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Article
A Study on the Stability of Different Frusemide Liquid Dosage Formulas: Oral Solution, Syrup, Elixir, Suspension and Emulsion

Author: Fatima J. Jawad فاطمة جلال جواد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2008 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study aim at preparing frusemide in liquid form suitable for oral use. This is achieved through preparing different liquid forms of frusemide. The frusemide liquid is prepared in the following forms: oral solution, syrup and elixir with intensity of 1, 0.4 and 0.8% weight /volume respectively and in combination with potassium carbonate, polysorbate 80, alcohol and phosphate buffer solution of pH8 to dissolve the frusemide in the above mentioned forms. The different forms of the prepared medicine have been stored in glass bottles that can provide protection against light and at 40, 50, 600C for four months. Besides the pH has been checked to decide the period of validity. The results show that the expiration date of frusemide have lasted for 1.8, 1.07 and 1.22 years respectively for the oral solution, the syrup and the elixir. The suspensions of frusemide are formulated in combination with the following: polyvinyl pyrolidine, xanthan gum, the combination of (xanthan gum and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), the combination of (xanthan: methyl cellulose) and chitosan. The formulas which give suitable release of the drug are chosen for assessment according to the following considerations: The rat of sedimentation and apparent zero order degradation constant at 250C. In conclusion, it is found the best formula is that which includes poly vinylpyrolidine, tween20, glycerol, sorbitol, cocoa syrup and parabens at pH7. the fluidity of this chosen formula is psendoplastic type and its validity has lasted for about three years. The emulsion of frusemide is also prepared extemporaneously by using the commercial frusemide tablets in combination with acacia and olive oil. This should be consumed within 45 days of the date of production.

تهدف الدراسة تحضير سائل فموي مقبول للفروسيمايد من خلال تصنيعه بمختلف الاشكال السائلة الفموية. حضر الفروسيمايد كمحلول فموي وشراب والكسير بقوة 1، 0.4 ، 0.8 % وزن/حجم على التعاقب مع كاربونات البوتاسيوم والبولي سوربات 80 والكحول ومحلول الفوسفات الدارئة رقم 8 لاذابة الفروسيمايد في الاشكال المذكورة اعلاه. خزن الدواء المحضر باشكاله المختلفة في قناني زجاجية مضادة للضوء بدرجات حرارة 40، 50، 60 درجة مئوية لمدة أربعة أشهر مع ضبط الاس الهيدروجيني بحدود 8 لتحديد الفترة الزمنية للصلاحية. اظهرت النتائج بأن مدة صلاحيات الفروسيمايد كانت 1.8 ، 1.07 ، 1.22 سنة في المحلول الفموي والشراب والكسير بالتعاقب. ثم تصنيع معلقات الفروسيمايد مع بولي بايرولدين وصمغ الزانثان ومؤتلف (صمغ الزانثان والصوديوم مثيل سليلوز) ومؤتلف (صمغ الزانثان: المثيل سليلوز) والكيتوسان. التراكيب التي اعطت تحرر مناسب للدواء تم اختيارها للتقييم من خلال قياس سرعة الترسب وثابت التفكك لمرتبة الصفر الظاهرية الحركية بدرجة حرارة الـ 25 مئوية وقد وجد بان احسن تركيبة هي التي كانت تحتوي على بولي فينل بابرولدين وتوين 20 وكليسرول وسوربتول وشراب الكاكاو والبرابينات عند اس هيدروجيني 7. وشكل جريان هذه التركيبة المختارة سلوك سيدوبلاستيكي اما صلاحياتها كانت بحدود ثلاث سنوات. حضر مستحلب الفروسمايد انياً من اقراص الفروسيمايد التجارية مع الصمغ العربي وزيت الزيتون على ان يتم تداوله خلال 45 يوم من تحضيره.

