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Article
Energy drinks consumption in Erbil city: A population based study
استهلاك مشروبات الطاقة في مدينة أربيل: دراسة على أساس السكان

Author: Yassin A. Asaad
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 1680-1687
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Energy drinks have become increasingly prevalent among young adults and adolescents in recent years, particularly young students and athletes who see the consumption of energy drinks as an easy and quick way to boost academic and athletic performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of consumption of energy drinks in a sample of adolescent and adults in Erbil city as well as perceived benefits and its health hazards.Methods: A convenience sample of 600 individuals from different sectors and social groups of Erbil city was selected. Data was obtained through direct interview. The data was managed through SPSS program version 18, using appropriate statistical tests.Results: The prevalence of energy drinks consumption among the study population was 42.7%, especially adolescents and young adults (those ≤ 25 years) and was more common among males than females (55.7% and 29.8%, respectively). The main reasons for its consumption were related to getting energy and improving the mood and performance (66.0% and 30.4%, respectively). 62.7% of participants think that it is harmful and could have adverse effects such as heartbeat irregularity and blood pressure swinging, addiction, and osteoporosis (46.2%, 33.7% and 13.2%, respectively). Televisions were the major source of advertisement (71.45). A significant statistical association had been found between the age, gender and educational status of the participants and consuming energy drinks (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively).Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption found to be highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults in Erbil city, which calls for review and regulating the sale of these drinks including adolescents' education, raising community’s awareness, banning selling it in public places and increasing taxes.

Keywords

Energy drinks --- Adolescents --- Perception --- Erbil


Article
Effect of Acidic and Energy Drinks on Surface Roughness of Three Types of Bulk Fill Composite Materials

Author: Linz A. Shalan لنز شعلان
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 8-14
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to study the effect of some acidic drinks (Vinegars and fresh Orange juice) and energydrinks (Red bull) on surface roughness of three types of bulkfill composite materials: Filtek posterior bulkfill (3M),Sonicfill (Kerr) and Filtek p60 (3M).Materials and Methods: Total number of 120 samples are prepared by using a mold of (12mm diameter and 3mmheight), which were divided into three groups forty samples for each group: Group A: Filtek bulkfill posteriorcomposite (3M), Group B: Sonicfill composite (Kerr), Group C: Filtek P60 (3 M) which then divided into four sub- groups(n=10) (1) samples were kept in distilled water as a control group (2) samples were immersed in Redbull (3) sampleswere immersed in fresh Orange juice (4) samples were immersed in Vinegars. Immersion of samples were mademanually for 5 seconds for 10 cycles at room temperature daily for one month then surface roughness was measuredby the use of profilometer ,The data were recorded and statistically analyzed, by the ANOVA and the Tukey test.Results: Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test which revealed that there were a highsignificant (p<0.001) increase in surface roughness of the three composite materials after immersion in Vinegar andRedbull drinks after one month with highest value for Filtek Bulkfill posterior composite (3M), than Sonicfill composite(Kerr) and Filtek p 60 (3 M) and there was non-significant difference (p> 0.05) in surface roughness value for the threecomposite materials after immersion in Fresh orange juice.Conclusions: The effect of energy and acidic drinks depend upon exposure time, composition of the compositematerial


Article
Prevalence Of Energy Drinks Consumption Among Students Of Alkindy Medical College

