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Article
Knowledge and practices of a group of adolescents toward some aspects of their health and development
معارف وممارسات مجموعة من المراهقين بعض الجوانب في الصحة والتطوير

Authors: Namir Ghanim Al-Tawil --- Jwan Mohammad Sabir --- Kameran Hassan Ismail
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 264-270
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

الخلفية: تعتبر المعرفة مهمة للمراهقين لتنمية نمط صحي للحياة، الوقاية من الأمراض، والمشاركة الفعالة في المجتمع.الهدف: الدراسة تهدف الى تقييم معارف وممارسات عينة من المراهقين في أربيل-العراق حول بعض الامور التي تخص صحتهم.الطريقة: اجريت دراسة مقطعية في مدينة أربيل للفترة من 15/10/2008 الى 15/12/2008. تم تصميم إستمارة جمع المعلومات من قبل الباحثين، وتم توزيع الاستمارات على الطلبة لغرض ملئها. تم أخذ الموافقة الشفهية لجميع الطلبة قبل البدء بالدراسة.النتائج: إشتملت الدراسة على 441 مراهق (257 ذكر و 184 انثى). نسبة الذكور الى الاناث كانت 1.4 :1 . معدل العمر (+ الانحراف المعياري) كان 15.7 + 2.3 سنة (من 11 الى 19 سنة). إعتقد أكثر من نصف العينة (58.8%) أنهم بصحة جيدة، 23.6% يعتقدون أن التدخين مضر بالصحة، أكثر من النصف (52.83%) كانوا يأكلون طعام صحي، 52% يمارسون الرياضة، و 39.46% كانوا يأخذون الفيتامينات للعناية بصحتهم. الاستنتاج: لازالت معلومات وممارسات المراهقين ضعيفة وتحتاج الى المزيد من التوعية والمتابعة لتقديم وتطبيق المعلومات حول الصحة.

Background: Information is important for adolescent to develop healthy lifestyles, protect themselves from disease, and participate meaningfully in society,This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and practices of a group of adolescents toward some aspects of their health in Erbil-Iraq.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in Erbil city, from October 15th to December 15th, 2008. The questionnaire was designed by authors and administered to students during class time. Verbal informed consent was obtained from all participants. Results: The study sample was composed of 441 adolescents (257 males, and 184 females). The male: female ratio was 1.4: 1. The mean age (+SD) was 15.7+2.3 years (ranging from 11-19 years). More than half (58.5%) think that they are in a good health, 23.6% believe that smoking affect their health negatively, More than half (52.83%) eat healthy food, around 52% practice exercise, and 39.46% take vitamins to take care of their health.Conclusion:The knowledge and practice of our adolescent toward their health and practice still deficient and need more advanced follow up to increase information regarding this branch.

Keywords

Adolescent --- health --- Erbil


Article
Distribution of doctors’ workforce in Erbil Governorate
توزيع القوى العاملة للأطباء في محافظة أربيل

Authors: Tariq S. Al-Hadithi --- Vian M. Husein --- Moayad A. Wahab
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 1138-1146
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Imbalance in the distribution of health workforce might result in inequities in health services delivery. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of doctors’ workforce in Erbil governorate and identify the possible reasons for rapid turnover of doctors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study included all the 962 doctors working in the health facilities of Erbil governorate. A questionnaire was used to collect data that included 40 questions divided into four broad sections of identification information, socio-demographic characteristics, information on professional characteristics and factors influencing employment process in rural areas. Results: There were 5.1 doctors per 10,000 populations. Most of the doctors were deployed in urban areas (83.6%). Most doctors were working in hospitals (74.2%) and 23.3% in primary health centers. Specialists constituted the largest categories of doctors (33.5%) and general practitioners the smallest (6.7%). Doctors’ willingness to stay at the current workplace was significantly associated with being married, having opportunities to select workplace, working in private clinics and having the workplace inside Erbil. Conclusion: The density of doctors per 10,000 populations in Erbil governorate is below the regional and international average, with a remarkable urban-rural imbalance in numerical, geographical and institutional terms.

Keywords

Health workforce --- Erbil


Article
Prevalence of posterior vitreous detachment detected by ultrasound in Erbil governorate
انتشار الانفصال الزجاجي الخلفي المكتشف بالموجات فوق الصوتية في محافظة أربيل

Authors: Ahmed Ismail Abdulghani --- Sameeah A. Rashid --- Hussein Ismail Abdulghani
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2014 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 645-650
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Posterior vitreous detachment is a common problem which may induce several potentially serious events. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of posterior vitreous detachment in Erbil and its distribution among different age groups also to determine its correlation to age, gender, smoking, blurring of vision, floater, flashes of light, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out on 150 persons (300 eyes) with mean age of 40 years attending Rizgary Teaching Hospital (Erbil, Iraq) who were referred for ultrasound examination for any indication other than eye problem. The patients were examined by ocular ultrasound unit equipped with a 7.5–10 MHz real-time linear high-frequency probe with the contact method.Results: The prevalence of posterior vitreous detachment was 19.3%, with an extremely statistical significant association between posterior vitreous detachment and increasing age, diabetes, hypertension, blurred vision and floater, but no association with smoking, gender and flash of light.Conclusion: Posterior vitreous detachment is a common disease its prevalence increases with advancing age with a strong association to blurred vision, floaters, diabetes mellitus and hypertension but no association with gender, smoking or ultrasound detected vitreous opacities.