Keywords

frusemide --- elixir --- suspension --- emulsion


Article
Separation of oil from O/W emulsion by electroflotation technique

Authors: Ali Jassim Mohammed Al-Gurany --- Ahmed A. Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2010 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 5503 -5515
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Dilute emulsified oil in water (50-500 ppm) was removed by electrocoagulatin and electroflotation process. Effects of various parameters such as current density, initial pH, sodium chloride concentration, different electrodes material, gap, temperature, electrodes surface area, and treatment time on the removal efficiency were studied in batch and continuous mode.It was found that the higher removal efficiency (99%) achieved at pH of 7.5 for Al/Al electrodes while for iron electrodes at pH 8 in the batch mode. The removal efficiency increased and the treatment time decreased with increasing the current density and decreasing the gap distance between electrodes. The removal efficiency was (99%) at 10 min for Al/Al electrodes, (98.6%) at 12 min for Al/St.St. electrodes, and (97.4%) at 12 min for Fe/St.St. electrodes. The present results showed that the best temperature was 60ºC .The best concentration of sodium chloride was found to be (400 ppm) when the oil concentration was (500 ppm). Also it was found that a vertical Al/Al electrode was the best type with an electrical energy consuming (3.36 kWh/m3). In the continuous experiments, the removal efficiency enhanced with increasing flow rate. A multiple linear regression model was used in order to relate experimental data to a statistical model with a correlation coefficient of (0.909) and variance (0.827).

الزيت المستحلب في الماء (50-500 ppm) فصل بطريقة التطويف الكهربائي . تم دراسة تأثير عدة متغيرات مثل كثافة التيار,الدالة الحامضية ,تركيز كلوريد الصوديوم,نوعية الاقطاب ,درجة الحرارة,المساحة السطحية ,المسافة بين الاقطاب ,وزمن المعالجة على كفاءة ازلة الزيت وبأسلوب الوجبة. ومن التجارب وجد ان اعلى كفاءة (99%) وبدالة حامضية (pH=7.5) لاقطاب Al/Al اما بالنسبة لاقطاب Fe/St.St عندما تكون الدالة الحامضية هي (pH=8). وقد تبين ان كفاءة الازالة تزداد وزمن المعاجة يقل بزيادة كثافة التيار الكهربائي في حين عند زيادة المسافة بين الاقطاب يؤدي الى نقصان كفاءة الازلة مع زيادة زمن المعالجة. ومن خلال النتائج المختبرية الكفاءة المستحصلة (99%) بزمن (10 min) لاقطاب Al/Al وكفاءة (98.6%) وزمن (12 min) بالنسبة لاقطاب Al/St.St.واما اقطاب Fe/St.St.تكون الكفاءة (97.4%) وزمن (12 min).أفضل درجة حرارة هي (60 ºC) وأفضل تركيز لملح كلوريد الصوديوم هو(400 ppm) .ونستنتج من التجارب المختبرية ان اقطاب Al/Al العمودية هي الافضل باسنهلاك للطاقة الكهربائية بمقدار (3.36 kWh/m3).وجد ان كفاءة الازالة تتحسن مع زيادة الجريان.من خلال احتساب الانحدار اللاخطي المتعدد للنتائج المختبرية تم ايجاد معادلة تربط كافة المتغيرات المدروسة وبمعامل تصحيح (90.9%) وتباين (82.7%).


Article
Removal of Emulsified Paraffine from Water: Effect of Bubble Size and Particle Size on Kinetic of Flotation

Author: Ahmed A. Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-5
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This paper studied kinetics of flotation of emulsified paraffine in water in a bubble column with sodium dodecylsuiphate as a collector agent. The effects of oil drops and air bubble diameters on the flotation rate constant were studied The removal rate for each oil drop size was first order with respect to oil drop concentration. An experimental procedure permitting determination of the first order rate constants for removal due to bubble/drop interaction was developed, decreasing bubble diameter by adding Naci and increasing oil drop diameter increased the rate constants. A comparison between the experimental and theoretical rate constants showed that the predicted mechanism of oil-droplet removed by bubbles less than 1. diameter is one of hydrodynamics capture in the wake behind the rising bubbles.

Keywords

f lotation --- emulsion --- kinetic


Article
Recovery of Cu (II) from Model Water using Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) Technique

Authors: Dr. Mohammed D. Salman محمد دخيل سلمان --- Adnan Abdul Hussain
Journal: University of Thi-Qar Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة جامعة ذي قار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 26645564/26645572 Year: 2013 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-24
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The proper condition of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique for the recovery and concentration of copper (II) from model water is investigated. The ELM is a solution of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid in kerosene and sorbitan monooleate Span 80 as surfactant. The extraction efficiency of the metallic ion in the ELM in batch tests is determined. The results show good extraction percentage in relatively period of time (15 minutes) under the following conditions: pH of the feed is 8; feed concentration of 500 ppm, carrier concentration of di (2-ethyl-hexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) 4% and treatment ratio (volume of external phase to volume of emulsion phase) of 2.

