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Article
Etiologies of Adult Onset Epilepsy: Clinical and Paraclinical Study in the Governorate of Babylon.

Author: Kareem Al-Tameemi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 555-561
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND :Adult onset epilepsy (AOE) is considered the epilepsy that start after the age of 18 years. It is acommon disorder, and it’s etiology is variable from one place to another.OBJECTIVE :to study the etiologies, diagnosis and treatment of AOE in one governorate of Iraq and to compareit’s different clinical and paraclinical abnormalities in different age groups.PATIENTS & METHODS:106 patients with AOE were enrolled in this prospective study, and included all patients whodeveloped seizure after the age 18. The study was done in a heavy neurological clinic in north ofBabylon governorate, Iraq, for 3 years from Sept. 2007 to Sept. 2010.RESULTS:A total of 102 patients met the criteria. Brain tumors were found in 24 (23.5%). No cause could befound in 25 (24.5%) of cases. Generalized tonic clonic seizure was registered in 47 patients (46%).EEG was positive in (57.3%) of cases and the MRI was conclusive in 63.7% of them.CONCLUSION:Brain tumors, CVD, post traumatic and inflammatory disease are the four major causes of AOE inIraq. The most common type of seizure among different groups of etiologies of AOE is focalepilepsy.

Keywords

epilepsy --- seizure


Article
CAUSES OF PARTIAL EPILEPSY IN A COHORT OF IRAQI EPILEPTIC PATIENTS
أسباب حدوث الصرع البؤري في مجموعة من المرضى العراقيين

Author: Hasan Aziz Al-Hamdani حسن عزيز الحمداني
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2007 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 18-22
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Partial (focal or localization related) epilepsy is the most common seizure disorder encountered in patients with epilepsy. These seizures are focal at onset that is emanating from localized region of the brain. Certain structural and metabolic abnormalities in the brain will predictably lower the epilepsy threshold. Seizure can result from either primary central nervous system dysfunction or underlying systemic diseases. The incidence of structural abnormalities was higher with increasing age of the onset of seizure and declined with long duration of history of epilepsy Objectives:1) Identify the cause of partial seizure.2) Clarify the association of these causes and the age of the patients.Study: Prospective cohort study.Setting: Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital.Patients: 106 patients presented with partial seizure, the age of them ranged between 6-73 years, 52 males and 54 femalesResult: The abnormal neuroimaging occurred in (61%) of patients. Tumors occurred in about (19.7%) of patients most of them below 40 years of age while infarctions in about (25.5%) of patient above this age.(83.7%) of complex partial seizure patients had temporal lobe foci and (16.2%) in frontal lobe, while (49%) of simple partial seizure patient had frontal lobe foci, (22%) frontoparietal and (13%) had parietal lobe foci.(75.4%) of patient with simple partial seizure and (35.1%) with complex partial seizure had brain(structural) lesion.Conclusion: 1.Infarction is a common cause of partial seizure in patients above the age of 40 and below this age was a tumor.2.Partial seizure is associated mostly with organic brain lesions.3.The incidence of structural lesion was decrease in patients with long history of partial epilepsy.Key words: Seizure, Epilepsy

خلفية الدراسة : الصرع البؤري هو أكثر الأنواع شيوعا" في المرضى المصابين بمرض الصرع. هذا النوع هو بؤري المنشأ أي انه ينشأ من منطقة محددة من الدماغ. أضرار معينة أيضية أو تركيبية تؤدي إلى زيادة القابلية للإصابة بالمرض. النوبات الصرعية قد تنشأ نتيجة مرض يصيب الجهاز العصبي أساسا" او أجزاء أخرى من الجسم غير الجهاز العصبي. الأضرار التركيبية في الدماغ تزداد احتمالية وجودها مع وجود تاريخ مرضي طويل لمرض الصرع عند المصاب بهذا المرضهدف الدراسة: 1. اكتشاف أسباب الصرع البؤري 2. توضيح العلاقة بين المرض و عمر المريضالمرضى وطرق الدراسة : دراسة توقعية ل 106 مريض في مستشفى الكاظمية التعليمي مصابين بمرض الصرع البؤري تتراوح أعمارهم بين 6 إلى 73 سنة , 52 ذكور و 54 نساءالنتائج: لهذه المجموعة من المرضى 61% منهم الفحص التصويري كان غير طبيعي. ورم الدماغ وجد عند 19.7 % معظمهم من الأعمار أقل من 40 عاما" بينما وجد احتشاء الدماغ عند 25.5 % من المرضى و معظمهم من أعمار أكثر من 40 عام 83.7 % من مرضى الصرع البؤري المعقد وجدت البؤرة المسببة في الفص الصدغي و 16.2 % في الفص الأمامي. بينما وجد إن نسبة وجود البؤرة في الفص الأمامي 49% في مرضى الصرع البؤري البسيط.75.4 من مرضى الصرع البؤري البسيط و 35.1 % من مرضى الصرع البؤري المعقد تظهر لهم أعراض تركيبية.الاستنتاج:1.احتشاء الدماغ هو أكثر الأسباب شيوعا" لمرضى الصرع البؤري من الأعمار أكثر من 40 سنة بينما ورم الدماغ هي أكثر الأسباب في الأعمار اقل من 40 سنة.2.الصرع البؤري مزامل للأضرار التركيبية في الدماغ3.التاريخ المرضي الطويل يجعل الارتباط بين المرضى و الأضرار التركيبية أقل وضوحا".مفتاح الكلمات:الصرع

