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Article
Breastfeeding Patterns in an Urban Area in Baghdad

Author: Kholod Daher Habib
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 125-128
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The World Health Organization (WHO) & UNICEF, have recommended for a decade that mothers breastfeed for at least 2 years .Recently, there has been a stress on exclusive breast feeding for the first four to six months of life .METHODS:By using the 'current status analysis method'. Mothers of 650 infants from 0 to 12 months of age attending a Health Center were interviewed about the current feedingpatterns of the infants and other socioeconomic variables. Month-wise prevalence of feeding patterns was determined.RESULTS:It was observed that breast feeding was maintained at a high level (more than 90%) throughout infancy while exclusive breast feeding showed a rapid decline.At 1st month of age 78% , and at 4th month of age 50 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed.CONCLUSION:Breast feeding as such was maintained at a high level for the first 12 months of life while the practice of exclusive breast feeding was much lower


Article
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of Mothers toward Infant and Young Child Feeding in Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers, Erbil City

Authors: Sawsan I.I. AL-Azzawi --- Kareema Ahmad Hussein --- Norhan Zeki Shaker
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2012 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 118-126
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Background and objectives: Improving infant and young child feeding practices in children birth–23 months of age is therefore critical to improved nutrition, health, development of children and, ultimately and impact child survival. The main objective is to: Assess knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers concerning infant and young child feeding, and to use the results as baseline for nutritional intervention programs in the future.Subjects and methods: A survey study was carried out in (13) Primary Health Care centers in Erbil city to assess knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers concerning infant and young child feeding, and to use the results as a baseline for nutritional intervention programs in the future in a period from 2nd of January 2008 to 30th of September 2009. Purposive (non probability) sample of 1000 (mother-child pairs) were selected .Results: The results of present study shows that the mothers have efficient practices and attitudes toward breast , formula and complementary feeding. Infant and young child feeding indicators concerning early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding were poor , among mothers attending PHC centers in Erbil. Conclusion and Recommendation: Majority of surveyed infant and young child’s feeding pattern was mixture feeding, or mixture and complementary feeding . And the feeding indicators were low among mothers in Erbil city, the investigators decided to construct an educational health program to be implemented by nurses in Primary Health Care centers in Erbil city for improving mothers knowledge, attitudes and practices of infant and young child feeding. The study recommended to revitalizing and expanding the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative and Establishing of breastfeeding intervention programs for protection, promotion, and support of breastfeeding.


Article
Patterns of Infant Feeding Practices in the First Six Months of Life in Fatema AL- Zahra Hospital in Baghdad

Author: Kholod Dhaher Habib *,Wafaa Toma Hurmiz ** , Nagham Kadhum Tayeh
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 211-219
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACK GROUND:Breastfeeding is of great benefits to the baby and mother in so many ways. Breastfeeding has been found to provide a measure of protection against the attacks of ear infections, upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal disorders. Breastfeeding has an emotional benefit by initiation of bonding between mother and baby .Knowledge of when and why women discontinue breastfeeding is of great important when make a plan aimed at increasing both the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. OBJECTIVE :This study was conducted to, 1. detect Patterns of breastfeeding practice during the first 6 months of life, 2.identify the age at when bottle feeding started, and 3.to verify the causes to start bottle feeding . METHODS:Parents of 1000 infants seen during a routine visit at the Breastfeeding consultation Clinic (BCC), in the outpatient department in Fatema Al Zahra hospital were interviewed by the researchers from 1st of July 2016 to 30th of June 2017 . The mothers were asked about , the mother's age ,job, and education, infant`s age, Sex, birth order, type of feeding, when to start formula, and why. Inclusion criteria were: women, between 16-40 years who came with their infants for vaccination, and had delivered during the last 12 months.RESULTS: It was observed that breast feeding was maintained at a high level (more than 64.6%) throughout infancy while exclusive breast feeding showed a rapid decline. The rate of exclusive breast feeding at 6th month was 28.3%. The birth order of the infant, and mother`s age, job, and education were important factors determining exclusive breast feeding rate.The most common causes for adding bottle feeding were, milk insufficiency in 25.2 % of cases, Mother`s pregnancy in 19.9 %, and Infant`s crying after feeding in 14.2%. The advice of starting bottle feeding were recommended by family in 18.9% of cases , by Pediatrician in 29.1 %, by Gynecologist in 3.2 % of cases , and in 48.6 % of cases the mothers start bottle feeding by her opinion. CONCLUION:Breast feeding as such was maintained at a high level for the first 12 months of life while the practice of exclusive breast feeding(EBF) was much lower . Mother's age, job, and education have an impacts on exclusive breastfeeding rate. Medical personnel and family have great role in continuation of EBF and breastfeeding.The most common causes for adding bottle feeding, were, milk insufficiency , Mother`s pregnancy and infant`s crying after feeding..