الظروف المثلى لتقنية الغشاء النفاذي السائل لازالة وتركيز النحاس الثنائي التكافؤ قد اختبرت في هذه الدراسة. يتكون الغشاء النفاذي السائل من محلول داي(2- ايثايل هكسايل) حامض الفوسفوريك في النفط الابيض والمادة السطحية سوربيتون مونولييت (سبان 80). كفاءة الاستخلاص للمعدن النحاس الثنائي التكافؤ في تقنية الغشاء النفاذي السائل باستخدام نظام دفعي قد استخدمت. اوضحت النتائج نسبة استخلاص جيدة في وقت قصير يقدر بـ( 15) دقيقة بالظروف التالية: الدالة الحامضية (8) ، تركيز الداخل (500 ملغم /لتر)، تركيز الحامل (4%) ونسبة المعاملة (2).


Article
CONTRIBUTION OF LIQUID ASPHALT IN SHEAR STRENGTH AND REBOUND CONSOLIDATION BEHAVIOUR OF GYPSEOUS SOIL

Authors: SAAD I. SARSAM --- SALAH W. IBRAHIM
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2008 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 484-495
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

AbstractThis paper deals with the effect of stabilizing gypseous soil using two liquid Asphalttypes (cutback and emulsion) on its behavior in shear strength and reboundconsolidation.Soil-Asphalt specimens had been constructed using various percentages of both liquidAsphalt types. One group of such specimens were tested in the direct shear boxapparatus to determine the effect of liquid Asphalt on shear strength, cohesion andangle of internal friction using the unconsolidated un drained test.Another group of the specimens were subjected to one dimensional confinedcompression test using both dry and saturated testing conditions in the consolidationapparatus.The effect of liquid Asphalt on the behavior of mixes in consolidation and reboundconsolidation was studied.It was concluded that gypseous soil is usually stiff in the dry condition, but it is weakand had a collapsible behavior when saturated. The addition of liquid Asphalt providescohesion strength to the soil mass and also acts as a waterproof agent. It creates a typeof elastic properties and reduces the total strain.

تتعامل هذه الدراسة مع تاثير تثبيت التربة الجبسية باستخدام نوعين من الاسفلت السائل (القطرانوالمستحلب) على سلوكيتها في قوة القص والانضغاط المسترجع . تم تحضير عينات من مزيج التربةوالاسفلت السائل استخدام نسب مختلفة من كلا نوعي الاسفلت.فحصت المجموعة الاولى من هذه العينات باستخدام جهاز صندوق القص المباشر لبيان تاثير الاسفلتالسائل على قوة القص, التلاصق, وزاوية الاحتكاك الداخلي في حالة الفحص غير المضغوط وغيرالمبزول.تم فحص المجموعة الثانية باستخدام الانضغاط احادي المحور في كل من حالتي الجفاف او التشبعبالماء باستخدام جهاز الانضغاط.ان تاثير الاسفلت السائل على سلوكية العينات في حالتي الانضغاط والانضغاط المسترجع قد تمتحليلها.الاستنتاج بأن الترب الجبسية تظهر صلادة عندما تكون جافة ولكنها تكون ضعيفة وذات سلوكانهياري عند تشبعها بالماء, بينما يعطي الاسفلت السائل قوة تلاصق للكتلة الترابية ويعمل كذلككعازل للماء, كم يعطي نوع من الصفات المرنة للتربة ويقلل من الانفعال الكلي.


Article
Studying the Behavior of Asphalt Stabilized Gepseous Soil for Earth Embankment Model
دراسة تصرف التربة الجبسية المحسنة بالاسفلت لنموذج تعلية ترابية

