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Article
The Effect of Promoters on the Activity of Prepared Zeolite Catalyst in FCC Process

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Abstract

Faujasite type NaY zeolite catalyst was prepared from locally available kaolin, then the prepared NaY zeolite have been modified by exchanging of sodium ion with ammonium to produce NH4Y zeolite. NH4Y zeolite was converted to HY zeolite by ion exchanging with oxalic acid. Zinc and nickel promoters have been added to the prepared HY zeolite catalyst, and the effect of these promoters on the catalytic activity of the prepared HY catalyst was studied in fluid catalytic cracking process using light gas oil as a feedstock. The experimental results show that the promoted catalyst gives higher gas oil conversion and gasoline yield than HY zeolite catalyst at the same reaction temperature and WHSV. It was also found that the promoted catalyst gives gasoline with lesser olefin content and higher aromatics compared with the gasoline produced by HY catalyst.


Article
Experimental Investigation of a New Modified Catalysts (WO3/Si-Zr) and (Si-Zr) for the Process of Aerosol Nanocatalysts by FCC of Residual Vacuum Distillation

Authors: Hashim A. Mahdi --- Sregey Kudryavtsev
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 3 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 274-281
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This work aims at comparing between the a new modified catalyst WO3/Si-Zr and catalyst Si-Zr to obtain gasoline and diesel fraction , The new theory of aerosol nanocatalysts technology was used in the cracking of gas oil by vacuum accompanied by the vibration of the layer of the catalyst system . The one of aim of the present work is to reduce the emissions of atmosphere polluting gases such as (H2S and CO) .It is observed that this process is achieved at lower temperature compared to that conducted by industrial cracking process at 250 Co , and lower amount of catalyst concentration in the reactor 2.38 (gm/m3). This technique revealed that the selectivity of light products formation for the WO3 /Si-Zr catalyst is higher than that with the Si-Zr catalyst at the new technology conditions.


Article
Freeman Chain Code Contour Processing For Handwritten Isolated Arabic Characters Recognition
سلسلة فريمان لمعالجة الأحرف العربية المعزولة المكتوبة يدويا وتمييزها

Author: Majida Ali Abed ماجده علي
Journal: AL-yarmouk Journall مجلة كلية اليرموك الجامعة ISSN: 20752954 Year: 2012 Issue: 1 Pages: 90-105
Publisher: College Yarmouk University كلية اليرموك الجامعة

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Abstract

The Arabic characters are being used in various languages. Recognition of handwritten characters of Arabic alphabet set is an important area of research. The work on recognition of Handwritten Isolated Arabic Characters (HIAC) is still an open research problem and it has numerous applications. Machine reading of optically scanned text is usually called optical Character recognition (OCR). In this paper we present an OCR for Handwritten Isolated Arabic Characters. Basic Characters are recognized by Freeman chain code. The proposed method obtains the contour of the character and then generates a Freeman Chain Code for contoured character. The obtained Freeman chain code is unique for handwritten isolated characters. The present method is based on template matching to recognize handwritten printed isolated Arabic characters. It was trained and validated on 200 images (consisting of 7400 Arabic characters written by 18 writers). Our experimentation observed the overall recognition rate is 95%. It is carried out in order to improve the rate and the performance of an Arabic handwritten word recognition system. The proposed system has been implemented and tested on Matlab R2008b environment

اللغة العربية هي مصدر اللغات السامية ، وحروفها تستخدم في مختلف اللغات . التمييز للحروف المكتوبة يدويا من مجموعة حروف اللغة العربية هو من أهم مجالات البحث. العمل على تمييز الحروف العربية المعزولة و المكتوبة يدويا (HIAC) لا يزال قيد البحث وله العديد من التطبيقات. في هذا البحث, نستعرض عملية التمييز للحروف العربية المعزولة والمكتوبة بخط اليد. الهدف من البحث هو تمييز الحروف العربية المعزولة المكتوبة يدويا باستخدام سلسلة فريمان. . الطريقة المقترحة تتضمن الحصول على مخططات الحروف ومن ثم توليد سلسلة فريمان الخاصة بها. النتيجة الحاصلة من سلسلة فريمان تكون وحيدة للحرف العربي المطلوب تمييزه. . تستند الطريقة المقترحة على مطابقة القوالب للتمييز. تم التدريب والتحقق من صحة الطريقة المقترحة على 200 صورة (التي تتكون من 7400 الحروف العربية والتي كتبت بواسطة 18 شخص). أظهرت النتائج العملية ان معدل التمييز هو 95 ٪. يتم تنفيذه من أجل تحسين معدل وأداء أنظمة التمييز للحروف العربية المكتوبة يدويا. تم تطبيق هذا النظام المقترح واختباره على البيئة الماتلاب R2008b

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