Author: Talib S. Mohsin
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 110-114
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Energy drinks are non alcoholic beverages which contain stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulators. Consumption of energy drinks is popular practice among college students as they are exposed to academic stress. Caffeine which is the main constituent of energy drinks could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Objectives: This study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drinks consumption among medical students of alkindy college of Medicine.Type of the study: A cross sectional study.Methods: It was performed at alkindy medical college on March 2016. A total number of 600 students were contacted to participate in this study. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Spss version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis.Results: Out of 600 students, 501 (83.5%) participated in the study. The majority were females 304 (60.7%) and only 197 (39.3%) were males with a mean age of (20.43 ± 1.74). 120 (24%) of participants had consumed energy drinks at least once. Higher proportion of male students 77 (64%) consumed energy drinks compared to females 43 (36%). Regarding inspiration of first use of energy drinks, the highest percentage 9.8% was due to friends. Majority of consumers 85 (17.2%) used energy drinks irregularly. The main cause of energy drinks consumption was focusing for studying 7.2% (n=36). Conclusions: Energy drinks consumption is a common practice among medical students. Friends had a strong influence on usage of energy drinks. Students consumed energy drinks mainly for focusing for studying. Further studies are recommended to evaluate factors involved in consumption of these drinks among medical students and their understanding of the risks involved as well as possible interventions to promote safe consumption


Article
The effects of energy drinks, drugs and hormones that taken by the bodybuilding sportsmen on the some liver and kidneys functions in Kirkuk city
وظائف الكبد والكلى في مدينة كركوك

Author: Fidan Fikrat. Ahmed فدان فكرت احمد باقر
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2017 Volume: 22 Issue: 11 Pages: 19-22
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The present study included one hundred ten volunteers (bodybuilding sportsmen; Ninety sportsmen took stimulants and twenty without stimulants). Then, volunteers distributed to four groups according to the types of stimulant. The first group was control group without stimulants. The second group sportsmen who used energy drinks (Red bull and Power Horse). The third group sportsmen who used drugs (max miz (100mg), XXL protein (100mg)، sirios mass (200mg). The fourth group sportsmen who used hormones(testosterone، insulin، growth hormone، nandrolone، primobolan and stanazol). The results showed significant increased (P<0.05) in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, creatinine, potassium and decreased sodium in all groups who consumed energy drinks, drugs and hormones compared with control groups.The aim of this study was to investigate some biochemical parameters included AST, ALT, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, creatinine, potassium and sodium concentrations in sera of all bodybuilding sportsmen. Conclusions: concluded from this study that the stimulants which used by bodybuilding sportsmen have risk effects on the liver and kidneys functions.

اجريت الدراسة الحالية على مائة وعشرة متطوع من رياضي بناء الاجسام (تسعين منهم يستخدمون المنشطات وعشرون لايستخدمون اي نوع من عوامل بناء الاجسام). تم تقسيم المتطوعون الى اربع مجاميع اعتمادا على نوع المنشطات. المجموعة الاولى (مجموعة السيطرة) تتضمن اللاعبين الذين لايستخدمون اي منشطات, المجموعة الثانية تتضمن اللاعبين الذين يستخدمون مشروبات الطاقة (ريد بول هورس باور)، المجموعة الثالثه تتضمن اللاعبين الذين يستخدمون العقاقير(ماكس مايز ،يروتين XXL، سيريس ماس)،المجموعة الرابعه تتضمن اللاعبين الذين يستخدمون الهرمونات (هرمون التستستيرون، الانسولين، هرمون النمو،هرمون الناندرلون،هرمون البريموبولان،هرمون ستانازول).ﻫدﻓت ﻫذﻩ اﻟدارﺴﺔ الى ﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﺒﻌض المتغيرات اﻟﻛﻴﻤوﺤﻴوﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻀﻤﻨت ALT , ASTالكوليسترول, الشحوم الثلاثية, اليوريا, الكرياتنين, الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم في جميع مجاميع لاعبي بناء الاجسام.اظهرت النتائج زيادة نشاط انزيمي AST, ALT زيادة تركيز الكوليسترول, الشحوم الثلاثية, اليوريا, الكرياتنين, وايون البوتاسيوم وانخفاض في مستوى ايون الصوديوم لدى جميع مجاميع رياضي بناء الاجسام الذين يستخدمون المنشطات, كما اظهرت النتائج ان جميع المعايير اظهرت زيادة معنوية (P<0.05) مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. يستنتج من هذه الدراسة ان المنشطات المستخدمة من قبل رياضي بناء الاجسام ذات تاثيرات خطيــرة على بعض وظائف الكبد والكلى