Authors: Hussein Q. Kasim Abdulameer حسين قاسم عبد الامير --- Saad I. Sarsam سعد عيسى سرسم --- Mahmood D. Ahmed محمود ذياب احمد
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2014 Volume: 20 Issue: 5 Pages: 25-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The study presents the test results of stabilizing gypseous soil embankment obtained from Al- Faluja university Campus at Al-Ramady province. The laboratory investigation was divided into three phases, The physical and chemical properties, the optimum liquid asphalt (emulsion) requirements (which are manufactured in Iraq) were determined by using one dimensional unconfined compression strength test.in the first phase , The optimum fluid content was 11% (6% of emulsion with 5% water content).. At phase two, the effect of Aeration technique was investigated using both direct shear and permeability test. At phase three for the case of static load , the pure soil embankment model under dry test condition was investigated, The testing program included the determination of the unconfined compressive strength, direct shear strength, constant head permeability test, and one dimensional consolidation test for pure and asphalt stabilized gypseous soil. Testing was carried out in dry and absorbed conditions, the maximum pressure that can be supported before failure (ultimate sustained pressure) is 0.76 MPa with vertical settlement (0.21 mm) . However, For the pure soil embankment model under absorbed condition it was found that the maximum pressure before failure (ultimate sustained pressure) is 0.3 MPa with vertical settlement (12 mm), Which reflects the reduction in bearing capacity by (61%). Compression was made for absorbed stabilized soil and un-absorbed soil tested under hydraulic conductivity test for seven days, the results showed that a very low margin deffeneces in maximum pressure resistance and settlement were obtained (4.38 MPa , 0.11mm ) and (4.11MPa , 0.12mm).

التربة الجبسية لهذا البحث احضرت من جامعة الفلوجة مدينة الرمادي, الفحوص المختبرية قسمت الى ثلاث اقسام: القسم الاول ايجاد الخواص الفيزياوية والكيمياوية, والنسبة المثلى لمستحلب الاسفلت المصنوع في العراق التي وجدت من فحص مقاومة الضغط الامحصور حيث كانت النسبة المثلى للساثل هي 11% ( 6% مستحلب الاسفلت + 5 % ماء) , وبرنامج الفحوص العملية كانت ايجاد مقاومة الانضغاط, مقاومة القص المباشر, النفاذية و الانضمام بأتجاه واحد للتربة الجبسية في حالتها الجافة والرطبة. القسم الثاني استعملت تقنية التهوية من خلال فحص القص المباشر , اما القسم الثالث فقد تم تسليط حمل ساكن من خلال استعمال صندوق بأبعاد ( 35 * 35 * 30 ) سم بنفس الكثافة المحدولة المعدلة وايضآ خمس طبقات بمعدل (6) سم لكل طبقة , وتم فحص الانضغاط للتربة المحسنة و الغير محسنة بتسليط حمل ثابت بتأثير وعدم تأثير التوصيل الهايدروليكي وقد تم استعمال حساس رقمي لحساب الهطول العمودي. . فقد وجد ان مقدار التوصيل الهايدروليكي للماء الى السطح خلال ثلاثة ايام للتربة الغير محسنة المغمورة فقد كان التشوه العمودي تحت ضغط اقصى مقداره (0.3) ميكا باسكال هو (12) ملم , و للتربة الغير محسنة والغير مغمورة تحت تأثير ضغط اقصى مقداره (0.76) ميكا باسكال هو (0.21)ملم, أي مقدار النقصان هم (61%). اما مقدار التوصيل الهايدروليكي للماء الى السطح خلال(7) ايام للتربة المحسنة المغمورة لم يتجاوز فتحات دخول الماء من الثلث السفلي فقد كان التشوه العمودي تحت ضغط اقصى مقداره (4.11) ميكا باسكال هو (0.12) ملم , و للتربة المحسنة والغير مغمورة تحت تأثير ضغط اقصى مقداره (4.38) ميكا باسكال هو (0.11)ملم, أي مقدار النقصان غير ملحوظ.


Article
The Use of Bitumen in the Stabilization of Lead Contaminated Iraqi Soil

Author: Dr. Ghazi Maleh Mutter د. غازي مالح مطر
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2019 Issue: 22 Pages: E65-E80
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Iraq is one of the biggest countries in oil production and its processes. Bitumen is a by-product material that remains after the process of crude oil. This study is designed to investigate the role of bitumen in the stabilization of lead contaminated Iraqi soil; as measured by a newly developed “mini” Jet Device and the dispersion ratio method (DR,%) . The results revealed that both bitumen amount and its method of mixing with soil, as a direct or as emulsion mixing, can significantly improve the stability of lead contaminated soil. Hence, only 3% bitumen as emulsion mixing was required to get the optimum soil stabilization, compared with 9% in direct mixing. A 3% bitumen emulsion has reduced both the scouring depth (SD, from 24.5 to1.6 mm; R= -0.90) and the erodibility coefficient (Kd, from 1.09 to 0.14; R= -0.86) as a result of improving soil engineering properties related to soil stabilization. However, the 3% of bitumen emulsion has also improved the soil chemical properties that have an important role in soil aggregation and lead mobility; such as pH, EC and SAR. Therefore, 3% of bitumen emulsion has successfully decreased both the dispersion ratio (DR, % from 7.03 to 4.48; R= -0.90) and the lead solubility (Pb from 48.8 to 4.9ppm; R= -0.96) in the solutions of lead contaminated soil.