Article
Assessment of primary schools' environment in Erbil city
تقييم بيئة المدارس الابتدائية في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Namir Ghanim Al-Tawil --- Badia Mahammad Najib --- Salih A. Abdulla
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 417-421
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Healthy school environment is one of the main determinants of students’ health in order to maximize the benefit from the educational programs. This study was aimed to assess the primary school environment in Erbil city.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 primary schools in Erbil city out of 242 schools through the academic year 2010-2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire constructed by the researchers which included general information, area around the school, school environment, class-room and school canteen.Results: Most of the primary schools were located near the main street, nearly all (98%) the streets leading to the schools were paved. In contrast, thirty one (62%) schools had been exposed to a pollution source, mainly noise (54.84%) and garbage (45.16%) pollution. The majority of the schools had standard school fencing, school yard, and garbage container, and only 8 (16%) of them had available/standard school ground. The study showed that nearly half of the schools had appropriate classrooms, lighting, and majority of them had adequate desks, appropriate blackboards and clean classrooms, while ventilation and age appropriate desks were partially available. The amount of chlorine in water was not tested. There is lack of materials in the first aid kits. Canteens were available, but not standard and the working staff did not have the health certificate. Conclusion: School environment in Erbil city is not optimum.

Keywords

Assessment --- School --- Environment --- Erbil


Article
Uncontrolled Hypertension In A Group Of Hypertensive Patients In Erbil
ضغط الدم الغیر مسیطر علیھ بین مجموعة من المرضى المصابین بارتفاع ضغط الدم في اربیل

Authors: Kameran Hassan Ismail --- Bushra Baker Khidder
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 126-132
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Hypertension is a powerful risk factor for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease events, andmany randomized trials showed that hypertension control is associated with a decrease in incidence of stroke andcoronary heart disease.Objective: This study was carried out to identify the prevalence of, and factors associated with, uncontrolledhypertension in a group of hypertensive patients in Erbil.Patients and methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. A convenience sample of 400 hypertensivepatients attended outpatient clinics at Rizgary teaching hospital in Erbil city was included. This study wasextended from 1st April 2011 through 31st March 2012. The data were obtained by a direct interview with thepatients using a questionnaire a specially designed questionnaire. The statistical package for social sciences(SPSS, version 18.0) was used for data entry and analysis.Results: The prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was (58.8%). The prevalence of uncontrolled hypertensionamong males hypertensive patients were 61.8%.and among females were 57.5%. The Logistic regressionsanalysis of uncontrolled hypertension showed a statistically significant association between uncontrolledhypertension with current smoker (OR=8.77), regularity of treatment (OR=0.296), exercise (OR= 0.414) and typeof antihypertensive drugs: diuretics (OR=11.938), ACEI (OR=7.907) beta blockers (OR=7.096), and CCB(OR=7.169).Conclusions: More than half of the hypertensive patients were uncontrolled. The factors associated withuncontrolled hypertension were smoking, lack of exercise, irregularity of treatment (non adherence to treatment).Recommendations: There is a need to stimulate researches and further studies, such as complete communitybasedcase ascertainment.