Keywords

bodybuilding --- liver --- kidneys --- energy drinks --- drugs --- hormones


Article
Pattern of energy drinks consumption among Howler medical university students in Erbil/Kurdistan region-Iraq
نمط استهلاك مشروبات الطاقة بين طلبة جامعة هولير الطبية في اربيل - اقليم كردستان- العراق

Author: Haitham Issa Bahoo د. هيثم عيسى بحو
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2015 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 75-80
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Energy drinks are freely available at markets known for their stimulant effects on central nervous system without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceived benefits and side effects among medical students at Howler medical university.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 400 Howler medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire to obtain demographic data, reason for use of energy drinks, frequency, symptoms associated with use ,inspiration for use and perception of benefits .Data analysis was done using Open Epi version 2.3.Frequencies and percentages were calculated. Differences between variables using Chi-square test or fisher's exact test as appropriate and a value of p<0.05 was taken as statistically significant .Results: Out of the 400 participants, 120(30%) reported consuming energy drink, 87(72.5%) being males. 65 (54.2%) students residency not with family,120(100%) knowing what energy drink are,71(59.2%) play sport with highly significant association (p<0.001).The students consumed energy drinks while studying for examinations or finishing a project 49(40.8%). Other reasons given include, need for sport 26(21.7%). Sleep disturbances were the most common side effect in our sample 57(47.5%), Tiger was the most widely used 78(65%) , 62(51.7%) thought that energy drink improve their academic performance and friends as inspiration to take energy drink were the commonest reason 68(56.7%) followed by television 32(26.7%).Conclusion: Approximately one third of medical students consume energy drinks and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during examinations. Half of consumers manifested sleep disturbances as side effect . It is important to educate community in general and medical students and adolescents in particular about the hazards from energy drinks. in addition to legislation is needed to ensure that the exact ingredients of these drinks are printed on the labels .

الخلفية والاهداف : انتشرت مشروبات الطاقة في السنوات الأخيرة انتشارا واسعا بسبب البحث عن الطاقة والحيوية وتحفيز الجهاز العصبي دون ضوابط او تثقيف صحي من أثارها الجانبية لاحتوائها على نسبة عالية من الكافيين وإمكانية تسببها بالإدمان .أجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة نمط الاستخدام,الفوائد المتوخاة والآثار الجانبية بين مجموعة من طلبة جامعة هولير الطبيةطرق البحث : أجريت دراسة مقطعية بين 400 طالب من جامعة هولير الطبية باستخدام استبيان ذاتي عن الخصائص الديموغرافية,سبب تعاطي مشروبات الطاقة,تكرار الاستخدام,الفوائد المتوخاة بالإضافة إلى الآثار الجانبية.تم تحليل النتائج باستخدام الإحصاء الوصفي ومربع كأي باستخدام(OpenEpi version 2.3) وعند مستوى دلالة يعتد به احصائبأ (0.05p-value≤)النتائج : من بين 400 طالب وطالبة,120(30%) بينوا تعاطي مشروبات الطاقة بينهم 87( 72.5%) طالب 65(54.5%) لايسكنون مع عوائلهم ,120(100%) يعرفون مكونات مشروبات الطاقة ,71(59.2%) يمارسون الرياضة وكافة النتائج ذات دلالة إحصائية (p<0.001). أهم أسباب تناول مشروبات الطاقة هي إثناء فترة الامتحانات (40.8%) واثناء ممارسة الرياضة 26(21.7%), الشعور بالأرق كان من أهم الاثارالجانبية57(47.5%) , تايكر هي الماركة الأوسع استخداما 78(65%). أشار 62(51.7%) من الطلبة بان تناول مشروبات الطاقة يحسن من قابليتهم الذهنية وتحصيلهم الدراسي. أهم عامل أو تأثير ملهم لتناول مشروبات الطاقة هي الاصدقاء68(56.7%) وبعدها التلفزيون 32(26.7%)

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