Article
Separation of Hexane-Benzene Mixtures by Emulsion Liquid Membrane.

Authors: Muhammad D. Al Zaidi --- Adil A. Al Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The effect of operating parameters on the batch scale separation of hydrocarbon mixture (benzene and hexane) usingemulsion liquid membrane technique is reported. Sparkleen detergent was used as surfactant and heavy mineral oil assolvent to receive the permeates.From the experimental results, the parameters that influenced the permeation are, composition of feed, contact timewith solvent, ratio of volume of solvent to volume of hydrocarbon feed, ratio of volume of surfactant solution to volumeof hydrocarbon feed, surfactant concentration, mixing intensity and glycerol as polar additive in the surfactant solutionto eliminate drop breakup.The best conditions for the separation in this study were found to be: composition of feed (mole fraction ofbenzene=0.5245), contact time of 10min. , ratio of volumes of solvent to feed equal 3.5 , ratio of volumes of surfactantsolution to feed of 0.4, surfactant concentration of 1wt%, mixing intensity equal 1000rpm and 70% by weight of polaradditive. These conditions gave a separation factor of (8.0).


Article
Preparation of Polyvinyl Alcohol from Local Raw Material

Authors: Saad H. Ammar --- Cecelia K. Haweel سيسيليا خوشابا
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 15-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Polyvinyl alcohol, (PVA) was prepared using polyvinyl acetate emulsion (manufactured by Al-Jihad factory, That-Al-Sawary Company) as a local raw material. In this investigation, polyvinyl acetate emulsion was converted to solid form by coagulation the polymer from its emulsion using sodium sulphate salt as coagulant aid, then alcoholyzed the solid polyvinyl acetate in methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, polyvinyl alcohol produced by this method is a dry, white to yellow powder. Three affecting variables on the degree of hydrolysis of PVA were studied, these variable are Catalyst to polymer weight ratio in the range of 0.01 – 0.06, reaction time in the range of 20 – 90 min, and reaction temperature in the range of 25 – 50 oC. The effect of degree of hydrolysis of PVA produced on its properties such as water solubility and degree of polymerization were studied also. Finally the alcoholysis reaction kinetics were studied to determine the reaction constants such as initial rate constant and degree of autocatalytic effect of the alcoholysis reaction. It was found that the degree of hydrolysis of formed polyvinyl alcohol increase with increasing of variables catalyst concentration, reaction time and reaction temperature, furthermore, the water solubility of PVA increase with increasing degree of hydrolysis up to about 87 % after this value the solubility is decrease, also the degree of polymerization of PVA decrease with increasing of degree of hydrolysis up to about 89 %.


Article
Minimization of Toxic Ions in Waste Water Using Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technique

Authors: Heaven E. Mahmoud --- Adel A. Al - Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-19
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study, the removal of zinc from synthetic waste water using emulsion liquid membrane extraction technique was investigated. Synthetic surfactant solution is used as the emulsifying agent. Diphenylthiocarbazon (ditizone) was used as the extracting agent dissolved in carbon tetrachloride as the organic solvent and sulfuric acid is used as the stripping agent. The parameters that influence the extraction percentage of Zn+2 were studied. These are the ratio of volume of organic solvent to volume of aqueous feed (0.5-4), ratio of volume of surfactant solution to volume of aqueous feed (0.2-1.6), pH of the aqueous feed solution (5-10), mixing intensity (100-1000) rpm, concentration of extracting agent (20-400) ppm, surfactant concentration (0.2-2) wt.%, contact time (3-30) min, and concentration of strip phase (0.25-2) M . It was found that 87.4% of Zn+2 can be removed from the aqueous feed solution at the optimum operating conditions. Further studies were carried out on extraction percentages of other toxic metal ions (As+3, Hg+2, Pb+2, Cd+2) by using the same optimum conditions which were obtained for zinc ions except for the pH of the feed solutions. The pH values for best extraction percentages of arsenic, lead, and cadmium were (1, 10, 10) respectively. Maximum extraction percentage of (98.5, 95.5 and 93.8) was obtained for arsenic, lead, and cadmium respectively, while mercury was completely removed from the aqueous feed solution within the acidic pH range.

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