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Article
Clinical determination of the occlusal plane and its relation with orofacial measurements

Authors: Zeina M Ahmad --- Inas A Jawad --- Ahmed A Al–Ali
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 9 Pages: 101-110
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the level and angulation of the occlusal plane of the artificial dental arch by measuring the level and angulation of the occlusal plane of completely dentulous subjects and to find the relation of these measurements to some of the vertical facial and intra oral dimensions. Materials and Methods: The sample of the study consisted from 54 completely dentulous adult subjects (24 female and 30 male) with class 1 normal occlusion aged 19–24 years. Dental casts were taken for each subject, the level and angulation of the occlusal plane, vertical facial, and intra oral dimensions were measured using digital vernier caliper and protractor. The data were analyzed with statistical package for social science program. Results: Sexual differences were found in the intra and extraoral measurements. Most of the measurements dealing with the occlusal plane level and angulation were correlated with each other and with facial measurements. Conclusions: The level and angulation of the occlusal plane of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches as measured on the dental casts are higher in maxilla than in mandible and the intra and extraoral vertical facial measurements are greater in male than female.


Article
Clinical measurements of the dimensions of the dental arches and its application on construction of dental prosthesis

Author: Zeina M Ahmed
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 7 Pages: 88-97
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the ideal dimensions of the artificial dental arch by measuring the dimensions of dental arch of completely dentulous subjects and to find the relation of these dimensions to some facialmeasurements. Materials and Methods: The sample of study consisted of 54 completely dentulous adult subjects (24 females and 30 males) with Class 1 normal occlusion aged 19–24 years. Dental casts were taken for each subject and the dimensions of the dental casts and the facial measurements were made by using digital vernier caliper. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Science program. Results: The dimensions of the dental arches and the facial measurements of themale group was larger than that of female and there was high correlation between some dimensions of dental arch with some of the facial measurements. Conclusions: The width of the dental arches of theartificial dental prosthesis could be determined depending on the extraoral facial measurements as the percentage of upper intercanine distance to mouth width is 74.43% and the percentage of the upperinter first molar distance to bizygomatic width was 40.65%


Article
The selection of maxillary anterior teeth width in relation to facial measurements at different types of face form

Author: Nagham H Kassab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 5 Pages: 15-23
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

It is difficult to determine the dimensions of maxillaryanterior teeth for edentulous patient when pre–extraction recordsare not available. Therefore, the present clinical study wascarried out to evaluate the relationships between maxillaryanterior teeth measurements [canine arc distance (CARCD),central incisor width] and certain horizontal facial parameterswhich included: [(interzygomatic, inner and outer canthus andinter-pupillary) distances in addition to that (interalar, mouthand philtrum of upper lip) widths], and also to determine thoserelations at different types of facial form in both sexes for thebest selection of maxillary anterior teeth widths.The facial and dental measurements were obtained directlyfrom 100 Iraqi undergraduate dental students by using anelectronic digital vernier caliper. Depending on facial index foreach subject, the larger percentage of students (80%) had aleptoprosopic (long and narrow) face in which their facialindices were 90 or above, whereas 4% of students had a euryprosopic(square) face in which their facial indices 82.1–83.1;while 16% of those students had a mesoprosopic (ovoid) facein which their facial indices 85.3–89.5.The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient wasused for all relationships and the results revealed that there wasa significant correlation between CARCD and mouth width inmales with leptoprosopic face while in those with mesoprosopicface the CARCD was significantly correlated with bothmouth and interzygomatic widths but with higher correlationcoefficient value being with mouth width, the maxillary centralincisor width was significantly correlated with both innercanthal distance and philtrum width of upper lip but with highercorrelation coefficient value being with first one. In femaleswith leptoprosopic face, the CARCD had a high significantcorrelation coefficient with inner canthal distance; while inthose with mesoprosopic face the maxillary central incisorwidth was significantly correlated with interzygomatic distancewhile the other correlations in different types of face form forboth sexes were found to be in low magnitude and were notsignificant.On the above mentioned results, this study demonstratedthat certain horizontal facial parameters could be used as aguide in maxillary anterior denture teeth selection to achievethe best esthetic result in each type of face form in both sexes


Article
Variability of Vertical and Horizontal Facial Measurements Among the Population of Basrah

Author: Zuhair F Fathallah*, Nawal M Abdullah**, Nada H Al-jassim
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 419-428
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Anthropometry is the systematic quantitative representation of the human body, it is used to measure the absolute and relative variability in size and shape of the human body. Scientists were studying this knowledge in medicine for both diagnosis and treatment.The people of Basrah are a mixture of Semites, Arian, and there are the mixed group result from interracial marriages.OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively measure the human face in different ethnic groups of local population and to identify the differences between individuals of different races and sexes, also to identify the differences between the people of Iraq and other people worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This study is a cross sectional study conducted in Basrah governorate. The data was randomly collected for the period from February to July 2013, from 1000 Iraqi adults (526 females and 474 males) living throughout Basrah governorate. They were between the ages of 18- 40 years, and had to meet certain criteria. This sample was used to create a database for statistical analysis.RESULTS:The results show that the measurements of the three sections and four sections facial profile are unequal as stated by neoclassical canons. The ears are longer than the nose. There are slight differences between the intercanthal distance (ICD) and alar width. The palpebral fissure length is equal to the ICD. The mouth width is 1.4 times the nose width. The facial width (zy- zy) is 3.4 times the nose (alae) width.CONCLUSION:There are differences in facial measurements, although slight, between different ethnic groups in Iraq, and between Iraqi population in general and the population of other countries, therefore, aesthetic measurements applied to all races are inapplicable. These slight differences could be attributed to interracial marriages and or environmental effect.

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