Keywords

Seizure --- Epilepsy --- الصرع


Article
Migraine in epileptic Patients Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics:

Authors: Louay hashim sheet --- Mohammad tawfik ridha
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 25-31
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE.: To study the prevalence and clinical characteristics of migraine in epileptic patients and to compare these epidemiological and clinical data with those in general population BACKGROUND: Systematic investigation of the characteristics of seizure-associated headaches is rare. Although data on the prevalence and characteristics of migraine in general population are numerous, few studies have investigated the relation between migraine and epilepsy METHODS: One hundred seventy two epileptic patients (98 female and 74 male) participated in a semi-standardized interview and study about headaches particularly migraine type. RESULTS: Seventy four out of the 172 epileptic patients had headache of one type or another (57%), migraine occurred in 34 patients (19.7%),female migraineurs (24 cases) and male (10 cases) (female/male ratio 2.4:1). Migraine occurred in isolation in 18 cases and was mixed with other headache types in 16 cases. Migraine cases without aura constituted 67.7% (23 cases), and with aura 31.3% (11 cases). In non-aura cases female (18 cases) outnumbered male (5 cases), unlike in aura cases (6 female vs 5 male cases) CONCLUSION : Migraine is much more prevalent in epileptics (19.7%)than in general population (11-12%). Other wise migraine in epileptics has similar clinical characteristics to migraine in general population including clinical varieties and gender distribution

Keywords

Epilepsy --- headache --- migraine


Article
The role of CT scan in the diagnosis of epilepsy

Authors: Muna A.G. Al-Rawi --- Amal B. Mohamad --- Faris M. Saeed --- Sahar B. Ahmad --- et al.
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-19
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background: Neuroimaging has an important application in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with seizures and epilepsy.Aims: To determine the diagnostic yield of CT scan in children with Epilepsy and recurrent seizures.Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients with epilepsy referred for CT scan of the brain in Al-Yarmouk general hospital in Baghdad from November 2008 to January 2010, with an age of patients in between 2 days to 15 years. (M 68: F32).Results: Fifty one (51%) had abnormal neuro imaging of which 13 (13%) were found to have possible treatable causes and lesions requiring intervention.A high yield of positive scans distained in children with the presence of abnormal neurological examination focal EEG abnormalities and a history of neonatal seizures.Conclusions: Computed tomography is the standard clinical practice for a child with recurrent seizures, especially with the presence of abnormal neurologic examination and focal EEG changes.

Keywords

Epilepsy --- CT scans --- children


Article
Effect of induced epilepsy on some biochemical parameters in female rats
تأثير استحداث الصرع على المعايير الكيموحيوية في ءاناث الجرذان المختبرية

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Abstract

The activity of cholinesterase and some biochemical parameters of blood such as glucose, cholesterol and phospholipids were estimated in 52 epilepsy induced females of Wister albino rats. Animals of this experiment were divided into two groups, group (I) regarded as control and group (II) administrated subcutaneously by pentylenetetrazole 100mg/kg and divided in to three sub-groups according to the time of samples collection 3 hrs, 24 hrs and 1 week. The results revealed that epilepsy induction caused a significant inhibition of serum cholinesterase activity 3 hrs after induction while in the brain, the activity of cholinesterase was significantly increased after 24 hrs Serum glucose level was significantly elevated after 3 hrs and 24 hrs of induction, total cholesterol and phospholipids were not changed. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that epilepsy caused significant changes in cholinesterase activity in brain and serum in addition to the glucose level in the serum.