Article
Breast feeding and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Mosul-a case control study

Authors: Zaid M. Yassen زيد مؤيد ياسين --- Mazin M. Fawzi مازن محمود فوزي
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2008 Volume: 34 Issue: 2 Pages: 161-166
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Context: leukemia is the most common malignancy in childhood; many studies were conducted to explore the probable protective effect of breast feeding on childhood leukemia.
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of breast on the development of childhood leukemia.
Methods: A case control design was conducted at the hematology unit;Ibn Alatheer pediatrics hospital in Mosul city. A total of 71 children diagnosed to have acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 70 children diagnosed to have diseases other than malignancy were included in the study as cases and controls respectively. SPSS and excel computer programs, chi squared test and Z test of two proportions, were used in statistical analysis.
Results: The present study observed a protective association between breast feeding and the risk of childhood leukemia (OR=0.2, P<0.05). Moreover, the study showed increased risk of leukemia among children exposed to explosions near their residency (OR= 3.9, P<0.001).
Conclusions: Breast feeding might have a vital protective effect against childhood leukemia. On the other hand, exposure to explosive materials might carry a high risk for developing leukemia.

الهدف: تهدف الدراسة إلى تقييم العلاقة بين الرضاعة الطبيعية وخطورة الإصابة بابيضاض الدم عند الأطفال في الموصل.طريقة الدراسة: دراسة العينة والشاهد.مكان الدراسة: وحدة أمراض الدم / مستشفى ابن الأثير للأطفال في الموصلقياس المحصلة النهائية: تم تحليل النتائج باستخدام برنامجي SPSS و excel للحاسب الإلكتروني وقد تم استخدام اختباري X2 و Z في التحليل الإحصائي.النتائج: أظهرت الدراسة إن إعطاء الأطفال حليب الأم في السنة الأولى من العمر قد يحميهم من الإصابة بابيضاض الدم (OR=0.2). بالإضافة إلى ذلك أشرت الدراسة وجود علاقة قوية بين التعرض للانفجارات والإصابة بالمرض أعلاه (OR= 3.9).الاستنتاج: في ضوء نتائج الدراسة يمكن الاستنتاج بأن حليب الأم يحمي الطفل من الإصابة بابيضاض الدم.

Keywords

Breast feeding --- all


Article
Serotonin and obesity

Authors: Ali Ismail A. Al-Gareeb --- Ammar W. Ashor
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 99-99
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The central mechanisms which control food intake involve many CNS regions and including different neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Of these neurotransmitters, is serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)


Article
ENTERAL TUBE FEEDING AFTER SURGERY FOR UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIES

Authors: Hashim S Khayat --- Jawad R. Khersani --- Jawad R. Khersani --- Talaat S Shani
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 67-72
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Patients with major upper gastrointestinal (UGI) resections that were made nil by mouth for 7-10 days postoperatively with pre-existing weight loss and depleted energy reserves in addition to increased metabolic rate needs nutritional support which serves to shorten the postoperative recovery phase and minimizes the number of complications. This may be supplemented by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) which is not available in our hospitals for over a decade. This problem led us to use a feeding jejunostomy tube after major resections for UGI malignancies.This is a prospective study conducted between May 1999 and December 2004 at First Surgical Unit, Basrah General Hospital. The study aimed to examine the efficacy of Enteral Tube Feeding (ETF) as a method of nutritional support in patients with major resections for UGI malignancies.A total of 76 patients, 42 males and 34 females. Mean age, 50 years (range, 27-72 years) underwent major UGI resections for gastric(64), oesophageal (10) and pancreatic(2) malignancies. ETF lasted for 12-41 days with diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort were the major complications in 14 and 8 patients respectively. .Diarrhoeal tolerance was established in 12 out of 14 patients and controlled in the other two by antidiarrhoeal drugs. There were improved body weight and serum albumin level after ETF and no septic complications or related mortality. ETF is a safe, feasible, cost effective, with few controllable complications rendering it a satisfactory alternative to total parenteral nutrition.