ارتفاع ضغط الدم یشكل مشكلة صحیة عامة رئیسیة في إقلیم كردستان، والعدید من التجارب العشوائیة أظھرت أن ارتباط مراقبة ارتفاعضغط الدم مع انخفاض في معدل الإصابة بأمراض القلب التاجیة والسكتة الدماغیة .الھدف: لتحدید مدى انتشار والعوامل المرتبطة بارتفاع ضغط الدم غیر المنضبط بین مجموعة من المرضى المصابین بارتفاع ضغط الدم في اربیل.منھجیة البحث: أجریت دراسة مقطعیة .وقد تم اختیار العینة المكونة من 400 مریض من المصابین با رتفاع ضغط الدم في ھذه الدراسة والمراجعین للعیادات الخارجیة في المستشفى رزكاري التعلیمي في مدینة اربیل .وتم تمدید ھذه الدراسة من الاول من نیسان سنة 2011 الى 31 منآذار 2012 . جمعت المعلومات في ھذا البحث عن طریق المقابلة المباشرة مع المرضى وذلك باستعمال استبیان خاص صمم لھذا الغرض. وقدنسخة 18 ) لادخال وتحلیل البیانات الاحصائیة. ) SPSS استعمل برنامجالنتائج: انتشار ارتفاع ضغط الدم غیر المنضبط وكان بنسبة 58.8 %. كان معدل انتشار ارتفاع ضغط الدم غیر المنضبط بین مرضى ارتفاع ضغطالدم من الذكور 61.8 % وبین الاناث كان بنسبة . 57.5 % وكشف تحلیل الانحدار اللوجستي من ارتفاع ضغط الدم غیر المنضبط أن ارتفاع ضغطو ممارسة الریاضة ،(OR = وانتظام العلاج ( 0.296 ،( OR= الدم غیر المنضبط وكان إحصائیا وجود علاقة كبیرة مع المدخن الحالي ( 8.77، (OR= وحاصرات بیتا ( 7.096 ،(OR =7.907) ACEI ، (OR = ونوع الأدویة الخافضة للضغط: مدرات البول( 11.938 (OR= 0.414).( OR=7.169) CCBالاستنتاجات: اكثر من نصف المرضى المصابین بارتفاع ضغط الدم كان ضغط الدم عندھم غیر منضبط . وكانت العوامل المرتبطة بارتفاع ضغطالدم غیر المنضبط :- التدخین ، و عدم ممارسة الریاضة و عدم الانتظام في تناول العلاج من قبل المرضى المصابین بارتفاع ضغط الدم.التوصیات: یوصي ھذا البحث باجراء بحوث مستفیضة وموسعة ومجتمعیة مبنیة على دراسة حالات في المجتمع


Article
The relation between pterygium size and refractive astigmatism among a group of patients in Erbil city
العلاقة بين حجم الظفرة والاستجماتيزم الانكساري بين مجموعة من المرضى في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Ahmed Kareem Joma --- Hawzhin M Abdussamad
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 141-147
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: A pterygium is a triangular fibrovascular subepithelial ingrowth of degenerative bulbar conjunctival tissue over the limbus onto the cornea. Excision is indicated if the pterygium approaches the visual axis, causing loss of vision from irregular astigmatism or in cases of considerable irritation. This study aimed to determine the percentage of astigmatism in patients presented with pterygium and measure the effect of size (width and height) of pterygium on a degree of astigmatism and indication of early surgery.Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study using non-probability convenience sampling was conducted in the ophthalmology department of Rizgary and Erbil teaching hospital in Erbil city from June 2015 to February 2016. Ninety-six eyes of eighty patients with pterygium were included in this study.Results: The mean age ± SD of the 80 patients included in the study was 37.5 ± 9.62 years ranging from 22-58 years. There were 45 male and 35 female patients. Two-thirds of eyes (72.6%) had with-the-rule astigmatism while 12.6 % of eyes had against-the-rule astigmatism. A highly significant strong correlation was seen between a fraction of corneal area encroached by pterygium with induced astigmatism (r = 0.727, P <0.001). A highly significant strong correlation was found between the area of pterygium and corneal astigmatism in a case of severe pterygium (pterygium encroaching > 4 mm area on the cornea) (r = 0.802, P <0.001).Conclusion: Pterygium size has a significant correlation to the amount of induced astigmatism. The correlation is stronger in the pterygia of severe degree (>4 mm) as in this group they are encroaching on the visual axis.


Article
The outcome of congenital duodenal obstruction in infancy in Erbil
نتائج انسداد الاثني عشر الخلقي لدى الرضع في أربيل

Authors: Salar S. Perdawd --- Nooraddin Ismaeel --- Karzan K. Hussein
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 257-261
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Duodenal atresia and stenosis is considered a frequent cause of intestinal obstruction in the newborn, good prenatal work up and investigation make early diagnosis and better prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prenatal diagnosis, types, post-delivery management, associated anomalies, operative management and outcomes in neonates with congenital duodenal obstruction.Methods: A prospective study including 21 infants (13 female and eight male) with congenital duodenal obstruction were treated at Rapareen Teaching Hospital in Erbil from December 2011 to December 2015.Results: The mean age at presentation was 8.1 days (range 4 to 52 days), and the mean weight was 2.63 kilogram. Around 95% were term and 61.9% of patients delivered through cesarean section. The commonest presentation was bilious vomiting in 95.2% of cases. Associated anomalies were present in six cases in particular Down’s syndrome in five cases. Plain abdominal x-ray, ultrasound of abdomen and echocardiography done for all cases while upper gastrointestinal contrast study was done only in 5 cases. All managed operatively through laparotomy, and diamond shaped duodenoduodenostomy was the main procedure done in 17 cases, web resection in two cases, Ladd's procedure in one case and duodenojejunostomy in one case. The survival was 95.2%.Conclusion: Congenital duodenal obstruction is a common condition facing the pediatric surgeon. Associated anomalies is the first factor influencing the outcome. The most common causes of congenital duodenal obstruction were atresia, and annular pancreas and the most important warning sign is the bile stained vomiting. Treatment should be expedient and concurrent with ongoing resuscitation.


