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Using of Third and Fourth Order Derivative Spectra to Simultaneous Determination of Olanzapine and Ephedrine in Its Pure and Pharmaceutical Formulations
استعمال اطياف المشتقة الثالثة والرابعة في التقدير الآني لعقاري الأولانزابين وهيدروكلوريد الافدرين في بعض اشكالهما النقية والصيدلانية

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Abstract

Two new simultaneous spectrophotometric methods for determination of Olanzapine and Ephedrine depend on third (D3) and fourth (D4) derivative of zero spectrum of two drugs were developed. The peak – to- base line, peak to peak and area under peak were found proportional with concentration of the drugs up to (4-24 µg/ml-1) at known experimental wavelengths. The results showed that the method was precise and accurate through RSD% (0.5026-4.0273),( 0.2399 -6.9888) and R.E% (-2.3889-0.8333) , )-2.9444-0.2273) while the LOD (0.0057- 0.8510 μg.ml-1), ( 0.0953-0.9844 μg.ml-1) and LOQ (0.0173- 2.5788μg.ml-1),( 0.5774-2.9829 μg.ml-1) were found for the two drugs respectively.The methods were applied ide to the determination of Olanzapine and Ephedrine in pharmaceutical preparations successfully.

تم تطوير طريقتين طيفيتين جديدتين لتقدير عقاري الاولانزابين وهيدروكلوريد الافدرين بشكل أنى باستعمال تقنية المشتقة الثالثة (D3) والمشتقة الرابعة (D4) لأطياف هذه المركبات اذ وجد ان هاتين المشتقتين تمكنان من التقدير الاني للعقارين بمدى من التراكيز تتراوح ما بين (4-24 مكغم.مل-1) وتم الاستفادة من ارتفاع القمة-خط القاعدة وقمة الى قمة وكذلك المساحة تحت الحزمة عند اطوال موجية محددة لكل مركب تم تحديدها مسبقا. اظهرت النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها ان الطريقة متوافقة ودقيقة بشكل مقبول، اذ تراوحت R.E% (-2.3889-0.8333)، (-2.9444-0.2273) وRSD%(0.5026-4.0273)، RSD%(0.2399-6.9888) في حين كانت قيمة حد الكشف بين (µg/ml-1 0.0057-5.3804)، (µg/ml-10.0953-0.9844) للعقارين على التوالي، وتم تطبيق الطريقتين على عدد من المستحضرات الصيدلانية التجارية وبصورة ناجحة.


Article
Prevention of hypotension associated with the induction dose of remifentanil in open heart surgery for low ejection fraction patients, in Kurdistan region, Iraq

Author: Othman Ismat Abdulmajeed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 283-289
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Hypotensive attacks commonly occur during induction of anesthesia and can result in irreversible ischemic damages to the vital body organs. This study aimed to assess the effect of using ephedrine at low doses in controlling hemodynamic changes induced by anesthesia.Methods: A single centered single-blinded, prospective comparative study was conducted in Erbil cardiac center in periods between January 2018 and July 2018. A total of 150 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and age younger than 80 years were included in this study. They were divided into three main groups; the 1st group was the placebo group, the 2nd group received ephedrine at a dose of 0.035mg/kg body weight, and the 3rd group received ephedrine at a dose of 0.07 mg/kg body weight. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were reported in three different phases; before induction, two minutes after induction, and five minutes after induction of anesthesia.Results: In the placebo group, induction of anesthesia by 3mcg/Kg of remifentanil significantly reduces diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure with P <0.001. At two minutes after using ephedrine at the dose of 0.035 mg/kg in the induction of anesthesia significantly increases the diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure with P = 0.002, <0.001, and 0.007, respectively, and at five minutes after induction with P = 0.02, 0.03, and 0.04, respectively. Using ephedrine at a dose of 0.07mg/kg induction of anesthesia was found to significantly increase the diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure with P <0.001 for all the readings. The heart rate was not significantly affected by using remifentanil alone or in combination with ephedrine during induction of anesthesia.Conclusion: Using ephedrine at different doses during induction of anesthesia with remifentanil in patients with low ejection fraction significantly prevents hypotensive attacks.

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