Keywords

ENTERAL --- TUBE --- FEEDING


Article
ENTERAL TUBE FEEDING AFTER SURGERY FOR UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIESIVE STUDY0

Authors: Hashim S Khayat --- Jasim D Saud --- Jawad R. Khersani --- Talaat S Shani
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 67-72
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Patients with major upper gastrointestinal (UGI) resections that were made nil by mouth for 7-10 days postoperatively with pre-existing weight loss and depleted energy reserves in addition to increased metabolic rate needs nutritional support which serves to shorten the postoperative recovery phase and minimizes the number of complications. This may be supplemented by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) which is not available in our hospitals for over a decade. This problem led us to use a feeding jejunostomy tube after major resections for UGI malignancies.This is a prospective study conducted between May 1999 and December 2004 at First Surgical Unit, Basrah General Hospital. The study aimed to examine the efficacy of Enteral Tube Feeding (ETF) as a method of nutritional support in patients with major resections for UGI malignancies.A total of 76 patients, 42 males and 34 females. Mean age, 50 years (range, 27-72 years) underwent major UGI resections for gastric(64), oesophageal (10) and pancreatic(2) malignancies. ETF lasted for 12-41 days with diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort were the major complications in 14 and 8 patients respectively. .Diarrhoeal tolerance was established in 12 out of 14 patients and controlled in the other two by antidiarrhoeal drugs. There were improved body weight and serum albumin level after ETF and no septic complications or related mortality. ETF is a safe, feasible, cost effective, with few controllable complications rendering it a satisfactory alternative to total parenteral nutrition.

Keywords

ENTERAL --- TUBE --- FEEDING --- MALIGNANCIESE


Article
Knowledge of Breastfeeding: A descriptive study among mothers in Kirkuk Governorate

Author: Nazar A. Mahmud
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 84-93
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Aims: The present study aims at assessing mothers’ knowledge of breastfeeding in Kirkuk governorate, besides determining the relationship between mothers’ knowledge and some of their demographic attributes. Methodolgy: A descriptive study was used the assessment approach and applied on mothers in Kirkuk governorate from January 15th 2011 to July 25th, 2011. Non-probability sampling a convenience sample of (72) mothers, attending pediatric general hospital in Kirkuk governorate for following up the health status of their children, was selected for the purpose of the study. A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of the study. It was comprised of two parts; the first part includes the mothers' demographic attributes and the second part assessed the knowledge of breastfeeding with (20) True or False questions. A pilot study was carried out for the period of January 15th to 25th, 2011 to determine the questionnaire reliability through the use of (Test – Retest). A panel of (8) experts was involved in the determination of the questionnaire content validity. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical data analysis approach (frequency and percentage), and inferential data analysis approach (chi-square). Results: The study findings revealed that more than half (58.3%) of mothers were young, (45.8%) of them had completed primary school, more than two-third (84.7%) of them were housewife mothers, (61.1%) of them have lived inside Kirkuk city, also (61.1) of mothers have more than one children, (63.9%) of them were regularly visited primary health care center during antenatal period and only (40.3%) of them have received antenatal orientation about breastfeeding. According to the level of knowledge of breastfeeding, (66.7%) of mothers answered correctly all questions about breastfeeding, and there was a highly significant relationship between health education during antenatal period and mothers’ knowledge of breastfeeding.Recommendations: The study findings highlight the need for excessive health education about breastfeeding during antenatal period and advice the mothers to comply with recommended visits during pregnancy period.

الهـدف: تهدف الدراسة الحالية الى تقييم معارف الأمهات حول الرضاعة الطبيعية في محافظة كركوك، وتحديد العلاقة بين هذه المعارف وبعض الخواص الديموغرافية لأولئك الأمهات.المنهجيّة: أجريت دراسة وصفية استعمل فيها أسلوب التقييم طُبّق على الأمهات في محافظة كركوك للمُدّة من الخامس عشر من كانون الثاني لسنة 2011 ولغاية الخامس والعشرين من تموز، 2011. أختيرت عينة غرضية "غير أحتمالية" مكونة من (72) من الأمهات اللواتي راجعن مستشفى الأطفال العام في محافظة كركوك لمتابعة الحالة الصحية لأطفالهن. تمّ بناء استمارة استبيانية خاصة لغرض الدراسة، تضمنت الإستمارة الإستبيانية جزئين: جزء له علاقة بالخواص الديموغرافية للأمهات والجزء الآخر يتكون من مجموعة من الأسئلة (20 سؤال) المتعلقة بالرضاعة الطبيعية. تمّ إجراء دراسة تجريبية للمُدّة من الخامس عشر إلى الخامس والعشرين من كانون الثاني، 2011 لتحديد ثبات الإستمارة الإستبيانية بإستعمال طريقة (الإختبار وإعادة الإختبار). كما تمّ شمول (8) خبراء لتحديد مصداقية محتوى الإستمارة الإستبيانية. تمّ تحليل البيانات من خلال تطبيق أسلوب التحليل الإحصائي الوصفي للبيانات (التكرارات والنسب المؤية)، كما أستعمل أسلوب التحليل الإحصائي الإستنتاجي للبيانات (مربع كاي).النتائـج: أشارت نتائج الدراسة إلى أنّ أكثر من نصف الأمهات وبنسبة (58,3%) تتراوح أعمارهن بين (18-25) سنة، (45,8%) منهن أكملن الدراسة الإبتدائية وأكثر من ثلثي الأمهات (84,7%) كنّ ربات بيوت، (61,1%) من الأمهات كنّ يعشنّ داخل مدينة كركوك وكان لديهنّ أكثر من طفل، (63,9%) منهن كنّ يراجعن مراكز الرعاية الصحية الأولية بصورة منتظمة. بينما فقط (40,3%) منهن تلقينَ التوعية الصحية حول الرضاعة الطبيعية. أمّا بخصوص مستوى معارف الأمهات حول الرضاعة الطبيعية، فقد تبين أنّ (66,7%) منهن كانت إجاباتهنّ صحيحة. التوصيـات: أوصتْ الدراسةَ بالحاجة الماسة للتوعية الصحية حول الرضاعة الطبيعية للأمهات خلال فترة الحمل وكذلك ضرورة التزام الأمهات بمواعيد الزيارات الموصاة خلال فترة الحمل.


