) showed a positive effect on the activation of sperm in vitro specifically improve the activity of progressive movement. However, it was not known the impact of this stimulant on the certain sperms parameters in vasal obstructive mammals.ObjectivesThis experiment was designed to examine the possibility of fertilization ova by epididymal sperm of vasectomized mice activated by G. glabra and study the early embryonic development, as a model for obstructive azoospermiaMethodsGlycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extract (0.3 mg/ml culture medium) was used for in vitro direct sperm activation technique. The superovulated female mice (SUO) were divided into two groups, the first group; the insemination of flushed ova was performed with epididymal sperm of vasectomized male mice activated by adding30% of G. glabra to the culture medium (treated group). While the second group, the ova were inseminated by epididymal sperm of vasectomized male mice activated by G. glabra - free medium (control).ResultsThis study showed a highly significant (P <0.01) improvement in certain sperm function parameters i.e the sperm forward movement , morphologically normal sperms (MAS) . There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in fertilization rate (FR) of SUO mice oocyte using 30 % G. glabra medium(75.84%) compared to G. glabra­ Free medium (Hams -F12 medium ) alone (54.43%).By adding 30% G.glabra to the medium , the number of 3-cell and 4-cell embryonic stage of SUO mice was significantly (P <0.05) higher than that of grouping G. glabra- Free medium mice embryo( 62.10 % and 65.78% vs.58.88 and 66.29% , respectively ).ConclusionThis study showed a highly significant (P <0.01) improvement in certain sperm function parameters i.e the sperm forward movement , morphologically normal sperms (MAS) . There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in fertilization rate (FR) of SUO mice oocyte using 30 % G. glabra medium(75 .84%) compared to G. glabra­ Free medium (Hams -F12 medium ) alone (54.43%).By adding 30% G. glabra to the medium , the number of 3-cell and 4-cell embryonic stage of SUO mice was significantly (P <0.05) higher than that of grouping G. glabra- Free medium mice embryo( 62.10 % and 65.78% vs.58.88 and 66.29% , respectively).


Article
LECTIN HISTOCHEMISTRY OF TRACHEO-ESOPHAGEAL REGION IN CHICK EMBRYOS

Authors: Hayder J Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك --- Amal A. Al-Taee امال علي الطائي --- Ali Sh. Al-Araji علي شعلان الراجي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 4-11
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Glycosylation is an important modification involved during embryonic development. Lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins; they can be employed as specific probes to localize defined monosaccharide and oligosaccharides on cell surface and on cytoplasmic structures, and in extracellular matrix.Objectives:The lectins (SBA, PNA, WGA, SWGA, UEA-I) binding were used as a sensitive, stable, and easy tool that can provide an extraordinarily sensitive detection for changes glycosylation and carbohydrate expression that may occur during embryogenesis and development of trachea-esophageal region.Methods:Fertilized chick eggs were incubated at 38 °C, embryos were fixed with Bouin’s solution. Sections were treated with fluoresce ineisothiocyanate (FITC) labeledlectins.Results:The histochemical study during the 2ndand 3rddays of development revealed variable tempo-spatial variability of lectin bindings to the mesenchymal tissues and other embryonic structures at the trachea-esophageal region.Conclusions:The lectin bindings could be an indicator for the glycoconjucate changes that play an essential role in developmental phenomenon of trachea-esophageal morphogenesis by marking cellular differentiation, cellular migration, and cellular interactions.Key words:Trachea, esophagus, chick, embryo, lectin, histochemistry.

Keywords

Trachea --- esophagus --- chick --- embryo --- lectin --- histochemistry

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