Article
Energy drinks consumption in Erbil city: A population based study
استهلاك مشروبات الطاقة في مدينة أربيل: دراسة على أساس السكان

Author: Yassin A. Asaad
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 1680-1687
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Background and objective: Energy drinks have become increasingly prevalent among young adults and adolescents in recent years, particularly young students and athletes who see the consumption of energy drinks as an easy and quick way to boost academic and athletic performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of consumption of energy drinks in a sample of adolescent and adults in Erbil city as well as perceived benefits and its health hazards.Methods: A convenience sample of 600 individuals from different sectors and social groups of Erbil city was selected. Data was obtained through direct interview. The data was managed through SPSS program version 18, using appropriate statistical tests.Results: The prevalence of energy drinks consumption among the study population was 42.7%, especially adolescents and young adults (those ≤ 25 years) and was more common among males than females (55.7% and 29.8%, respectively). The main reasons for its consumption were related to getting energy and improving the mood and performance (66.0% and 30.4%, respectively). 62.7% of participants think that it is harmful and could have adverse effects such as heartbeat irregularity and blood pressure swinging, addiction, and osteoporosis (46.2%, 33.7% and 13.2%, respectively). Televisions were the major source of advertisement (71.45). A significant statistical association had been found between the age, gender and educational status of the participants and consuming energy drinks (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively).Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption found to be highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults in Erbil city, which calls for review and regulating the sale of these drinks including adolescents' education, raising community’s awareness, banning selling it in public places and increasing taxes.

Keywords

Energy drinks --- Adolescents --- Perception --- Erbil


Article
Incidence and probable risk factors of stillbirth in Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city
حالات الإصابة وعوامل الخطر المحتملة للإملاص في مستشفى الولادة التعليمي في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Shahla K. Al alaf --- Shahlaa Abd Alrahmman
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2015 Volume: 19 Issue: 3 Pages: 1057-1062
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Death of an infant in utero or at birth has always been a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, probable risk factors and association of stillbirth with different maternal variables in Erbil Maternity Teaching Hospital.Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to determine the prevalence of stillbirth and a case control design was used to determine the probable risk factors and demographic characteristics of women with stillbirth in Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, Kurdistan region, Iraq, from April 1st, to December 31st, 2011.Three hundred seventy nine women having stillbirth were regarded as cases while 758 women delivering alive newborns were regarded as control group.Results: The prevalence of stillbirth during the period of the study was 20.4 per1000 total births. Macerated stillbirth was about four times higher than the fresh stillbirth. There were statistically significant differences between the cases and controls in relation to: maternal age (≥ 35 years), level of education, history of antenatal care visits, parity, medical diseases of the mother, congenital anomalies of the newborn, and history of previous stillbirth. In 65.4% of cases the probable cause of death was unexplained. Conclusion: The prevalence of stillbirth in the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil is high in comparison to the rate in other countries. This could be due to high level of deliveries per day and lack of good follow up of patients during labour.

Keywords

Stillbirth --- Maternity hospital --- Erbil --- Iraq


Article
Association of chronic urticaria with Helicobacter Pylori infection in Erbil: A case-control study
ارتباط الشرى المزمن بعدوى هيليكوباكتر بيلوري في أربيل: دراسة الحالات والشواهد

Authors: Khalis Bilal Mohammed --- Faiza Rasool Muhemmed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 1376-1384
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Chronic urticaria is one of the most frequent skin diseases and still its etiology is recognized only in a minority of cases. Some recent studies point out to infections due to Helicobacter Pylori as being of major importance in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria. This study aimed to find out the association of chronic urticaria with H. pylori. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Erbil city within the period of April 1st, 2013 to January 1st, 2014. The study included 55 cases with chronic urticaria and 55 controls that were free from features of chronic urticaria. Data was collected through direct interview and the results of laboratory investigations were recorded in a specially designed questionnaire. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was used for detection of Helicobacter pylori antigen in the stool sample. Results: The age of the 55 cases and 55 controls enrolled ranged from 13 to 65 years. Stool for Helicobacter pylori antigen test was positive in 69.1% of cases and 29.1% of controls (OR = 5.44, P ˂0.001). The mean age ± SD of positive Helicobacter pylori patients were 35.75 ± 12.64 years, with male to female ratio 1:2.8. No statistically significant association was found between Helicobacter Pylori infection with dyspepsia and duration of urticaria. Conclusions: There was a strong association of chronic urticaria with Helicobacter pylori infection. Investigating for Helicobacter pylori in all cases of chronic urticaria and conducting further trials on Helicobacter pylori eradication is recommended.

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