Article
Effect of maternal factors on breast feeding pattern among women in holy Karbala

Authors: Sulfa .A .Hussein --- Suhair .M. Husoon --- Suha attea
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 176-181
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

The aim of the present study is to determine variables, which associate with the breast feeding.Background: Maternal milk is considered the best and mostimportant nutritional source for the infant during thefirst six months of life.It is a unique process that inaddition to supplying the ideal nutrition for lactatinginfants, contributes to their healthy growth anddevelopment.Results: most mothers give breast feeding and the highest rate was among age group 30-34years.Analysis of data shows that breast feeding was higher among women who had of older age group, and older age at marriage, as well as illiterate mothers, and those who do not use contraception .Recommendation: Antenatal counselling on breastfeeding and postnatal lactation support are likely to improve rates of exclusive breastfeeding as well as health.

الهدف :من هذه الدراسةهو تحديدالعوامل التي تتعلق بالرضاعة الطبيعيةالمنهجية:يعتبر حليب الأم اهم واحسن مصدر غذائي للرضيع خلال الستة اشهر الاولى. تعد الرضاعة الطبيعية عملية فريدة من نوعها فبالأضافة الى كونها المجهز المثالي لغذاء الرضيع فان الرضاعة الطبيعية تساهم بتوفير نمو وتطور صحي.النتائج:اظهرت النتائج أن معظم الأمهات تعطي الرضاعة الطبيعية، وأعلى معدل كان من بين الفئة العمرية الأكبر سنا و الأمهات الأميات وكذلك تبين ان عدم استخدام وسائل منع الحمل و كون الأم أكبر سنا عند الزواج هي من اكثرالعوامل التي تزيد معدلات الرضاعة الطبيعية عند الزواج.التوصيات: تقديم المشورة بشأن الرضاعة الطبيعية قبل الولادة وبعدها وذلك من خلال دعم الرضاعة و تشجيع معدلات الرضاعة الطبيعية الخالصة، فضلا عن التوعية الصحية للأمهات في كل زيارة


Article
Breast Feeding and Mothers Employment

Author: *Huda A. Habib, MBChB, IFCMS/FM, **Nada J. AI-Ward, MBChB/ MFPHM(I)
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 32-39
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: An important factor influencing duration of breastfeeding is mother’s employment status. The nutritional, immunological, psychological and economic benefits of breastfeeding are well documented. Both UNICEF and the World Health Organization recommend mothers should breastfeed exclusively for at least 6 months.Objectives: To determine how the employment and the employment variables (type of work, time of return to work and hours of work) influence the breast feeding practices.Methods: A cross- sectional study was carried out on a sample of 200 employed mothers who had their last child been completed at least tow years. Data were collected using a questionnaire form. It was carried out during the period from 1st of April to 1st of September, 2000, in Baghdad city/ AL-Risafa in 6 different places where employed mothers of young children were expected to be found.Results: The study revealed that the impact of employment status was noted on the breast feeding initiation time, breast feeding duration and complementary food initiation time. The majority of employed mothers (56.1%) who worked shorter hours breast-feed for longer durations and starts weaning after the fourth months of the infant’s age. The highest percentage of employed mothers (75.9%) with maternity leave of six months or more breast feed for a year or more and (66.1%) start weaning later than the fourth month of the infant’s life.Conclusions: The study recognizes that employed mothers who worked shorter hours and mothers with longer maternity leaves breast feed for longer durations and start weaning later than mothers who worked long hours and mothers with shorter maternity leaves. It was concluded that most work-places lack accommodations to support breast-feeding.Keywords: breast feeding, mother employment, infant feeding, work

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