استهدفت هذه التجربة معرفة تأثير الصرع المستحدث بأستخدام مادة البنتلين تترازول على فعالية انزيم الكولين استريز في مصل الدم ونسيج الدماغ وكذلك بعض المقاييس الكيموحيوية كالكلوكوز، الكولستيرول والدهون الفسفورية في مصل دم (52 انثى جرذ) من نوع Wister albino. شملت التجربة مجموعتين من الجرذان، المجموعة الاولى مثلت مجموعة السيطرة والمجموعة الثانية فقد استحدث فيها الصرع عن طريق حقنها بالبنتلين تترازول بجرعة 100 ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم تحت الجلد، وقسمت الى ثلاثة مجاميع ثانوية اعتماداً على وقت جمع الدم وقتلها بعد استحداث الصرع وهي (3، 24 ساعة واسبوع). أوضحت النتائج ان استحداث الصرع في الجرذان ادى الى حدوث انخفاض معنوي في فعالية انزيم الكولين استريز في مصل الدم بعد 3 ساعات من استحداث الصرع في حين ادى الصرع الى ارتفاع معنوي في فعالية الانزيم في نسيج الدماغ بعد 24 ساعة، اما مستوى كلوكوز مصل الدم فقد شهد ارتفاعأ معنويأ بعد 3 و 24 ساعة من بدء استحداث المرض، بينما لم يؤدي استحداث الصرع في الجرذان الى حصول اي تغييرات معنوية في مستويات الكولستيرول والدهون الفوسفورية في مصل الدم. نستنتج من هذه التجربة ان استحداث الصرع في اناث الجرذان ادى الى حدوث تغييرات معنوية في مستويات انزيم الكولين استريز في كل من مصل الدم ونسيج الدماغ بالاضافة الى حدوث تغييرات معنوية في مستوى الكلوكوزفي الدم.


Article
Adult Epilepsy & the Value of Neuro-Imaging

Author: Faris M. Saeed* Muna A. Gh.* Hala A. Gh.* Waleed Khalid** Sahar B.**
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2012 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 201-204
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background: neuro imaging has become as important as the use of EEG in the diagnosis of epilepsy. MRI Remains the principal technique used in epilepsy.Objective: to detect a specific imaging abnormality on MRI and CT scan in a given patient and their effect on the management and prognosis.Method: a total of fifty nine patients with epilepsy referred for Neuro imaging to Al-Yermouk General hospital in Baghdad from November 2009 –January 2011 with age between 18 –70 yrs. male 26: female 33. Fifty patients underwent CT scan of the brain and 56 had MRI study.Results: Forty six (82%) had abnormal neuroimaging on MRI compared to CT scan which showed only twenty five patients (50%) abnormal study. MRI is more sensitive than CT scan in the detection of medial temporal sclerosis (MTS, hippocampal sclerosis) and abnormal white matter. CT scan is more accurate in showing acute intracranial hemorrhage and lesions with underlying calcifications.Conclusion: MRI and CT scan are useful to identify the origin and cause of seizure disorders. However, MRI is the principle imaging technique used in adult onset epilepsy but CT is still crucial in emergency conditions, when MRI is unavailable or contra indicated.

Keywords

epilepsy --- Neuro imaging --- adult.


Article
Oral hygiene and gingival condition among epileptic patients 5-15 year-old (A comparative study)

Authors: Azhar A. Hussien ازهر حسين --- Athraa M. AL-Weheb عذراء الوهب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 89-93
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by behavior that results from abnormalelectrical activity in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and severity of the oral hygieneand gingival health condition concerning epileptic patients in some hospitals in Baghdad city, in comparison tocontrols, matching with numbers age and gender.Materials and method: Oral examinations involved epileptic patients with an age rang (5-15) year old, matched withsame number of controls from kindergarten and schools in Baghdad city. Plaque index, calculus index and gingivalindex were used in this study and Ramfjord teeth were chosen for recording these indices.Results: Epileptic patients demonstrated a statistically significantly higher mean value of plaque index and gingivalindex compared to control group, while no statistical significant difference was found in mean value of calculusindex between both groups.Conclusion: The condition of oral health status of the epileptic group is worse than matched group


Article
Drug Resistant Epilepsy Among Patients Attended The Neurosciences Hospital

Author: Nael Husain Zaer*, Basim Hanoon Jabbar **, Ahmed Tahseen Muslim**, Mu'tazFayrooz**, Zaki Noah Hasan***
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 108-115
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Drug resistant epilepsy is defined as failure of adequate trials of two tolerated, appropriately chosen and used antiepileptic drug schedules to achieve sustained seizure freedom. Up to 30% of patients referred to clinics with a diagnosis of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy may have been misdiagnosed, and many can be helped by optimizing their treatment.Pseudoresistance, in which seizures persist because the underlying disorder has not been adequately or appropriately treated, must be ruled out or corrected before drug treatment can be considered to have failed. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the causes of drug failure in patients with epilepsy and to differentiate between drug resistant epilepsy and pseudoresistant epilepsy. Type of the study: This is a retrospective study.Method: It is conducted in Baghdad governorate at the epilepsy clinic in the neurosciences hospital during the period from the 1st of February through July 2013. Two hundred patients with refractory epilepsy were involved. These patients attended the epilepsy clinic during 2011 and 2012. The data was collected from the files of the patients including age, gender, weight, history of presenting illness, type of seizure, drugs used, duration of disease, EEG and imaging findings, compliance and follow up. Results: Drug resistance epilepsy constituted a prevalence of 24% (128) as the total number of patients with epilepsy attending the hospital during the same period was 527.The mean age of patients with refractory epilepsy was 25 years. Male were 56.5% (113/200) and urban residents were 70.5% (141/200). The study revealed that 64% (128/200) of refractory epilepsy was attributed to drug resistance; while the remaining proportion was pseudoresistance 36% (72/200). The main cause of pseudoresistance was poor compliance 36.1% (26/72).The most common type of seizure in the sampled patients was generalized tonic clonic seizures in 51.5% (103/200).Compliance was found to be statistically associated with abnormal EEG finding, past medical history (hypertension, cardiac diseases, encephalitis, diabetes mellitus and any significant history) and quality of follow up. The follow-up was found to be statistically associated with the family history, past medical history( encephalitis and hypertension) and compliance of patient. Conclusion:A considerable number of patientsdiagnosed as cases of drug resistant epilepsy had another explanation causing drug failure.The study recommends the application of consensus definition for drug resistant epilepsy and periodic evaluation of patients with drug resistant epilepsy to exclude pseudoresistance.

Keywords

Keywords: Epilepsy --- EEG --- Drug.


Article
The age of onset of epilepsy and its relation to education, employment and marital status.
عمر البدء لداء الصرع وعلاقته بالحالة العلمية والوظيفية والزوجية.

Author: Basim Hussain Bahir د. باسم حسين باهر
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 4 Pages: 119-123
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract:Background: psychiatric and behavioral disorders and educational, neuropsychological, and social problems have been repeatedly reported in patients with epilepsy.Objective: in order to determine the age of onset of epilepsy and its relationship to education, employment, and marital status in Baghdad (Al- Amen city).Methodology: Across section study which included 254 registered patients 120 female and 134 male in Al-Amen public clinic. All the patients and their parents were interviewed about time of onset of epilepsy. Patients under 18 years of age were excluded in order to find the effect of age of onset on marital, and employment status.Results: The mean age of onset was lower in males 16 ± 15.9 years than in females 19.6 ± 17.6 years. The peak age of onset occurred in 5-14 year's age group. There were significant associations between age of onset of epilepsy and education level, marital status and employment.Conclusion: education and employment status of epileptic patients is bad thus considerable efforts are needed to improve it

الملخص:هدف الدراسة: تهدف الدراسة الى تحديد عمر بدء المرض في الأشخاص المصابين بالصرع وعلاقته بالحالة العلمية والتوظيف والحالة الزوجية في بغداد ( مدينة الأمين).طريقة البحث : دراسة مقطعية شملت254 مريضا (120)أنثى و(134) ذكرا في عيادة الأمين.حيث تم مقابلتهم والأستفسار عن تاريخ بدء المرض وعن تحصيلهم الدراسي وعمل كل منهم والحالة الزوجية حيث تم أستثناء المرضى دون الثامنة عشر لبيان تأثير عمر بدء المرض على الحالة الزوجية والعمل.نتيجة البحث: كان معدل عمر بدء المرض أقل بالذكور (16±15.9) سنة عنه بالأناث (19.9±17.6) سنة. بلغت ذروة بدء المرض بين عمر (5-14) سنة. كانت هناك علاقات معنوية بين عمر بدء المرض و مستوى تحصيلهم الدراسي والحالة الزوجية و عمل كل منهم.الأستنتاج: أن الحالة العلمية والوظيفبة لمرضى الصرع سيئة لذلك فالجهود الكبيرة مطلوبة لتحسينها.

Keywords

: epilepsy --- employment --- education.


Article
Prevalence of epilepsy in Hawler city; a household survey
انتشار الصرع في مدينة هولير؛ مسح الأسرة

Authors: Aso Sabir Sheikh-Bzeni --- Azad Hasan Khidr
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 12-18
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and in spite of that, its prevalence was not studied in Hawler city before. The objective of this study is to know the prevalence of epilepsy in Hawler city.Methods: A house hold survey was carried out in Hawler city, Iraq 4623 persons selected as clustered random sample of the city population during period of April 2007 to June 2008.Results: Out of the 4623 persons studied, only 45 patients (23 female and 22 male) were found to be epileptic, with a life time prevalence of 9.7/1000 population. The commonest age group affected was childhood age (1st and 2nd decade). This study showed that partial epilepsy was more common than generalized epilepsy. There is no marked difference between genders in the disease pattern (51.1% were females, 48.9% were males).Conclusion: Epilepsy is a common disorder in Hawler city. There was no significant difference between genders in the disease pattern. In our locality children were more affected with epilepsy than other age groups.

Keywords

Epilepsy --- Hawler city --- Prevalence

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